If there was a sharp jump in the level of upper pressure to the level of 140 to 250 mmHg, we are talking about an attack of hypertension. High blood pressure will cause severe kidney problems, damage to the central nervous system, increased thyroid function, ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction.
With hypertension, the walls of small arteries are affected, and as a result of their swelling and narrowing of the internal lumen, the following is observed:
- circulatory disturbance;
- internal organs feel a lack of oxygen.
Often, hypertension is a long-lasting chronic one, the human body gradually adapts to constantly increased pressure and does not suffer from negative effects.
However, such an adaptation cannot exclude medical intervention in the patient’s health, since the disease can often cause daytime and nighttime attacks of hypertension, which are called hypertensive crises. During an attack, vasospasm is observed, blood access to vital organs is disrupted.
You need to understand that hypertensive crises can often be preceded by various symptoms, among which:
- unusual headache;
- inability to turn his head to the side;
- unexpected dizziness for no reason;
- lack of coordination;
- sharp deterioration in the quality of vision.
The internal manifestations of the attack will be sharp pains behind the sternum, under the scapula, in the abdominal cavity. A person will notice tingling in the upper and lower extremities, muscle tremors, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia.
External symptoms of a hypertensive crisis: the patient is too excited or lethargic, lethargic, he tends to sleep. Red spots appear on the skin of the neck, face and chest, the body temperature rises, the heartbeat accelerates. During an attack, convulsions, twitching can be noticed. Sensitivity of arms and legs may decrease, perspiration intensifies.
There are clear indications for hospitalization for hypertensive crisis:
- the attack cannot be stopped at the prehospital stage;
- the crisis proceeds with severe symptoms of hypertensive encephalopathy;
- there are complications requiring a stay in an intensive care unit, constant medical intervention.
The latter include pulmonary edema, acute visual impairment, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage.
- How to help the patient
- >In order to choose an adequate therapy tactic, it is important to apply the classification of hypertensive crises, according to which there are 2 types of hypertensive crises: complicated and uncomplicated.
- Features of hypertension
- Symptoms and causes of hypertension
- Treatment and recommendations
How to help the patient
As soon as the symptoms of the attack are noticed, it is important to immediately lay the person down or put in a semi-sitting position. Free access to the room should also be made for fresh air, preferably cold.
As a rule, hypertensive patients are well aware of the medications prescribed to him and always have them at hand. With a hypertensive crisis, you will need to take an additional dose of such a drug or a pill under the tongue (so the medication will begin to act much faster).
You can take Klofelin tablet in case of:
- a person has not previously been diagnosed with hypertension;
- he did not receive treatment;
- Doesn’t know about the drugs that he is allowed.
If it is not possible to take pills, you can apply mustard plasters to the back of the head, legs or lower back. It is allowed to apply ice or a very cold object from the freezer to the head.
There are situations that the measures taken are not enough, the patient does not feel better. This means that you need to call an ambulance crew.
It must be understood that hypertensive crisis is only a symptom of a more dangerous disease that requires the fastest possible treatment.
>In order to choose an adequate therapy tactic, it is important to apply the classification of hypertensive crises, according to which there are 2 types of hypertensive crises: complicated and uncomplicated.
Complicated seizures are otherwise called life-threatening, they need to normalize the level of blood pressure to minimize or completely eliminate damage to internal organs, prevent stroke, heart attack, heart and kidney failure.
Uncomplicated crises (non-critical) do not require an urgent reduction in pressure, since there is no acute organ damage.
Complicated paroxysms of arterial hypertension are usually accompanied by:
- intracerebral hemorrhage;
- acute hypertensive encephalopathy;
- acute myocardial infarction;
- unstable angina pectoris;
- pulmonary edema;
- acute left ventricular failure;
- subarachnoid hemorrhage.
In such situations, hypertension is necessarily hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Treatment will be with oral anti-pressure drugs and intravenous infusions.
Uncomplicated attacks of hypertension are characterized in that the malignant and severe form of the disease proceeds without any special complications, short-term headaches may occur.
