Blood is a component that allows the body to function as a single system. It contains and transmits information about the functioning of organs and tissues, so they adapt to changes in internal and environmental conditions.
Blood clotting is of great importance in ensuring the usefulness of such an interaction.
Clotting determines the ability of the blood to supply the organs with the necessary nutrients, as well as transmit information about the current state of the body.
Factors and significance of blood clotting
On the one hand, too thick blood will not be able to circulate throughout the body. On the other hand, the blood should be thick enough not to pass through the walls of blood vessels under the influence of pressure.
How blood clots
Therefore, a balance must be maintained, controlled by the coagulation (coagulation) and anticoagulation (anticoagulation) system. Together this is called coagulation homeostasis, and with the harmonious interaction of both systems, normal functioning of the body is observed.
Important! Impaired blood coagulation can cause various diseases, primarily of the cardiovascular system. However, a change in coagulation can also serve as a symptom of severe pathology.
What does blood clotting depend on:
- The condition of the walls of blood vessels. Violation of the inner layer of arteries increases coagulability,
- Functional usefulness and platelet count. They are the first to increase the rate of clotting, being the main controllers of the integrity of the vascular bed,
- The state and concentration of plasma coagulation factors, most of which are synthesized by the liver. A decrease or increase in their number causes a decrease or increase in blood coagulation,
- Concentration of plasma factors of the anticoagulation system (heparin, antiplasmin, antithrombin and others).
Analyzes and normal indicators (table)
Blood clotting can be determined through laboratory tests. Their implementation is possible using both venous and capillary blood. Each analysis determines the state of any of the links in the coagulation system (hemostasis).
Information about what should be coagulability, and descriptions of the main blood tests are given in the table:
|Analysis name||Indicator rate||What type of blood is used|
|Determination of platelet count||In children: from 150 to 350 g/l||Finger (capillary)|
|For women and men: from 150 to 400 g/l|
|Clotting time||Lee-White: 5 to 10 minutes||Venous|
|According to Sukharev:||From the finger|
|start – from 30 to 120 seconds|
|ending – from 3 to 5 minutes|
|Thrombin time||12 to 20 seconds||From the vein|
|Duke bleeding duration||Up to 4 minutes||Capillary|
|Prothrombin index||Venous blood: 90 to 105%||Venous|
|Capillary blood 93-107%||Capillary|
|Fibrinogen||In adults: 2 to 4 g/l||From the vein|
|In a newborn child: 1,25 to 3,0 g/l|
|APTT – activated partial thromboplastin time||35 to 50 seconds||Venous|
The following factors can naturally affect the result of coagulation tests:
- Pregnancy leads to increased clotting,
- Taking anticoagulants,
- Taking hormonal contraceptives increases blood clotting,
- Exposure to high temperatures and dehydration increase blood clotting,
- Past injuries, blood transfusions, operations.
Important! The norm in women is more subject to fluctuations. Normal indicators can be significantly reduced with the use of hormonal drugs or during menstruation.
The essence of analyzes
The essence and capabilities of blood clotting indicators:
|Coagulation rate||Research value|
|Platelet count||Reflects the number of cells responsible for starting coagulation in the event of a violation of the integrity of the vessel walls.|
|Thrombin time||Shows the status of the final folding phase. It is an indirect sign of the concentration of the administered drugs, as well as natural factors of coagulation homeostasis.|
|Clotting time according to Lee-White||Reflects the ability of venous blood to form a clot.|
|Clotting time according to Sukharev||Reflects the ability of blood from a finger to form a clot.|
|Duke bleeding duration||Reflects the body’s ability to stop blood loss. It is checked by recording the time required for the cessation of bleeding after a finger piercing.|
|Prothrombin index||Indicates the ability of plasma factors to form a clot in the event of the addition of tissue factors produced by platelets.|
|Fibrinogen||Determination of the concentration of a blood protein responsible for strengthening the blood clot.|
|APTT||It differs from the prothrombin index in that it reflects the activity of only plasma factors without platelets.|
Blood clotting in newborns
During the first week, the blood clotting of the newborn is very slow, but during the second week, the clotting factors and prothrombin levels are approaching the adult norm.
Already two weeks after birth, the content of fibrinogen increases greatly and reaches the values of an adult.
The content of other coagulation factors approaches the values normal for an adult by the end of the first year of life.
Directly they reach the norm by the age of 12 years.
Causes of increased coagulation
Hypercoagulability syndrome can be an independent pathological process caused by hereditary factors that predetermined a defect in the blood coagulation system.
