The effect of the expansion of tense, narrowed and spasmodic vessels is called vasodilation. Medicines that relieve the symptoms of spasm and dilate the vascular lumen are known as vasodilators. Modern vasodilator preparations for the brain can heal not only arteries, but also small capillaries, the blood supply of which is necessary for the activity of the most important organ of the body.
The effect is so strong that there is a clear reddening of the skin and a burning sensation on the mucous membranes. The drug is used in the form of tablets, injections and infusions.
Pentoxifylline and its known analogues, trental and agapurin, are among them. Under the action of pentoxifylline, the expansion of the vessels of the brain occurs against the background of improved microcirculation of the blood and the absorption of oxygen by the tissues. Concomitant treatment reduction in platelet aggregation should be monitored by a physician so that the patient is not at risk of bleeding.
Among the cerebral vasodilators is another famous drug – vinpocetine, its analogue is known as cavinton. The beneficial effect of vinpocetine on blood vessels is due to the action of the plant alkaloid periwinkle, which facilitates the movement of blood and stabilizes the vascular lumen.
- Treatment with medicines
- Preparations based on natural pomace
- Vasodilators in vegetative-vascular dystonia
- Magnesium sulfate
- Magne B6
- A nicotinic ac >Analogues– Active substance: Niacin (Vitamin B3). Показания: Pellagra, decreased acidity of gastric juice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, spasms of any vessels, atherosclerosis, facial neuritis, ulcers that do not heal for a long time. contraindications: Healing gastrointestinal ulcers, liver failure, gout, pregnancy, lactation. How to use: 50-100 mg / day Side effects: Taken on an empty stomach, it can cause hives, goosebumps, fainting, a sensation of a rush of blood, and redness of the face and upper body. Prices: tablets number 50 – 15-20 r
- Xanthinol Nicotinate
- What is better to choose?
- Symptoms of Vascular Disorders
- Microcirculation correctors
- Symptoms of Vascular Disorders
- Classification of drugs
- Vasodilators in vegetative-vascular dystonia
- Heart medicine
- S >Analogues: Dilacid, Corvaton, Corvamin, Molsidomin. How to use: For the prevention of seizures 1-4 mg * 2-3 r / day, up to 8 mg * 1-2 r / day. For stopping attacks: 1-2 mg under the tongue. Price: Sydnopharm 30 tab, 2 mg each – 220 r.
- ACE Inhibitors
Treatment with medicines
In each of the listed periods, drug treatment of such pathologies is performed. At the same time, the duration and effectiveness of such therapy may be different.
It is important to take into account the fact that nootropic drugs that improve blood microcirculation and metabolic processes in brain cells act only in tissues with pathological changes and do not affect healthy tissues.
That is why you should be very careful about advertising slogans and recommendations by the pharmacist to use such drugs in order to stimulate the brain activity of children and healthy people. The use of such drugs in the following cases is highly doubtful:
- while preparing for exams;
- during periods of heavy stress while studying or at work;
- with poor student performance;
- for preschool children.
If such points appear in the indications for the use of nootropics, this is just the result of a conspiracy of farm manufacturers who intend to earn as much as possible, using the trust of customers.
The main causes of cerebrovascular accident are spasm of blood vessels and the formation of blood clots in the arteries. Therefore, vasodilator drugs, as well as drugs that prevent platelet adhesion during the formation of blood clots, are most effective for such diseases.
Preparations based on natural pomace
Speaking about vasodilator preparations for the brain, one cannot fail to mention the popular products based on the extract of the relict plant of ginkgo biloba. Tanakan, bilobil, memoplant are the most famous among them.
Glycosides from the leaves and seeds of the plant have an antioxidant effect on blood vessels, improve the condition of the entire circulatory system. Improving the brain with ginkgo biloba is indicated not only for therapeutic, but also for preventive purposes. Improving blood circulation, increasing the ability of the brain to absorb the necessary nutrients appears soon after taking the medicine.
Vasodilators in vegetative-vascular dystonia
With age, the vessels in the human body wear out. The passage in the veins and arteries becomes smaller, the number of toxins increases, the consequences of which are various diseases.
Medications that dilate blood vessels can improve cerebral circulation, expand the narrowed passage in the arteries. They also restore vascular tone, reduce the risk of blood clots and improve the patient’s condition.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.