Therapy for non-threatening hypertensive crises may well be carried out at home.
Features of hypertension
Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease characterized by a constant or periodic increase in blood pressure. If we talk about the norm, in a healthy person, the pressure should not exceed 120/80 mm Hg.
When deviations from these figures are small, we are not talking about hypertension yet. Such phenomena can be an individual feature of the body, a reaction to physical activity, environmental factors.
However, blood pressure above 140/90 is a wake-up call that signals hypertension. As you know, it is practically impossible to completely get rid of the pathology, it remains only:
- constantly maintain normal health;
- Do not provoke an attack of hypertension.
That To keep the disease under control, it is always important to monitor your blood pressure. This can be done with any tonometers, but it is best to use electronic models.
Measurements are carried out in a calm environment at a comfortable air temperature. If a person is physically active before manipulation, it is better for him to rest for about 20 minutes, and only then proceed with the procedure. Otherwise, the result will be incorrect.
Also, before measuring pressure, it is forbidden to smoke, drink strong tea, coffee, alcohol. Ideally, measurements are carried out:
- in the morning before eating;
- without getting out of bed.
For greater credibility, the procedure is repeated after 10-15 minutes.
If all conditions are met, it will turn out to find out your normal pressure, it is also customary to call it a worker. Normal indicators are as follows:
- age 16-20 years old – 100/70 – 120/70;
- age 20-40 years old – 120/70 – 130/80;
- age 40-60 years old – slightly above 130/80;
- age from 60 years – no higher than 140/90.
Symptoms and causes of hypertension
The onset of hypertension gives erased symptoms, for example, it can be headaches, impaired performance, memory, constant fatigue, dizziness. Hypertonic may not notice such symptoms for years, because they almost always go away after rest and sleep.
As the disease progresses, the signs of the disease worsen, become more intrusive. May begin:
- sweating attacks;
- ringing, tinnitus;
- redness of the skin of the face;
- flashing flies before the eyes;
- swelling of the legs in the morning;
- puffiness of the face.
The main cause of problems with blood pressure is constant stress, because during nervous experiences a lot of adrenaline is released into the blood of a person. When stressful situations happen often enough, high blood pressure will be their constant companion. These same factors often cause oncology.
Another cause of hypertension is the constant use of excessive amounts of salt. Due to an excess of sodium, a person drinks a lot of fluid, it lingers in the body, damaging it.
There are many other causes of the development of the disease, including:
- poor heredity;
- frequent drinking;
- sedentary work;
- sedentary lifestyle.
The use of certain medicines, for example, oral contraceptives with a high concentration of hormones, medications to reduce appetite, and some anti-inflammatory drugs also provokes pressure problems.
Treatment and recommendations
If treatment is not taken, the pathology will actively progress, causing dangerous irreversible changes in various vital organs: eyes, heart, kidneys, brain. At later stages of the ailment, the hypertensive gait will change, the coordination of movements will be disturbed, weakness in the arms and legs will appear, vision, memory, and intelligence will deteriorate.
To avoid all this, it is important to start treatment as soon as possible. It is immediately necessary to warn lovers of alternative medicine – non-drug methods or self-medication are dangerous to health! Alternative methods of therapy, even if the doctor has not banned them, help only in the early stages of the disease.
Where does the treatment begin? First of all, you need to learn how to control your emotions. Those suffering from hypertension should radically change their lives, as well as abandon bad habits, acquire useful ones:
- do not drink alcohol;
- no smoking;
- monitor weight, with obesity it is imperative to lose weight;
- go in for sports, best of all brisk walking, water aerobics, swimming;
- review the diet (eat potassium-rich foods: raisins, bananas, baked potatoes, seaweed);
- drink no more than one and a half liters of water per day;
- reduce the amount of salt used.
With the disease, a person must get used to a new lifestyle. If you follow all the doctor’s prescriptions, after 3 years of complex treatment, you can count on the absence of attacks of hypertension, normalization of pressure, improving the quality of life, prevention of oncology. The danger in hypertension is clearly demonstrated by the video in this article.
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