Cardiac arrhythmia in men is a fairly frequent functional disorder that develops as a result of various pathological processes. The disease requires proper and adequate treatment, as it can lead to serious complications and negative health consequences.
Development mechanism and types
Normally, the heart beats at a certain frequency (60-80 beats per minute) and the correct rhythm. This is possible due to the functioning of the nerve nodes and structures of the conducting system, which generate impulses that cause muscle fibers to contract.
There are several mechanisms for the development of arrhythmia:
- Violation of the generation of impulses in the sinus node (the driver of the frequency and rhythm of contractions).
- Blockade of nerve impulse conduction from the pacemaker to muscle fibers.
- The appearance of uncharacteristic pacemakers that can be localized in the conducting system (extrasystole).
The implementation of one or more pathogenetic mechanisms leads to changes in the frequency and rhythm of myocardial contractions (heart muscle).
A change in the frequency or rhythm of myocardial contractions is a polyetiological condition.
This means that it develops due to the impact of a significant number of different reasons, the most common of which are:
- Congenital heart defects that lead to irregularities in the rhythm of contractions already in childhood or at a young age.
- Insufficient physical activity in adolescence, leading to a “lag” in the development of the myocardium and structures of the conducting system.
- Postponed various intoxications (work in hazardous industries, severe infectious diseases, including influenza).
- Bad habits – nicotine and alcohol affect the functional activity of the pacemaker.
- Taking some medications that affect the work of the conducting system.
- Hypertension, accompanied by an increase in the level of systemic blood pressure.
- Thyroid pathology, accompanied by an increase in its functional activity.
- Postponed stress.
- Metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus.
- Ischemic disease, accompanied by a deterioration in the nutrition of the structures of the conducting system and the myocardium. The disease develops more often in men after 50 years.
- Pathology of various organs and systems, which directly or indirectly affects the functional state of the nerves and structures of the conducting system.
The simultaneous effect of several causal factors at once leads to the development of a more severe form of arrhythmia.
Important! A large number of reasons for the development of arrhythmias in men are modifiable. This means that with the correct implementation of preventive measures, it is possible to avoid the development of disturbances in the rhythm and frequency of myocardial contractions.
The possible development of arrhythmia in a man is indicated by the appearance of clinical signs, which include:
- The appearance of subjective sensations of a heartbeat, which should not normally be present.
- Feeling of periodic fading in the region of the heart.
- General weakness.
- Periodic dizziness.
- Disturbances of consciousness of varying severity, up to fainting.
In most cases, one or more clinical manifestations of arrhythmias are not permanent, they appear in the form of seizures.
Changes in the rhythm and frequency of myocardial contractions in men significantly increase the risk of developing severe complications and negative consequences, which include:
- The formation of blood clots in the cavities of the heart (atria and ventricles), which then migrate in the bloodstream and clog arterial vessels of a smaller diameter. This leads to a sharp disruption in the nutrition of the organ area with tissue death. Depending on the localization of the artery blocked by a thrombus, the development of myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke, death of a section of the intestine, striated skeletal muscle is possible.
- The development of heart failure due to the fact that during an arrhythmia, the heart pushes blood in an insufficient volume into the vascular bed.
- Exacerbation of chronic pathological processes of various localization in the body.
Cardiac arrhythmias usually develop against the background of other changes in the functional state of the organs of the cardiovascular system, which significantly increases the likelihood of negative health consequences.
Important! Against the background of arrhythmias, due to insufficient blood supply to the brain tissue, the risk of fainting increases. Therefore, if you suspect changes in the rhythm and frequency of heart contractions, you should refuse to perform potentially dangerous work.
In order to reliably determine the cause, nature and severity of changes in the heart, the doctor must prescribe an additional objective examination, including several methods:
- Electrocardiography (ECG) is an informative diagnostic method that makes it possible to assess the functional state of the myocardium and the cardiac conduction system, to clearly determine the nature, severity and localization of disturbances in the formation or conduction of nerve impulses.
- Echocardioscopy is a method of instrumental diagnostics with ultrasound imaging of the heart.
- Chest x-ray.
- Visualization of the structures of the cardiovascular, nervous system using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
Based on the results of all the prescribed research methods, the attending physician makes a conclusion and determines the appropriate therapy.
Therapy for disturbances in the rhythm or frequency of myocardial contractions is only complex.
It includes several areas of therapeutic measures, which include:
- General recommendations, including changing a lifestyle with sufficient motor activity, giving up bad habits, changing work activity (in case of arrhythmia, it is not recommended to engage in work that requires a sufficient speed of psychomotor reactions and concentration of attention).
- Diet – in order to improve the functional state of the heart, it is recommended to increase the amount of plant foods in the diet, as well as limit animal fats, fried foods, pickles, and pickles. For the formation and conduction of impulses in the heart, it is important to receive a sufficient amount of calcium salts (milk, cottage cheese) and potassium (dried apricots, raisins, fruits).
- Etiotropic therapy – measures aimed at eliminating the effects of the causes of pathological disorders of the functional state of the heart (normalization of the thyroid gland, up to the surgical removal of a part of the organ, normalization of the level of systemic arterial pressure, blood flow to the heart tissue).
- Restoring the rhythm and frequency of heart contractions. For this, injections or tablets are prescribed that affect the conduction system of the heart (Amiodarone, Cordaron, Asparkam).
- Prevention of complications of arrhythmia, which is primarily aimed at preventing the formation of intracardiac blood clots. For this, antiplatelet drugs (Aspecard, Cardiomagnyl) can be prescribed for a long course of therapy. The fight against blood clots is especially important in atrial fibrillation, which is characterized by a very frequent contraction of the atria or ventricles, followed by the formation of blood clots in them.
The duration of the course of therapy, the type of medications, as well as their dosage are determined by the attending physician individually for each patient. It depends on the pathogenetic type of myocardial contraction disorders.
The development of arrhythmias is easier to prevent than to deal with the disease itself and its consequences.
To do this, follow simple recommendations:
- Increasing physical activity – morning exercises, walking.
- Rejection of bad habits.
- Adequate sleep for at least 8 hours a day.
- A diet with an increase in the amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet.
- Limiting (if possible) the impact of stress factors on the male body, physical overwork.
The implementation of simple recommendations will not only avoid cardiac arrhythmias in men, but also prevent the development of other diseases of the cardiovascular system.
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