Active substance: Cinnarizine.
Показания: prevention and treatment of conditions after a stroke; treatment of fainting, fainting, tinnitus, nystagmus, nausea; prevention of motion sickness at sea and in transport.
contraindications: Children under 5 years of age, pregnancy / lactation, Parkinson’s disease.
How to use: For treatment after a stroke, with dizziness: 2 tab. * 1-2 r / day.
When motion sickness: 1 tab. ½-1 hour before the trip, repeat after 6 hours.
Side effects: loss of strength, headache, drowsiness, loss of coordination, dry mouth, photosensitivity, excessive sweating, drowsiness.
Prices: Cinnarizine No. 50 – 20 r, No. 56 – 50 r, Stugeron No. 50 – 180 r
If blood circulation in the brain suffers due to the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels, or it worsens after suffering a hemorrhagic stroke that occurred against the background of increased pressure, a more “strong” calcium channel blocker is needed. This is “Nimotop” (“Nimodipine”), which “works” specifically with the vessels of the brain.
Active substance: Nimodipine.
Показания: Prevention of cerebrovascular spasm and treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular accident; treatment of residual effects after undergoing subarachnoid circulation; treatment of senile dementia.
contraindications: Hepatic failure, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure. With caution – at a pressure of 100/60 mm Hg and below.
How to use: 60 mg * 4 r / day.
Side effects: A sharp decrease in blood pressure. Hot flashes, sweating, decreased (less often – increased) heart rate, nausea, sleep disturbances.
Prices: 100 tablets – 1030-1100 r
Also used are drugs – alpha-blockers that act specifically on cerebral circulation: Nicergoline and its analog Sermion.
Active substance: Nicergoline.
Показания: Acute and chronic disorders of cerebral circulation, cerebral atherosclerosis, migraine, dizziness, optic nerve damage.
contraindications: Allergy, hypotension, angina pectoris, liver dystrophy, severe atherosclerosis.
How to use: 1 * 3 p / d.
Side effects: Pressure loss, fainting, drowsiness / insomnia, redness of the skin of the upper half of the body and face, itchy skin.
Prices: Nicergoline 10 mg No. 30 – 360 r, Sermion 5 mg No. 30 – 390 r, 10 mg No. 50 – 510 r
Active substance: Magnesium sulfate.
Показания: Violation of cerebral circulation, a decrease in magnesium when taking birth control, diuretics and muscle relaxants; convulsive syndrome (including eclampsia of pregnant women), hypertension (including crisis).
contraindications: low blood pressure, bradycardia, myasthenia gravis, respiratory failure, AB blockade, menstruation.
How to use: intravenous drip, the doctor selects the dose.
Side effects associated with excess concentration of magnesium in the body: bradycardia, “rush” of blood to the head, headache, nausea, speech impairment.
Prices: Ampoules of 5 ml No. 10 – 20 r, 10 ml of No. 10 – 30 r
Active substance: Magnesium lactate pyridoxine hydrochloride.
Показания: Chronic physical and mental fatigue, irritability, depression, sleep disorder, headache, muscle pain, increased risk of stress, intense physical and mental stress.
contraindications: Renal failure, AV block, myasthenia gravis, high initial concentration of magnesium in the blood.
How to use: 1-2 tab. * 3 r / day.
Side effects: Nausea, constipation, skin rash.
Prices: Tablets No. 50 – 600 r, Forte No. 30 – 720 r
Active substance: Papaverine.
Показания: Vascular spasm of the brain, vessels of the lower extremities.
contraindications: Hypersensitivity, AV block, glaucoma, liver failure.
How to use: 1 tab * 2 p.
Side effects: Constipation, drowsiness, decreased pressure, rhythm disturbances, allergies.
Prices: 10 tabs of 40 mg – 10 r, 20 tabs of 40 mg – 35 r
Active substance: Bendazole.
Показания: Vasospasm, increased pressure, diseases of the nervous system.
contraindications: Children under 12 years old with arterial hypotension and hypersensitivity.
How to use: 1-2,5 t * 2-3r / day.
Side effects: Rhythm disturbance, allergic rash.