Such conditions are called thrombophilia, the table below describes their causes:
|Coagulation Factor Behavior||Coagulation factors|
|Increased education and/or excessive activity of clotting factors:||proconvertine,|
|von Willebrand factor,|
|plasma thromboplastin precursor.|
|Insufficient education and/or decreased activity of clotting factors:||anticoagulants C, S,|
|cofactor heparin II,|
|plasminogen and activators.|
Secondary hypercoagulable syndrome is a consequence of any pathology or specific condition.
The following pathological conditions are manifested by an increase in blood clotting:
- Malignant or benign tumors of the blood system. The course of such tumors is often accompanied by decreased or increased coagulation. These are various leukemias, multiple myeloma, erythremia and other diseases.
- Autoimmune diseases. These are diseases in which the body forms antibodies to its cells. Antibodies are aggressive proteins that cause damage to body cells by settling on their components, which causes increased blood clots. The list of such diseases includes antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and other pathologies.
- Hereditary diseases. These are genetic diseases that do not directly affect blood clotting, but act indirectly, not being thrombophilia (hereditary hyperlipoproteinemia, sickle cell anemia, and others).
- Atherosclerosis is a common, extensive atherosclerosis, especially in the latter stages. In this disease, the walls of blood vessels are damaged, as a result of which parietal blood clots are formed with the risk of subsequent heart attacks of various organs.
- Renal and/or hepatic failure – reduce the formation of antithrombin III, which leads to increased blood clotting.
- Excessive adrenal hormones – prolonged increased activity of the adrenal cortex with a tumor or pathological stress leads to an increase in the formation of fibrinogen, an important component of the coagulation system.
- Septic conditions – human blood is normally sterile, if there are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) in it, a condition called “sepsis” develops, which is manifested, among other things, by increased coagulability.
- Hemoconcentration is a blood condition in which the correct ratio of the cellular elements and the liquid part of the blood is disrupted towards the cellular component, as a result of which the blood thickens. This condition develops as a result of certain pathological conditions: diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, diabetes (diabetes/non-sugar diabetes), burns.
- Forced sedentary or recumbency. Due to pathology, trauma or surgery. It slows down blood flow, which increases the risk of blood clots.
- Features of lifestyle and body constitution – bad habits (alcohol, drug use, smoking) and obesity lead to damage to the vascular walls, increased coagulation and blood clotting.
- A foreign object in the vascular bed – a vessel prosthesis, an artificial heart valve, a long-term stay of the catheter in the vessel lumen.
- Side effects of taking medications – for example, it can be hormonal contraceptives that contain estrogen hormones (they themselves increase clotting).
- Injury – Substances that increase blood clotting can enter the bloodstream as a result of soft tissue injury.
- Long-term interaction of blood with a foreign body. During hemodialysis (purification of the patient’s blood with an “artificial” kidney), during operations using devices that replace the work of the lungs and heart, and other medical interventions with contact of the patient’s blood with a foreign object.
- Idiopathic hypercoagulability. This is a condition when a complex of diagnostic manipulations has already been performed, but it was not possible to reliably determine the cause of increased blood clotting.
Video: Blood coagulation system
Symptoms of increased clotting
The course of this state before a vascular catastrophe is often covert and has only general, non-specific clinical symptoms.
High coagulability leads to:
- Increased fatigue,
- Constant fatigue
- Feeling numb
- Tingling at the tip of the nose
- At your fingertips
- In the ears
- And also to other unpleasant clinical manifestations.
One of the main signs that will make it possible to determine the hypercoagulable syndrome even before the onset of severe manifestations is coagulation “on the needle” – this is a situation when it is difficult to take venous blood, since almost immediately after a puncture (puncture), the blood clots inside the needle, which is why it stops flowing into the syringe, which necessitates repeated punctures.
The blood in the test tube after sampling also quickly coagulates, forming a loose bundle.
Due to the lack of diagnostics of high blood coagulability and the timely start of treatment, the development of vascular catastrophes (blockages of venous and arterial vessels) can occur with the most serious consequences for the human body:
- Myocardial infarction,
- Intestinal infarction,
- Stroke (ischemic cerebral infarction),
- Lung infarction
- Gangrene of the limbs
- Kidney infarction,
- Pulmonary embolism,
- Vein thrombosis of the extremities.
If you suspect that the blood clotting rate is exceeded, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible, who will perform all the necessary diagnostic procedures and prescribe a course of treatment.
An inattentive attitude to this pathology will help lead to the development of severe consequences.
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