The main object of the human body is considered the heart. It is it that pumps blood through 2 circles of blood vessels, which differ in size.
Small is located in the lungs, where tissue is enriched with oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide. And in a larger circle, blood spreads between all the internal organs and systems of a person.
To maintain such a cycle in the human body, you need blood pressure, which is created by myocardial contractions. If you listen to the beat of the heart, you can clearly hear two sounds that differ in volume.
As a rule, the first sound is slightly louder than the second. First, there is a contraction of the ventricles, after the atrium is reduced, there is a short pause.
In the phase of contraction, upper pressure (systolic) and a pulse are formed, which acts as its derivative. Lower pressure is characterized by a phase of relaxation of the myocardium.
Two systems of its regulation take part in maintaining normal blood pressure:
- Nervous regulation.
- Humoral regulation.
The mechanism of nervous regulation is that within the walls of large arterial vessels, specific receptors are located that capture pressure fluctuations.
In situations where the pressure is high or low, the receptors send nerve impulses to the center of the cerebral hemispheres, from where the signal comes, which is focused on stabilizing the pressure.
Humoral regulation affects hemodynamics through the synthesis of special substances – hormones. For example, in situations of rapid decrease in blood pressure, the adrenal glands provoke the production of adrenaline and other substances aimed at increasing blood pressure.
It is worth noting that the mechanism that maintains the level of normal pressure in a healthy person, in the presence of pathological conditions, leads to a persistent increase in pressure with all the negative consequences.
High blood pressure, increased blood pressure, are often associated with impaired renal function, in medical practice, this phenomenon is called renal hypertension. Typically, renal pressure is especially common in patients younger than 30 years of age.
The norm indicators of people of different age groups:
- 15-21 years – 100/80, a tolerance of 10 mm is permissible.
- 21-40 years old – 120/80-130/80.
- 40-60 years – up to 140/90.
- After 70 years – 150/100.
As a rule, in elderly people, hypertension is commonly diagnosed. The average performance is 150/100, but it happens 160/90-100.
What does upper blood pressure mean?
The mechanism of formation of upper blood pressure is carried out by means of contraction of the ventricles.
The leading role belongs to the left ventricle, this situation is due to the fact that it is the left department that needs to pump blood throughout the vascular network of the human body. The right ventricle affects only the vascular system of the lungs.
When blood pressure is measured, air is pumped into the cuff until the pulse in the ulnar artery stops. After, the air slowly descends. The pulse can be heard through a phonendoscope, its first beat is blood waves due to a powerful contraction of the ventricles.
At this point, the numbers on the manometer indicate a numerical indicator that means the upper bounds of blood pressure. What determines systolic significance? As a rule, it is caused by such factors:
- With what force does the heart muscle contract.
- The tension of the blood vessels, which means that their resistance is also taken into account.
- How many times per unit of time the heart contracted.
Blood pressure and pulse are values that are tightly interconnected. The pulse shows the heart rate, this indicator is responsible for the amount of blood pressure in the vessels.
A lot of factors influence the pulse, as well as the pressure:
- Emotional background.
- Smoking, alcohol, drugs.
If the pulse and blood pressure are constantly increased, while there are no reasonable reasons for this, pathological processes are likely to occur.
The ideal systolic pressure is 120 mmHg, normal ranges from 109 to 120. In cases where the upper blood pressure is more than 120, but less than 140, we can talk about previous hypotension. If the blood pressure is greater than 140, high blood pressure is diagnosed.
Arterial hypertension is diagnosed only in those cases when the pressure is high for a long time. Single increases are not considered a deviation from the norm.
Systolic pressure has a lower limit of 100 mmHg. If it goes down further, the pulse disappears, the person faints. Pressure 120/100 may indicate kidney disease, damage to the renal vessels, diseases of an endocrine nature.
Sometimes they say “cardiac” about upper pressure, this is permissible for patients, but this is not entirely correct from a medical point of view. After all, not only the heart, but also the blood vessels affect the parameters of blood pressure.
What does lower blood pressure mean?
Lower pressure means hemodynamics in a state of relative rest of the heart muscle. The vascular lumens are filled with blood, and since the liquid tissue is quite heavy, it tends to go down.
This means that the vascular system, even with a resting heart, is in tension to maintain diastolic pressure.
The lower numbers of blood pressure are recorded at the moment when silence occurs in the phonendoscope. Norms and deviations of the lower pressure:
- The optimum value is up to 80.
- The maximum value of the norm is 89.
- High Blood Pressure – 89/94.
- Minor hypertension – 94/100.
- Moderate hypertension – 100/109.
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If hypotonics have lower numbers less than 65, then this threatens with clouding of consciousness and fainting, as a result of this, with such indicators, you need to immediately call an ambulance.
However, there are people who have never had diastolic pressure equal to the figure of 80, their indicators can be less than 80 or more, but at the same time, due to their individual characteristics, this is a natural state of the body.
The difference between the upper and lower blood pressure
Having figured out what blood pressure is, you need to understand the essence of the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure:
- Based on the fact that the optimal pressure is 120/80, we can say that the difference is 40 units, this indicator is called pulse pressure.
- If the difference increases to 65 or more, this threatens the development of cardiovascular pathologies.
As a rule, a large gap in pulse pressure occurs in the elderly, it is at this age that an isolated systolic blood pressure occurs. The older the person, the greater the risks that systolic hypertension develops.
The degree of pulse pressure is affected by the expansion of the aorta and adjacent arteries:
- The aorta is characterized by high extensibility, which decreases with age due to the natural deterioration of tissues.
- Elastic tissues are replaced by collagen, which are more rigid and practically not elastic.
- In addition, with age, cholesterol plaques, calcium salts are formed, as a result of which, the more they are, the worse the aorta is stretched. And behind this, the walls of the arteries, therefore, the upper and lower pressures have a big difference.
High pulse pressure adversely affects the cardiovascular system, and can lead to a stroke.
If there are abnormal indicators of upper or lower pressure – this is an occasion to visit a doctor. Attempts to cope with the problem yourself can lead to negative consequences and complications. The boundaries of blood pressure will tell experts in the video in this article.
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