Prices: 10 tab – 15-20 p
A combination of Dibazole with Papaverine – “Papazol” is produced. He has the same indications as the above medicines. It costs 20 tablets of 50 p. They are taken at 1 t * 2-3r / day.
Analogues: Partial – Nicergoline.
Active substance: Dihydroergocriptine and caffeine.
Показания: Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, recovery from a microstroke or stroke; memory impairment; prevention of signs of migraine, impaired hearing or balance, diabetes mellitus, impaired blood supply to the retina.
How to use: 1-2 t * 2 r / day
Side effects: Nausea, “under the stomach” pain, itching, allergic rash.
Prices: 30 t – 950 r
With tinnitus, vinpocetine (Cavinton) is effectively used
Active substance: Vinpocetine.
Показания: Recovery from strokes, head injury; memory impairment, fainting, headache, cerebral arteriosclerosis, circulatory disorders in the retina, hearing loss. During menopause.
contraindications: Arrhythmias, severe coronary heart disease, increased intracranial pressure, acute hemorrhagic stroke, pregnancy and lactation.
How to use: 5-10 mg * 3r / day.
Side effects: decrease in pressure, arrhythmias, sleep disturbance, fainting, headache, weakness.
Prices: 5 mg No. 50 – 80 r, 10 mg No. 30 – 100 r, Cavinton 5 mg No. 50 – 240 r, Cavinton 10 mg (Forte)
With dizziness – drugs antagonists of the H3-histamine receptors – Betaserk and its analogues.
Analogues: Tagista, Betagistin, Vestibo, Betaver, Vertran.
Active substance: Betahistine.
Показания: Meniere’s disease, vestibular syncope.
How to use: 24-48 mg / 3 doses.
Side effects: Those suffering from gastrointestinal tract pathologies have “under the stomach” pain, nausea; rarely – urticaria, itching.
Prices: 16 mg No. 30: Betahistine – 70 r, Vertran – 180 r, Betaver – 220 r, Vestibo – 250 r, Betaserk 580 r
Analogues: Flowerpot Retard, Trental.
Active substance: Pentoxifylline.
Показания: Atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels, after myocardial infarction, vascular damage (including diabetes mellitus), hearing impairment, insufficient blood supply to the retina.
contraindications: Acute infarction, bleeding, pregnancy, severe atherosclerosis.
How to use: 200 mg * 3r / day
Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, fainting, tachycardia, increased pressure, redness of the skin, allergic manifestations.
Prices: Pentoxifylline No. 60 100 mg – 80 r, Wazonite No. 20 at 600 mg – 400 r, Trental 400 mg No. 60 – 1500 r, No. 20 – 600 r
A nicotinic ac >Analogues–
Active substance: Niacin (Vitamin B3).
Показания: Pellagra, decreased acidity of gastric juice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, spasms of any vessels, atherosclerosis, facial neuritis, ulcers that do not heal for a long time.
contraindications: Healing gastrointestinal ulcers, liver failure, gout, pregnancy, lactation.
How to use: 50-100 mg / day
Side effects: Taken on an empty stomach, it can cause hives, goosebumps, fainting, a sensation of a rush of blood, and redness of the face and upper body.
Prices: tablets number 50 – 15-20 r
Analogues: Partially – nicotinic acid and partially – aminophylline.
Active substance: Xanthinol nicotinate.
Показания: Atherosclerosis of the vessels of the head and heart, obliterating atherosclerosis and endarteritis, Raynaud’s and Burger’s disease, Meniere’s syndrome, elevated cholesterol, triglycerides.
contraindications: Allergy, bleeding, myocardial infarction, severe heart failure, exacerbation of peptic ulcer, pregnancy, lactation.
How to use: 150 mg * 3r / day
Side effects: “Tides” to the upper half of the body, weakness, decreased pressure. If this is only the first time, then this is normal, if you reappear, you need to cancel the treatment. Sometimes nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, and abdominal pain also occur.
Prices: 150 mg No. 60 – 200 r
The list of vasodilators for VVD depends on the prevailing disorders. So, if neurocirculatory dystonia is accompanied by an increase in blood pressure, ACE inhibitors, Magne-B6 are used, sometimes calcium channel blockers, as well as sedatives, which we do not consider in this article.
What is better to choose?
