Normally, glucose is present only in small amounts that cannot be detected by conventional research methods. Therefore, any appearance of glucose in the analysis of urine is called glucosuria. At the same time, the amount of excreted urine and its osmolarity increase.
At normal blood sugar concentration, it is completely reabsorbed in the renal tubules and is not excreted in the urine. The appearance of glucose in urine depends both on its concentration in the blood and on the filtration capacity of the kidneys.
The type of glucosuria primarily depends on the cause that precedes this pathology. Also, primary (with hereditary disorders of glucose resorption mechanisms) and secondary (with various organic lesions of the kidneys) glucosuria are distinguished.
Kidney diseases that lead to the appearance of sugar in the urine: chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, chronic renal failure, diabetic nephropathy.
The following etiological factors are distinguished:
- Prolonged fasting.
- Acute inflammation of the pancreas or its age-related dysfunction.
- Excessive exercise.
- Stressful situations.
- Endocrine pathology.
- Organic kidney damage.
- Increase in body temperature to high numbers.
- Lesions of the central nervous system.
- Excessive intake of carbohydrates.
- Toxic effects of drugs.
The main symptom is increased thirst, the patient is constantly thirsty. Symptoms are also observed: dry skin and oral mucosa, fatigue and general weakness, increased urination, an increase in the amount of urine excreted. Such patients are characterized by a long course of infectious diseases and their transition to a chronic form. Sometimes people lose weight or they may feel itchy all over their body.
This condition can be suspected using specific symptoms. Since in most cases the appearance of sugar in the urine is accompanied by glycemia and diabetes mellitus, it is first of all necessary to pass a blood glucose test. Normally, the blood sugar level does not exceed 6,0 mmol/l. Another diagnostic method is the glucose tolerance test.
From instrumental methods for detecting glucose in urine, qualitative and quantitative are distinguished. The former confirm the presence of an increased sugar content in the urine. For this, special reactive strips (glucofan or glucotest) are used. A positive result is observed when the glucose content is more than 20 g/l. The essence of the method lies in the interaction of glucose with a special enzyme, which causes a change in the color of the indicator. To determine the concentration of glucose, quantitative methods are used: polarometric method, samples of Gaines, Benedict, Nilender, enzymatic glucose oxidase method.
In addition to sugar, ketone bodies may be present in urine. To determine them, not only standard analysis is used, but also special devices for monitoring at home.
To begin with, treatment depends on the cause that caused this pathological condition. If the appearance of sugar in the urine is associated with diseases or changes in the pancreas, then therapy should be aimed at eliminating this particular problem. Such patients are shown anti-inflammatory and hormone replacement treatment. Sometimes infusion therapy is given. Sometimes glucosuria is caused by other endocrine problems, such as diseases of the adrenal glands or thyroid gland. In these cases, drugs are used that stimulate or block the work of the endocrine glands.
For some reasons for the appearance of glucose in the urine, no specific therapy is required, since this is just a temporary condition. It is enough to simply exclude the etiological factor. With excessive consumption of carbohydrates, you need to limit their intake, and with prolonged fasting, on the contrary, eat foods rich in carbohydrates. Glucosuria caused by hyperthermia or traumatic brain injury disappears some time after recovery.
Kidney disease and diabetes mellitus are the main causes of glucosuria, which require specific and long-term treatment. For the treatment of diabetes mellitus, both medicinal and non-medicinal agents are used. The second primarily includes a special diet, in which it is necessary to limit the use of carbohydrates and alcohol. Since diabetes is accompanied by polyuria, it is necessary to drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration.
The next important step in treatment is the constant control of blood sugar and the intake of sugar-reducing drugs. These drugs include gliclazide tablets, metformin. In cases where pills are not enough, they switch to insulin therapy. Long-acting and short-acting insulins are used according to an individually selected scheme. Treatment is prescribed and adjusted by an endocrinologist.
A purely renal form of glucosuria is difficult to treat. But you can stick to the correct diet. It is necessary to follow a diet with sufficient intake of carbohydrates and foods containing potassium (legumes, vegetables). In severe forms, they resort to infusion therapy with crystalloid and vitamone-containing solutions.
Methods for preventing the appearance of glucose in urine directly depend on the etiological factor. First you need to exclude risk factors for diabetes. These include: overweight, hypertension, alcohol abuse.
Also for the prevention of glucosuria it is necessary:
- Timely examination and treatment for various endocrine diseases.
- Avoid excessive physical exertion.
- Avoid hypothermia and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract
- Observe the diet.
- Avoid injury and stressful situations.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle and give up bad habits.
- Timely deal with the treatment of renal pathology.
If you suspect a hereditary form of the disease, future parents should definitely visit a medical genetic consultation.
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