Nutrition for Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension

The most common cause of increased body weight is a constant feeling of hunger, which is extremely difficult to suppress.

Therefore, it is very difficult for a patient to adhere to a special diet, because of which he quickly gains weight.

Against this background, there is a feeling of guilt and a stressful state, which only exacerbates the situation. Moreover, in diabetes mellitus of the second type, a failure occurs in the filtration of substances carried out by the kidneys, as a result of which excess fluid accumulates in the body. Thus, fullness and swelling are the companions of all diabetics.

In addition, there is such a thing as metabolic syndrome, which is also called insulin resistance syndrome. During its course, in addition to impaired glucose metabolism, other metabolic failures occur. This leads to such consequences as:

  • arterial hypertension;
  • increased concentration of cholesterol in the blood;
  • pathological increase in body weight;
  • insulin resistance.

So, those who have metabolic syndrome are at risk. Therefore, they may develop stroke, obesity, diabetes, myocardial infarction and other dangerous diseases.

However, in case of interruptions in glucose metabolism, a person does not recover, but on the contrary loses weight. To understand the cause of this condition, you need to contact an endocrinologist.

Often, kilograms go away when the body does not have insulin at all, due to the fact that it is not produced for certain reasons. This condition is typical for type 1 glucose metabolism failure.

However, losing weight with type 2 diabetes without any effort is almost impossible.

Carbohydrates in the diet of a diabetic

Due to the fact that with diabetes there is a violation of the metabolism of carbohydrates, the best way to normalize weight and blood counts is diet therapy.

After all, only properly selected nutrition for diabetes with hypertension can minimize the intake of drugs and stably lose extra pounds without harm to the body and psyche.

For diabetics, the general principles of nutrition have been derived. However, before going on a diet, the individual characteristics of the patient’s body, the specific course of the disease, and other factors are taken into account. It is important to consult a doctor who will prescribe the optimal diet.

To lose weight with hypertension and diabetes, you need to know what carbohydrates are. They are divided into 2 groups:

  1. fast – easily digestible;
  2. slow – complicated.

The former saturate the body quickly, because of which there is a sudden increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood, which can provoke a hyperglycemic attack. Moreover, such food gives only a small amount of energy, and its main part is deposited as fat. Therefore, fast carbohydrates from the diet are best excluded.

Easily digestible products are:

  • dried fruits and sweet fruits;
  • sweets;
  • berries;
  • honey;
  • flour products.

It is noteworthy that overweight people consume such foods in large quantities, which results in obesity. With type XNUMX diabetes, simple carbohydrates can be eaten, however, their number should be minimal.

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Complex carbohydrates include whole grain bread, vegetables and all kinds of cereals. Nutrition enriched with such products is more wholesome, but you need to eat this food wisely, since overeating can also cause excess fat to build up and increase glucose levels.

To make it convenient to calculate the total amount of carbohydrates, “bread units” were created. They allow you to calculate the level of glucose in the blood, its indicator is 2.8 mmol / L, and 2 units of insulin are needed to assimilate XE.

A person needs 25 XE per day for a full-fledged existence. Moreover, they must be divided into 5-6 meals. This will avoid surges in glucose and distribute its intake throughout the day.

In addition, for the most correct and simple calculation of bread units, you can use special tables.

Diabetic Fats

To lose weight with type 2 diabetes, accompanied by arterial hypertension, you must correctly consume fats. After all, nutrition enriched with these substances will not give you the opportunity to lose weight, but will only add extra pounds.

In addition to aesthetic problems, fats contribute to the formation of plaques in blood vessels. In addition, they entwine around the internal organs, including the heart, which is why its work is complicated.

Excessive fat deposition leads to an increase in blood pressure and an increased risk of developing strokes and heart attacks. Therefore, in order to lose weight with diabetes, you need to rethink your diet and limit the intake of fats in the body. For diabetics and hypertensive patients, the total lipid intake that comes with food should be no more than 40 g per day.

It is worth noting that fats, like carbohydrates, in terms of benefits can be different. Vegetable oils and fish oil are considered the most valuable, but lipids of animal origin are the most harmful.

For convenient counting, tables have been created that report the amount of fats, carbohydrates, proteins in 100 g of the product, taking into account their calorie content.

It is worth noting that with diabetes, an abundant diet contributes to an increase in blood pressure:

  1. canned foods;
  2. spicy spices;
  3. smoked and salty dishes.

In addition, with hypertension and elevated glucose levels, it is better to completely abandon the use of alcohol.

What foods are good for losing weight in diabetes and hypertension?

To lose weight, hypertensive patients and diabetics should carefully review their diet. For this purpose, it is necessary to eat special or black bread in an amount up to 200 g per day.

Soups prepared in 2 or 3 fish or meat broth with lots of vegetables are no less useful. However, they can be eaten every two, three days.

Also, with diabetes, boiled lean meat is allowed:

  • fish (pink salmon, pollock, hake);
  • bird (chicken, turkey);
  • beef and stuff.

Regarding cereals, preference should be given to millet, buckwheat and oatmeal. It is better to choose pasta from the first varieties of wheat, you need to eat them in moderation and better before lunch. It is worth noting that if pasta and cereals are on the menu, then the amount of bread should be limited.

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Greens and all kinds of vegetables are also very useful, with the exception of potatoes and carrots, due to the abundance of starch. Therefore, their amount should be no more than 200 g per day. All other vegetables are allowed to eat in large quantities in raw, boiled or baked form.

Sour-milk and dairy products are allowed in small quantities. As for eggs, no more than two pieces can be eaten per day.

In diabetes mellitus, in order to lose weight, preference should be given to acidic or slightly sweet fruits and berries (up to 300 g per day). They can be added to desserts, cook compotes from them or make juices.

It is worth noting that food should be fractional. So the whole amount of food needs to be divided into small portions that should be consumed throughout the day.

Other ways to lose weight

For proper and trouble-free weight loss alone, diet therapy may not be enough. Therefore, with problems with excess weight, it is important to completely reconsider the lifestyle. To this end, we must abandon bad habits (alcohol, tobacco smoking) and go in for sports.

The fact is that during the exercise, blood flow is activated, tissues are saturated with oxygen, and metabolic processes are normalized. Initially, physical activity should be moderate. It is better to start with half-hour walks at a quick pace and morning exercises.

For diabetes, the following sports are recommended:

However, you shouldn’t overstrain too much, because if the glucose concentration rises to 11 mmol / l, then you will have to completely abandon sports before normalization.

There are special complexes developed by doctors and trainers for people who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Sample list of exercises:

  • Warm up – rolling from toe to heel or walking in place with alternate acceleration and a decrease in pace.
  • To walking is added circular rotation of the head to the left, and then to the right and vice versa.
  • Circular movements of the shoulders, elbows and hands first alternately, and then together.
  • Strength exercise with dumbbells (no more than 10 minutes).
  • Walking in place with a slower pace.

The video in this article will tell you how to eat with diabetes.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.