The need to maintain brain health can occur at any age. Even young people who spend a lot of time studying or doing mental work need prevention of circulatory disorders. In the elderly, this need becomes urgent. Timely intake of drugs that expand the vessels of the brain will help maintain a clear and vigorous mind and high ability to work for many years.
We recommend reading material on how the cleaning of cerebral vessels affects its blood circulation.
The need to take these drugs can occur at any age, since they are used not only for treatment, but also for prevention. They use vasodilator drugs for headaches, to stimulate memory and mental activity, to reduce hypoxia and protect brain cells during periods of stress, to normalize sleep and increase disability.
Which neurologist or therapist will tell you which drug is best for expanding the blood vessels of the brain, depending on the clinical situation and treatment goals. The opinion of a specialist about popular medicines can be seen in the video in this article.
You should not prescribe these funds for yourself on their own, even for prevention purposes, since they all have contraindications.
It is difficult for the patient to make the right choice, it is better to entrust this issue to the doctor
Regular vasoconstriction caused by a decrease in their elasticity or age-related changes can lead to serious diseases, decreased memory and hearing, dizziness, frequent headaches, convulsions, etc.
This is due to the fact that through the narrowed vessels, the brain lacks oxygen and nutrients. Therefore, it is so important to start taking vasodilator drugs for the brain in time.
Medication disaggregants prevent platelet adhesion to form blood clots, which subsequently clog brain vessels. Under the influence of these drugs, microcirculation improves, capillary permeability increases. Also, these drugs have the properties of angioprotectors, reducing vascular fragility due to the activation of metabolic processes in the walls.
The list of disaggregating drugs is wide. These include drugs Vazonit, Dipyridamole (Curantil), Pentoxifylline, Radomin, Flexital, Persantine, Doxy-Hem, Trental.
These medicines are extracts from the raw materials of plants that improve vascular tone and strengthen their walls. Such medicines include Bilobil, Tanakan, Ginkoum, Memoplant. These drugs are used to improve memory and brain function. As part of such drugs to improve brain function contain Ginkgo Biloba.
Using such pills to improve brain activity and memory, it should be borne in mind that they act slowly. In addition, no serious studies have been conducted confirming the effectiveness of such drugs. Therefore, their use to improve memory in the elderly is not always justified. The cost of drugs – from 300 rubles.
Symptoms of Vascular Disorders
To maintain health, it is important that the vessels work properly. This means that their walls must be flexible and permeable. Normally, the vessels should have the ability to expand and contract. If they lose elasticity, their walls will become thick and brittle, leading to a heart attack.
At the initial stage of vascular disease, the patient experiences the following symptoms:
- sleep disorders;
- numbness of the limbs.
In case of dizziness, headaches, or tinnitus, the list includes all those medicines that are described in the section “Vasodilator drugs that improve cerebral circulation”.
The medicine Betagistin (Betaserk), belonging to this group, not only corrects the blood flow in the capillaries, but also allows you to overcome dizziness attacks, unsteady gait in chronic disorders of the brain blood flow. 8 or 16 mg tablets are used in courses. The dose per day is 24-48 mg, it is divided into three doses.
Not prescribed for pregnant and lactating. Caution is used for bronchial asthma, ulcers.
As side effects, disturbances in the digestive tract, urticaria can develop.
Betaserc’s analogues are Betagistin, Vestibo, Betaver, Tagista funds. Cost – from 100 rubles.
Symptoms of Vascular Disorders
Therefore, vasodilator drugs for osteochondrosis of the neck and other diseases should be used only under the supervision of specialists.
Perhaps you want to know about the new medication - Cardiol, which perfectly normalizes blood pressure. Cardiol capsules are an excellent tool for the prevention of many heart diseases, because they contain unique components. This drug is superior in its therapeutic properties to such drugs: Detonic. If you want to know detailed information about Cardiol, go to the .There you will find answers to questions related to the use of this drug, customer reviews and doctors. You can also find out the Cardiol capsules in your country and the delivery conditions. Some people manage to get a 50% discount on the purchase of this drug (how to do this and buy pills for the treatment of hypertension for 39 euros is written on the official website of the manufacturer.), ,
Medications for improving cerebral circulation – antispasmodics widen the lumen of the vessels, relaxing the smooth muscles of the vascular wall. Such products are relatively safe and mild. They use both pills to improve blood circulation in the brain, and injections related to this group – Drotaverin hydrochloride, No-shpa.
