General urine analysis in adults, norm and transcript (table)

At specific phases of life, everyone requires to detect the state of his body.

To develop a medical diagnosis of an illness or to clarify the course of treatment recommended by a physician, it is essential to take a particular series of tests. In most cases, at the very first phase of calling a professional in a medical organization, an individual is provided to take a blood sample and asked to gather urine for a general or in-depth analysis of these biomaterials.

Urine is an item of human important activity, formed in the procedure of filtering of blood plasma and revealing the physicochemical structure of compounds formed throughout the work of the entire organism or a private human organ.

The precision of the conduct, which permits a professional to properly evaluate the condition of an individual and offer the ideal suggestions on emerging problems.

How to effectively gather urine for analysis

The most affordable, fastest (the lab will have the ability to offer you with the outcomes of the analysis within hours) and pain-free for the client analysis is OAM (general urine analysis), which permits you to recognize a variance from the basic indications of the requirements for examining the general condition of an individual.

In order to prevent mistakes in the precision of the analyzes made, it is essential to properly gather the initial biomaterial.

To do this, you require to follow a variety of particular guidelines:

  • Limit the consumption of medications and items that alter the color of the beginning product one day prior to the test.
  • Before gathering urine, make sure to completely clean the genital areas,
  • The container for gathering urine analysis need to be sterilized,
  • The collection of urine is done in the early morning.
  • Deliver the container with the analyzes to the lab as quickly as possible.

Let’s think about all the above suggestions in more information.

Reduce your medication if possible so that the compounds in the medication do not interfere with the outcome of the beginning product.

Eliminate mineral water from your drinking diet plan for a day, which can misshape the level of acidity level. Drink plain water and tea. Eliminate urine-staining foods from your diet plan. These consist of carrots, svela, citrus fruits, black currants and other veggies and fruits with a noticable color.

To leave out the existence of all parts formed throughout the life of your genital areas in the urine gathered for analysis, you need to completely clean your genital areas with warm water and soap prior to beginning the collection. Thoroughly wash the remains of soap or intimate gel from the genital areas so that they do not stay on the body and, as an outcome, might not impact the outcomes of your analysis.

For the dependability of the analysis, it is suggested to purchase a sterilized drug store container for gathering biomaterials. If you do not have this chance, then a glass container with a volume of 100-200 ml appropriates for this function, which need to be completely cleaned, dried and disinfected in advance.

The collection of urine for general analysis is carried out right away after sleep, putting the medium urine in a container. If you go to the toilet in the evening, then in order to gather it in the early morning you require to consume a glass of warm water at 1-2 am.

Medium urine collection implies that a part of the urine that is launched at the start, in the middle, and at the end of early morning urination need to get in the container. To do this, it is suggested not to gather all the urine in the early morning and after blending it, put a few of it into a container, however right away position a few of the urine in the container, disrupting urination at the start, middle and end of excretion.

This is to make sure that excess germs do not interfere with your test outcomes.

Having gathered the typical part of urine, it should be provided to the lab within 1-2 hours for analysis. Urine cannot be gathered in advance, since after a number of hours the fermentation procedure starts, as an outcome of which its structure modifications. The container can be cooled for a brief time to decrease the fermentation procedure. But with long-lasting storage, even in the fridge, its structure will still alter.

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When putting the container in the cold, do not freeze, since under the impact of low temperature level salts are launched, which will likewise disrupt the procedure of developing the right medical diagnosis.

Decoding of urine analysis and their norm

The outcomes of the analysis are constantly utilized in order to reason about your state of health. The medical professional, having actually gotten the arise from the lab, compares it with the basic indications. The normative indications of urine of an adult guy and a female are the very same, however the norm of a kid’s body varies from that of a grownup.

The norm implies a qualitative or quantitative evaluation of specific indications. Below in table number 1, see the basic indications of the analysis of urine of a grownup.

