Classification of hypertensive crises by types, types and orders

To correctly diagnose and begin treatment, doctors use the classification of crisis. Today it is divided into two types:

In both cases, all measures must immediately be taken to lower blood pressure. This will minimize the possibility of damage to internal organs, prevent the appearance of heart or kidney failure, stroke or heart attack.

In the event that the crisis is of a complicated type, the pressure must be reduced, but this can not be done urgently, since in this case, damage to the internal organs will not develop.

  • An outpouring of blood in the brain.
  • A heart attack.
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy.
  • Angina pectoris.
  • Pulmonary edema.
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • Burns.
  • Glomerulonephritis.
  • Angina pectoris.
  • Malignant hypertension without complications.
  • Severe AH.

With the first type of crisis, the client must be hospitalized. This should be done as soon as possible after the onset of the first symptoms. The second type of crisis can be treated at home.

The prevention of complications during the crisis and the suspension of mechanisms that contribute to this are important in the treatment of crisis. When the first signs of a crisis appear in the body, processes that negatively affect internal organs and systems begin to occur.

So, for example, with HA, the walls of blood vessels are damaged, tissue ischemia occurs and renin is overproduced. At the same time, a large amount of angiotesin, vasopressin, endothelin and aldosterone appears in the body. But there is a lack of vasodilators.

When the pressure gradually rises and reaches its limit (it is different for each patient), the endothelial regulation of vascular tone will stop in the body. As a result of this, there are all prerequisites for the development of necrosis. Vascular permeability will also increase, which can lead to edema.

It is considered important in a crisis to observe the clinical course of the disease, as well as make predictions for its further development.

In combination with methods to counteract the development of the disease, this will contribute to the dissemination of blood coagulation in the vessels.

In the event that the types of crisis are critical (threatening the life of the client), it is necessary to lower the person’s blood pressure as soon as possible. In this case, special medications, for example, sodium nitroprusside, should be administered. It is administered by infusion.

Act on the body of the tablet from high pressure fast action begins almost instantly. Also in this case, nitroglycerin is considered effective. It is also administered by infusion. The effect of the drug will be noticeable after 3-4 minutes after administration.

Also, doctors often administer enalaprilat to patients. It should be noted that the injection should be done slowly (about five minutes). Initially, a dose of 1.25 mg is administered. After 5-6 hours, you need to repeat the procedure, increasing the dose by another similar amount of milligrams. Such procedures should be done until the dose reaches 5 milligrams.

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The drug begins to act half an hour after ingestion. The effect will be noticeable for 10 to 24 hours. At the very first time after drug administration, the patient’s pressure will decrease by 20-25 percent.

In the second stage of treatment of hypertensive crisis, the patient is transferred to tablets. Doctors warn that high blood pressure cannot be removed quickly.

In this case, undesirable side effects, for example, ischemia, may occur. In an extreme case, with a rapid decrease in pressure, the patient will develop tissue necrosis that is sensitive to blood flow.

Uncomplicated types of HA

In the case of the manifestation of this type of crisis, the patient’s doctor is prescribed drugs that normalize blood pressure for 1-3 hours. The effect can be extended.

In the case when the doctor made an accurate diagnosis and prescribed an adequate dose of the drug, then the pressure will decrease gradually. Sudden changes will not be observed.

With the oral method of treatment, drugs such as clonidine are usually prescribed. Its initial dose should be 0.08-0.150 mg. The medicine is taken orally.

If necessary, the drug can be given to the patient for every hour, increasing the dose. The procedure should continue until the dose reaches 0.6 milligrams. The drug begins to work 40-50 minutes after administration. The effect will last from 9 to 15 hours.

Also, captopril is often prescribed by doctors to reduce pressure. It can be absorbed under the tongue or swallowed. The tool will begin to work 20-40 minutes after administration. The effect of it lasts from 5 to 7 hours.

If you take the drug sublingually, then the effect will come within 15 minutes after administration. It will last 3-5 hours.

Doctors may prescribe patients and carvedilol. The initial dose is 12.0-20.0 mg. It starts to work half an hour after administration. The effect lasts for 7-12 hours.

We must once again recall that doctors categorically do not recommend taking those drugs that quickly relieve pressure. This will not only not allow for precise control of pressure indicators, but also will harm the body.

These drugs include nifedipine, which is sold in tablets. Its feature is that the active substances are quickly released from the tablet and have certain effects on the body.

Basically, to reduce pressure, doctors recommend taking at the same time about several oral medications. In this case, blood pressure will gradually decrease over 1-2 days. This will not depend on the type of HA.

In the event that after taking the drugs in this way the expected effect from them does not appear, then you must immediately call a doctor.

All drugs should be taken only as directed by a doctor. If at the same time adequate control will be made for the patient, then treatment can be carried out at home.

If the types of heart failure are stagnant, as well as with the manifestation of weakness in the body during the course of the disease, then you do not need to take beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors. This can cause kidney failure.

Description of neurological status

To correctly describe the types of status, you need to pay attention to the following:

  1. Human consciousness.
  2. Pupils.
  3. Paresis of the nerves of the face.
  4. Language.
  5. Memory.
  6. Speech
  7. Do nausea or vomiting.
  8. Muscle strength.
  9. Coordination of movements.
  10. Pain and tactile sensitivity.
  11. The presence of seizures.
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If, when diagnosing when calling for help at home, the above symptoms are correctly described, the doctor will be able to quickly make the correct diagnosis and prescribe a course of treatment.

HA can often occur in young people. This usually occurs after overstressing the body. In this case, the general state of health is usually normal. Such a crisis begins suddenly. Nausea, headache, vomiting, etc. may appear.

In older people, HA is observed with initial symptoms in the form of fluid retention in the body and increased edema. Such a crisis develops on the order of 2-3 days. At the same time, nausea, vomiting, headache, shortness of breath, tinnitus, decreased sharpness of vision, lethargy and so on will also be observed.

If the patient shows the first signs and symptoms of the disease, it is recommended to call a doctor for diagnosis. Also, the first sign of a manifestation of the disease may be:

  1. Pulmonary edema.
  2. Visual impairment.
  3. Stroke.
  4. Subarachnoid outflow of blood.
  5. Hypertensive crisis, which cannot be stopped at the initial stage.

If you adhere to the tips in the article, the order of taking the drugs and recommendations, then you can identify the disease at the initial stage and begin treatment on time. This will also help to avoid complications and the occurrence of other diseases. The key to the prevention of HA will also be constant monitoring by a specialist. About what is a hypertensive crisis, will tell a specialist in the video in this article.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.