Such drugs do not work very effectively on vessels that are already affected by atherosclerosis. In addition, they can redistribute blood circulation so that it activates in healthy areas where blood vessels are better preserved. Therefore, the affected areas of the brain do not receive the necessary blood flow.
This group includes the following drugs that improve cerebral circulation and memory: Kordafen, Adalat, Norvax, Brainal, Grindek, Arifon, Kordafleks, Diakordin, Latsipil, Cortiazem, Nafadil, Nemotan, Nimotop, Logimaks, Plendil, Foridon, Cinnarizin, Tsinedil Tsinedil Nyfekard.
If vascular preparations are used to improve the blood circulation of the brain from this group, the vessels of the brain expand without harming the rest of the blood circulation. These drugs are used for cerebral circulation in cervical osteochondrosis. Basically, microcirculation improves. But it is important to consider that drugs from this group produce a side effect – they significantly lower blood pressure.
The main purpose for which vasodilator drugs are prescribed is to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The vessel expands, the blood flow in it becomes less, so there is more time for oxygen and necessary substances to get from the blood to the tissue, and carbon dioxide and waste materials from the tissues to the blood. This property is especially important (and used) for those cases when the tissue is poorly supplied with blood due to the fact that:
- the vessel is compressed from the outside: edema, benign tumor, bone growths. This is the basis for the appointment of vasodilator drugs for neck osteochondrosis – to allow blood to reach the brain, despite the obstacle in the form of tissue edema and direct compression of bone osteophytes on the neck;
- inside the vessel there is an obstacle to normal blood flow: atherosclerotic plaque, blood clot, thickening of the wall due to inflammation.
All drugs prescribed for similar purposes affect small and medium caliber vessels.
The second purpose for which they are prescribed is to lower blood pressure with hypertension. This happens as follows: the active component of the drug leads to the expansion of arteries of a large caliber. The capacity of the vessel increases, but the volume of blood remains the same – as a result, the pressure drops.
These drugs are able to “choose” not only the caliber of the vessel. They can act on different molecules of the same artery, so they are divided into many groups. In addition to the artery, the molecules affected by the drug are also found in other tissues, where they have different effects.
The set of enzymes, ion channels or receptors, the effects on which cause vasodilation, is different in different organs. Therefore, vasodilating drugs are classified according to the points of application for the applied:
- with heart disease (mainly with angina pectoris);
- to lower blood pressure;
- to improve blood supply to the brain: with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, with headaches, dizziness, tinnitus;
- with migraine: in this case, special vasodilators are used;
- to reduce high intraocular pressure (with glaucoma);
- with obliterating atherosclerosis, endarteritis or other vascular pathology of the lower extremities.
In almost every group there are several different groups of drugs that act on the same vessels, but with different points of application.
Thus, when a doctor chooses a vasodilator, he takes into account:
- why do you need to expand the vessels;
- vessels of which tissues need to be affected;
- what kind of person has chronic illnesses – what side effects should not be allowed (for example, non-selective beta-blockers of the Anaprilin type cannot be used for chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma).
Mental stress, poor ecology and stress provoke capillary wear.
|Atherosclerosis||In this case, the passage of blood flow narrows with its further blockage.|
|Angiospasm||The cause of poor blood circulation in this case are vegetovascular disorders, overwork. People have fainting and slurred speech.|
|Ischemia||Here the reason is diabetes, a disturbed diet, kidney disease. The patient has aggressiveness and lack of concentration.|
|Stroke||Atherosclerosis, heavy loads of the physical plan are a factor of vascular wall disease.|
|Poor circulation||In this case, vision and hearing decrease, seizures and temporary paralysis appear. The reason is blood clots, plaques, osteochondrosis.|
Classification of drugs
Vasodilator preparations for the vessels of the head and neck are selected by the doctor for each pathology separately. The basis of the classification is the localization of the source of the disease.
Drugs in this group activate the transmission of nerve impulses in different parts of the nervous system, and increase, or vice versa, reduce the susceptibility of nerve endings.
