During periods of seasonal rise in incidence, young children are immediately at risk of infection. Most often, the first manifestation of the disease is a runny nose (rhinitis). Not all rhinitis is caused by viruses and bacteria. Allergic rhinitis belongs to the group of common childhood diseases.
Allergic rhinitis is a disease, the main manifestations of which are swelling of the mucous membrane and nasal congestion, sneezing, itching in the nose, the release of a large amount of mucous discharge.
The incidence of allergic rhinitis is very high, according to some data it reaches 40%. Most often, small children, mostly boys, suffer from allergic rhinitis.
The most significant causes of allergic rhinitis include:
- hereditary predisposition (parents and close relatives have allergic diseases)
- frequent colds (viruses affect the immune response and contribute to sensitization of the child’s body)
- allergic reactions to various antigens (pollen of plants and trees, house dust, saliva protein of pets, building paints and varnishes)
Allergic rhinitis is acute, seasonal, and persistent. Acute rhinitis occurs with a single contact with an allergen (playing with a cat). Seasonal rhinitis manifests itself during the flowering of plants, trees, and a persistent rhinitis torments the child for almost the whole year.
In order to make sure that the runny nose is allergic, the doctor will definitely prescribe an analysis to determine an increased level of IgE antibodies and skin testing.
A correct diagnosis implies the presence of the following components of the disease:
- always starts from early childhood
- occurs upon contact with antigens to which there is a pronounced allergy
- often accompanied by other allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, urticaria, asthma)
- family members also suffer from allergies
- skin tests are positive
- no deformation of the nasal septum and other anatomical features
- the concentration of IgE and eosinophils in the blood is increased
- the use of antihistamines (Zodak, Erius, Fenistil) significantly alleviates the symptoms of the disease.
Treatment is to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Cetirizine, Loratadine, Desloratadine reduce itching, sneezing and rhinorrhea (abundant discharge of clear and liquid mucus from the nose), and also have a positive effect on nasal congestion. It is believed that the child should take prophylactic medications prior to exposure to the antigen.
These drugs are sprayed or instilled into the nose. Their undoubted advantage is the lack of systemic action, that is, the drugs affect only the nasal mucosa. Mometasone, Fluticasone, Budesonide are prescribed for a long period, have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.
Before using the drugs, it is necessary to cleanse and moisturize the nasal mucosa.
Nasal drops with a vasoconstrictor effect.
Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline, Nazol, Nazivin relieve edema well and eliminate congestion. However, they should not be applied for more than 7 days.
Moisturizing nasal sprays and drops
The nasal mucosa in allergic rhinitis requires special care, in particular, the use of moisturizing sprays or drops. Preparations widely presented in pharmacies: Aqua Maris, Marimer, Sialor Aqua, Salin. Sprays not only moisturize, but also cleanse the mucous membrane.
Removal of allergens from the child’s environment.
Parents of a toddler suffering from an allergic rhinitis should take care to protect the child as much as possible from contact with allergens. You cannot have pets, you need to constantly wet cleaning.
Before going outside, you can use Prevalin nasal spray, which, after being sprayed on the nasal mucosa, creates a protective barrier and prevents allergens from penetrating into the mucous membrane.
Without a doubt, allergic rhinitis prevents a child from fully enjoying life. Once a doctor has diagnosed it, parents need to work hard to combat the symptoms of the disease.
Modern medicines allow, if not to cure the disease, then at least to alleviate or completely eliminate the unpleasant manifestations of an allergic rhinitis.
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