Complications of hypertension and preventive measures

Complications of hypertension are usually characterized by the fact that with them, the patient has a narrowing of the passage opening of the vessels, while they do not return to normal after stress factors cease to affect it. As a result, not only his general condition may worsen, but also a fatal case may occur. In order to prevent this from happening, you need to know if a person is at risk. If the answer is yes, it will be necessary to take a preventive check-up with the attending physician in order to prevent a possible stroke or heart attack.

The main candidates for the occurrence of GBN complications are people whose work involves constant contact with noise, vibration, and other stress factors. These can be professions that are characterized by the presence of constant responsibility or long and hard mental activity. An example of such an activity is the profession of a law enforcement officer and a scientist.

There are age-related complications of GB, so a man over the age of forty, as well as women over fifty, already have vascular lesions, and a frequent case of such disorders is negative vascular changes in young people who abuse smoking and alcohol. Constant negative emotions due to poor family relationships can negatively affect the heart. Improper nutrition is another way to cause a condition such as hypertension.

A patient who uses salty foods and dishes provokes the occurrence of spasms of blood vessels and fluid retention in the body. A separate reason that can cause this disease is a deficiency in the body of a sick vitamin D, so that this does not happen, prevention is needed in the form of a properly balanced diet.

Separately, it should be noted that the patient has chronic diseases that can cause a hypertensive crisis, such ailments are:

  • diabetes;
  • diseases of the pancreas and kidneys;
  • various infections;
  • sleep apnea;
  • hereditary diseases.

All of these causes of complications should be considered by the attending physician when prescribing treatment to the patient. The main reason for them should be eliminated first, since only in this case can we count on success.

Prevention and prevention of complications should become the number one rule of life for a patient. Only in this case, timely relief of an attack of hypertension is possible.

>Modern medicine divides hypertension into several types.

According to its clinical course, a benign form is distinguished, which is characterized by the absence of high blood pressure values. In this case, there are practically no crises and outside help is not required for the patient.

The patient’s condition in this case can be controlled exclusively with the help of medications that prevent possible complications even at the initial stage.

The malignant form is frequent hypertensive crises, the severity and degree of which can be different.

Treatment in this case gives few results, which causes serious complications. Usually this form is diagnosed at a young age and in the future the patient’s condition only worsens.

Hypertension is also classified by the numbers of diastolic pressure:

  1. Indicators above 100 are considered normal and the harmful effect from this usually does not occur.
  2. The average form can include indicators over 100 and up to 115.
  3. The severe form is characterized by a mark of over 115.

Benign hypertension develops slowly and affects all internal organs of a person. This applies to both the vessels of the eyes, and the vessels, heart, liver, and kidneys. In total, there are three stages that the disease passes sequentially:

  1. At the first stage, there are no crises, and the pressure can fluctuate quite significantly during the day. In this case, it is not clear which organ is suffering, since the patient may not present any complaints.
  2. In the second stage, severe crises can appear, and the pressure can reach 200/125. Expansion of the borders of the heart is detected, cramps are manifested, protein is detected in the urine, and creatin is determined in the blood. There are signs of ischemia.
  3. The third stage is difficult. At the third stage, the presence of complications of hypertension of the 2nd degree is detected, in addition, malfunctions in the work of the kidneys, heart can be observed. Very often there is a heart attack or angina pectoris.

All types of hypertension can be complicated by concomitant diseases, the listing of which can be lengthy. So, for example, it can be atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and problems with the central nervous system.

All of them should be installed and they should be prescribed appropriate treatment, without which it is impossible to defeat hypertension.

Immediate complications of hypertension

Hypertension is insidious that even a newborn can get sick with it. The disease itself is not dangerous, but its complications can cause significant harm to the patient’s health and even cause his death. The first and most dangerous type of complication of this disease is cerebral hemorrhage. In this case, an urgent call to a doctor can save a person’s life, since the whole brain is affected here, and hemorrhage can occur in any of its areas.

From a symptomatic point of view, the patient may experience speech impairment, intense headache and the subsequent development of paralysis. It is possible to save a person’s life only by quick and timely delivery of a patient to a medical institution. If done correctly, the restoration of all body functions is guaranteed.

Another target for complications is blood pressure. In this case, a hypertensive crisis may be recorded. This crisis is accompanied by a sharp increase in blood pressure against a background of narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels.

Along with cerebral hemorrhage, hypertensive brain damage is also dangerous. Usually it appears as a response to vasospasm. It may result in cerebral edema. It, in turn, leads to the necrosis of small vessels and adjacent areas of brain tissue. In this case, the patient may feel cramps, lose consciousness, his blood pressure may increase significantly.

With hypertensive brain damage, a significant increase in blood pressure is observed and it is required to return to normal as soon as possible. If this can be achieved, all negative processes in the body can be reversed. The most dangerous occurrence of stroke and acute hypertensive encephalopathy, ischemic stroke is often recorded.

The appearance of heart failure and the development of myocardial infarction are very dangerous for the patient’s life. Separately, it is worth mentioning that the progress of hypertension provokes the occurrence of sclerotic changes in the kidneys. A kidney test may indicate this. The kidneys shrink and become unable to perform their functions. The patient develops renal failure.

Treatment of hypertension in this situation does not help and only hemodialysis can cope with the situation.

Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension

If hypertension is suspected, the patient is prescribed a series of examinations in order to make an accurate diagnosis. At this stage of treatment, the aortic valve and the entire heart, vascular system, kidneys and liver, as well as other organs and systems of the human body, are examined. The doctor establishes during the examination of the patient the level of his stable blood pressure, excludes secondary hypertension, determines the presence of damage in the organs. Determining the presence of complications is also the task of this stage.

Treatment begins with blood pressure control. It allows you to determine the degree of hypertension and possible measures aimed at its normalization. In a clinic, the doctor measures the pressure, at home the patient himself must do this while maintaining a special diary of such measurements. There are special devices that can conduct the described control in automatic mode. They are usually used in preparing the patient for surgery.

Next are laboratory tests. This is an analysis of urine and blood for the presence of cholesterol, creatine, sugar in them. The analysis can be both complex and single. It is performed in laboratory conditions in a hospital or clinic.

Without fail, an ECG is taken from the patient, as this is the most common way to study the condition of the heart. Ultrasound can supplement his testimony. This procedure is also performed for the pelvic organs and abdominal cavity in order to exclude their influence on the increased level of pressure in the patient.

Another method for determining the presence of complications of hypertension is ophthalmoloscopy or fundus examination. This method is simple but reliable. It allows you to establish the condition of the patient’s vascular system as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Treatment of complications of hypertension is prescribed not only taking into account their characteristics, but also taking into account those organic lesions that caused these complications to the patient’s heart, brain, and other organs. In most cases, with timely delivery of the victim to a medical institution, serious consequences can be avoided.

Of great importance in this regard is prevention. So patients with high blood pressure should take measures to reduce it. In addition, it is necessary to adhere to a strict diet, not to overwork and avoid stress. Silence, calm and comfortable atmosphere in the house will do more than the best medicines to recover the patient.

Separately, it is worth noting the fact that self-treatment for hypertension is strictly prohibited. It can lead to very unpleasant consequences and even death. The biggest thing you can do is drink the medicine prescribed by the doctor in an emergency. Further, it will be necessary to urgently deliver the patient to a medical institution.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.