Means have a neurometabolic effect on the brain. Medications improve vascular blood flow, nourish brain cells and activate memory.
Means reduce venous pressure, load on the heart. Also, drugs reduce swelling, blood pressure, cardiac output.
Vasodilators in vegetative-vascular dystonia
Vasodilator preparations for the vessels of the head and neck differ in the direction of work and act on small and medium vessels.
Piracetam is a nootropic synthetic agent and its active substance increases concentration and memory. Piracetam improves metabolism of the nervous system, microcirculation, acts on blood viscosity. When using the drug, cerebral blood flow improves. The product is available in capsules, tablets and injection solution.
- psycho-organic syndrome;
- cortical myoclonia.
- an allergic reaction to the substance;
- child bearing time;
- psychomotor agitation;
- heavy bleeding;
- postoperative period.
In the form of capsules, Piracetam is used before meals or in the process, but no later than 17 hours, so as not to cause sleep pathology. The drug is prescribed from 2-4 capsules per day. The medication can be bought at the pharmacy as prescribed by a specialist and its price is from 30 rubles.
Mexidol has an anti-ischemic effect. The drug is in the form of tablets and a solution for injection. The main active ingredient of the drug is Mexidol, as well as several additional components: magnesium stearate, opadra II white. The tool protects the body from stress, improves memory, has an anticonvulsant effect.
- impaired cerebral blood flow;
- vascular dystonia;
- cognitive problems.
The drug is taken per day no more than 500 mg and is divided into several doses throughout the day. The duration of treatment is prescribed by the doctor. The tool is sold by prescription and costs from 300 rubles.
The vasodilator drug Pentoxifylline serves to increase the vessels of the head and neck and has an angioprotective and anti-aggregation effect. The main substance of the medication Pentoxifylline and auxiliary lactose, titanium dioxide, hypromellose have a positive effect on the relogic properties of the blood, improve microcirculation.
- Raynaud’s disease;
- postthrombotic syndrome;
- viral neuroinfection.
- hemorrhagic stroke;
- child bearing time;
- massive blood loss;
- postoperative period.
The drug is available in tablets and in ampoules for injections. The tablet is used from 800-1200 mg per day. Pentoxifylline can be purchased at the pharmacy by prescription and its price is 400 rubles.
Vasodilator preparations for the vessels of the head and neck from the group of antispasmodics, such as Papaverine, have an antihypertensive and analgesic effect. The active component of the drug – Papaverine, has an anticonvulsant effect. The medication has a hypotensive effect.
In a high dosage, the drug has a sedative effect, slowing the heartbeat. At an average dosage, the drug has a weak effect on the central nervous system. The medication is made in a solution for injections, in rectal suppositories, tablets for adults and children.
- cerebrovascular spasm;
- spasm of the heart.
- age up to 6 months;
- liver disease;
- an allergic reaction to the substance;
- traumatic brain injury.
Papaverine tablets are prescribed 4 times a day. Adults need to use 40-60 mg of the drug per day. Children from 10-14 years old from 15-20 mg per day. The injection solution is used no more than 3 times a day, 2 ml each. In the form of suppositories, Papaverine is taken 20-40 mg 3 times a day. The tool is sold in a pharmacy with a prescription, price from 15 rubles.
The drug is an analogue of histamine. Its active substance is betahistine dihydrochloride. The drug improves the microcirculation of the labyrinth. It is used in pathological processes of the vestibular apparatus to eliminate noise and tinnitus and to reduce dizziness.
The drug is rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation and its positive effect is observed after 3 hours. The active component does not bind to blood proteins. The drug is excreted through the kidneys during the day. Betarsek does not have a sedative effect, so it can be taken by the elderly.
- Meniere’s syndrome;
- vestibular disorders.
The drug is taken orally 1 tablet 3 times a day. The course of treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
- bronchial asthma;
- the first trimester of pregnancy;
- an allergic reaction to the substance;
- a stomach ulcer.
The drug is dispensed in pharmacies with a prescription, and its cost is from 400 rubles.
Actovegin is a drug that improves tissue regeneration and improves cerebral blood flow. The product includes a substance isolated from the blood of calves and auxiliary substances: talc and magnesium stearate.
- brain disorders;
- blood flow disorders in the head;
- diabetic polyneuropathy.