Standard indications for the analysis of urine of an adult and their analysis

Decreases – if there is a variety of illness connected with impaired kidney function, endocrine system.

Let’s attempt to comprehend these indications in more information together.

When you have actually gathered the samples in a transparent container, you can take note of the color of the urine, which must be light yellow and without the existence of sediment.

Colorless urine might show the advancement of polyuria, and if your urine is dark beer color, then this color might show liver illness. If the urine is reddish-bloody color, then this is among the indications of kidney illness, glomeroniphritis.

Another indication of kidney illness that you might see by yourself without awaiting lab outcomes is turbidity. The urine of a healthy individual is transparent, nearly odor free and has no sediment. Sediment in the type of flakes or the existence of sand in it can show kidney issues.

The existence of a pungent smell can be a witness to inflammatory procedures in the body, for instance, throughout the course of rank procedures in the body, there will be an odor comparable to the odor of rotten meat, or the odor of acetone in the existence of ketones.

The body does not have time to shut down ketone bodies manufactured in the human liver, and the procedure of “acidification” of the blood takes place.

Ketone bodies can be discovered in high quantities in urine if you have actually had severe breathing infections, influenza, or have actually been on a stringent diet plan or strove at the health club. But if you led your typical way of life, without extra active load on the body, and this indication is overstated, then this might be among the indications of pregnancy or oncology. In both cases, it is much better to go to the health center quicker and get signed up.

The urine of a healthy individual is acidic. But if an individual is a vegetarian, then an alkaline environment might be the norm for this kind of individuals.

The pH level in urine varies from 5-7 systems. This indication depends upon both the age of the individual and the time of day. For example, in the early morning, the pH level in urine will be lower than in the analyzes gathered in the night, and this is likewise the norm, however just if both indications are in the regular variety.

Regular modifications in the level of level of acidity can cause interruption of metabolic procedures in the body, the development of stones and interruption of the genitourinary system, modifications in blood viscosity, which in turn will have an unfavorable result on the work of the cardiovascular system, and for that reason the entire body.

And if your level of acidity level is undervalued, then this is an indicator that you are taking in a great deal of fluids. If the level of acidity level and the glucose level in the urine are expensive, then you might start to establish diabetes mellitus and it will not harm you to do a blood sugar level test in order to prompt aid your body manage this condition.

Also, a high level of glucose in the urine can verify such conditions as kidney swelling, kidney diabetes, hormone imbalance, pregnancy, chemical poisoning, or myacardial infarction.

If, when gathering a urine test, you see a pink tint, then this might be an indicator that your “blood cells” red cell are excreted from your body in the urine. This procedure can be a verification of kidney illness, however as an effect of the beginning of anemia of the body.

Women must take into consideration that your “critical days” will likewise impact the color of urine, and the medical professional will misjudge the state of your body. Therefore, throughout this duration, urine analysis is not suggested, and if essential, make sure to notify the medical professional about it.

The leukocyte count reveals the state of the body’s body immune system. If this indication is greater than the normative one, which is provided in the table above, then this might be a witness to such illness of the genitourinary system as cystitis, pyelonephritis or glomerulonifritis.

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Is it possible to identify pregnancy by urine analysis?

A pregnant female does a general urine test throughout pregnancy so that the medical professional can observe modifications in the body of the coming kid and his mom, and an instantaneous response to the incident of any illness.

But is it possible to pass a general urine test to state that you are pregnant. No! Gradually, the indications modification, and you can think from the modifications in a few of them, however OAM will not offer 100% verification of your pregnancy.

Pregnancy can be identified by passing a urine test for hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which figures out the existence of a hormonal agent protein in the urine, which is produced by the embryonic membrane.

On the 5-7th day after conception, the indication of this protein will amount to 50 mIU/ml, and by the 2nd or 3rd week of pregnancy, it can be identified with a possibility of 98%, having actually invested 25-30 minutes on this analysis.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.