Nephrosclerosis of the kidneys – what is it, symptoms and outcome of the disease

Nephrosclerosis is a permanent procedure in the kidneys, when the working glomeruli pass away, and connective tissue takes their location. Because of this, the procedures of blood filtering and the removal of unneeded compounds are interrupted, and the structure of the organ likewise alters, which causes its contortion.

ICD-10 code

In the International Classification of Diseases of the 10th modification, this pathology is coded with the code I12.

Classification of nephrosclerosis

Traditionally, the list below types of nephrosclerosis are differentiated:

  • Primary.
    • Atherosclerotic.
    • Hypertensive.
    • Involutionary.
  • Secondary.

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Causes of

The advancement of main nephrosclerosis happens when the kidney arteries that bring blood to the kidney are at first impacted. Because of this, the organ experiences an absence of oxygen and the tissue slowly passes away off.

Very frequently, this type of pathology can accompany individuals struggling with neglected high blood pressure. Due to the increased systemic pressure, the size of the kidney arteries reflexively reduces, and the parenchyma experiences hypoxia (absence of oxygen in the tissue).

In addition, older individuals are identified by age-associated modifications in the arteries (deposition of calcium salts in the walls of capillary). Vessels lose their flexibility, and this causes organ anemia.

Secondary nephrosclerosis appears when there is currently some underlying kidney disease:

  • Pyelonephritis.
  • Glomerulonephritis.
  • Renal amyloidosis.
  • Various types of nephropathy.
  • Injuries and postoperative conditions of the kidney.

General pathologies of the body can likewise be the factor:

  • Systemic connective tissue illness (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus)
  • Diabetes.
  • Tuberculosis, etc.

Main symptoms

Nephrosclerosis is tough to identify in the early phases of the disease, due to the fact that there are virtually no symptoms particular of nephrosclerosis. Patients seldom grumble and do not observe a steady wear and tear in well-being. Nevertheless, it is possible to determine indications that enable one to believe towards this pathology. These consist of:

  • Edema, frequently on the face, spreading out from leading to bottom.
  • Feeling of pain (as much as discomfort) in the back area.
  • Changes in the qualitative and quantitative attributes of urine (color modification to a darker one, look of sediment, reduction in day-to-day urine output)
  • The existence of consistent high blood pressure.
  • Nonspecific indications (weak point, reduced cravings, weight-loss).

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Principles of medical diagnosis

It is tough to identify nephrosclerosis prior to it starts to manifest scientifically, however it is possible. First of all, basic research study approaches are performed: basic and biochemical blood and urine tests. Also a sign will be Reberg’s kidney test, urine analysis according to Zimnitsky. Among the approaches of important diagnostics, organ radiography and ultrasound are frequently utilized.

Timely medical diagnosis is crucial. After all, the earlier you begin treatment, the most likely you are to prevent a substantial number of threatening pathological conditions.


At the preliminary phases, drug treatment is rather reliable, which is figured out based upon the particular state of the body.

With hypertension, antihypertensive drugs are utilized. Their peculiarity depends on the reality that the client need to take medications daily for a long time in order to continuously “keep” the pressure figures in the standard.

In atherosclerotic sores, it is suggested to recommend statins – drugs that lower blood cholesterol and prevent the development of the procedure.

To decrease connective tissue improvement, corticosteroids (prednisolone) and cytostatic drugs (methotrexate) are utilized. Their usage enables you to postpone the total replacement of the parenchyma.

To make up for kidney function, detoxing and nephroprotective treatment is carried out.

If the kidney function is impaired to such a level that the standard excretory requirements of the organism are not satisfied, replacement treatment is utilized. At this time, there are such types of it:

  • Peritoneal dialysis.
  • Hemodialysis.
  • Kidney transplant.

    The essence of peritoneal dialysis is as follows: a “pocket” is developed from the peritoneal sheets in the stomach cavity, which is filled with a filtering service, which is changed by methods of a catheter after a particular duration of time. The benefit of this technique is the ease of upkeep of this system.

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    Hemodialysis is a method based upon the usage of an external device that is linked to the client and filters the blood. One hemodialysis treatment lasts typically numerous hours and need to be carried out 3 times a week.

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    A kidney transplant (transplant) is a surgical technique to change an afflicted kidney. Undoubtedly, the transplant will supply a total replacement of the organ’s function, nevertheless, rejection of the transplant by the body is possible.

    Consequences and outcome of the disease

    Unfortunately, nephrosclerosis is a permanent condition. The just thing that modern-day treatment is capable of is partial inhibition of the advancement of the procedure and insufficient replacement of the lost function. However, prompt medical diagnosis and appropriate treatment make it possible for clients to lead a satisfying life.


    Nephrosclerosis is a lot easier to avoid than to treat. Therefore, this problem requires to be offered unique attention. Doctors advise:

  • Healthy food.
  • Rational mode of work and rest.
  • Drink a minimum of 2 liters of water daily.
  • Avoiding hypothermia, getting too hot, poisoning.
  • Quitting alcohol and smoking cigarettes.
  • Control of blood glucose and cholesterol.
  • Annual assessment with a medical professional.

    By following all the suggestions, you can preserve healthy kidneys for several years.

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    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.