- heart disease;
- child bearing time.
Means of Actovegin are used according to the instructions 3 times a day for 2 pcs. for 1 month. Pills are dispensed with a doctor’s prescription and their cost is from 500 rubles.
A tool that improves blood circulation in the brain and brain metabolism. The composition of the drug includes the active substance vinpocetine 5 mg. Also, the composition of the tool includes additional substances: silicon dioxide, talc, magnesium stearate. The medication is available in tablets and solution for injection.
Cavinton has a cerebroprotective effect. It also has a potentiating effect on the neuroprotective effect of adenosine. The tablets are absorbed into the systemic circulation within an hour and are not metabolized in the intestine.
- transient ischemia;
- progressive stroke;
- arteriosclerosis of blood vessels;
- cerebrovascular insufficiency;
- memory impairment.
- severe forms of arrhythmia;
- severe coronary heart disease.
Cavinton tablets are taken for 3 months. The drug is prescribed after meals 3 times a day for 1 tablet. When canceling, the dosage is reduced over three days gradually. The drug is dispensed in a pharmacy with a prescription, the price is from 200 rubles.
Vasodilator preparations for the vessels of the head and neck from a group of vasodilators, such as Vazobral, reduce the threshold of fatigue and improve mental and physical abilities.
The product is available in tablets and drops and includes:
- alpha-dihydroergocriptine mesylate;
- magnesium stearate;
After several doses, the aggregation of platelets and red blood cells decreases. Metabolic processes in the brain improve, their tissues become resistant to hypoxia. Stimulation of the central nervous system is achieved through caffeine, which acts on the vasomotor center and on the cerebral cortex. As a result, the feeling of fatigue becomes less, and performance is higher.
- low concentration of attention;
- Meniere’s disease;
- migraine attacks;
- venous insufficiency;
- vestibular disorders.
- the period of breastfeeding;
- an allergic reaction to the substances of the drug.
The drug is prescribed 1 tablet 2 times a day or 4 ml of the solution 2 times a day. If necessary, the course of treatment can be extended with the agreement of the doctor. The medication is dispensed by prescription, the price is from 900 rubles.
Dipyridamole is an antithrombotic, antiplatelet and vasodilator drug. It is available in tablets and injection. The tool improves microcirculation of cerebral blood flow and has an angioprotective effect.
The medication normalizes venous outflow, in connection with this, the risk of thrombosis appears. It also reduces the tone of the vessels of the brain, so it is used for ischemic attacks.
- angina attacks;
- ischemic stroke;
- placental insufficiency;
- hemorrhagic diathesis;
- stomach ulcer;
- angina pectoris.
The drug is prescribed for adults at 75 mg up to 6 times a day. Dipyridamole is available at the pharmacy with a prescription and its price is from 450 rubles.
Nimotop has anti-ischemic and cerebrovasodilating actions.
The composition of the medication include:
- corn starch;
- magnesium stearate;
The drug is available in tablets and in a solution for injection. Nimodipine is used to treat cerebrovascular accident. Also, the drug is used for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The medication stabilizes the nervous system, positively affects memory, and improves behavioral reactions.
- ischemic attacks;
- ruptures of aneurysm;
- memory impairment;
- emotional instability.
- liver disease;
- age of 18 years;
- an allergic reaction to the substances of the drug.
Tablets are prescribed for adults 60 mg up to 6 times a day. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor. The drug is sold by prescription and its price is from 600 rubles.
In the case of heart diseases, in which a larger or smaller portion of the heart muscle suffers from a lack of oxygen, a drug of one of these groups or a drug that is a combination of two, less often three active components is used.
These are means, the “ancestor” of which is nitroglycerin. Their main indication is coronary heart disease (i.e., angina pectoris, myocardial infarction).
Their action is based on an increase in the content of the NO molecule (nitric oxide) in the vessels. NO stimulates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, and it increases the content of cGMP inside the cells of the inner layer of blood vessels. As a result, the latter are expanding.
Accepted in the form of tablets, capsules, sprays for the tongue, as well as transdermal patches, ointments and discs, their main point of application is the coronary arteries that feed the heart. If these drugs are in injections, then they are administered only intravenously drip or microjet, at a very low speed. Introduced very quickly, they greatly reduce blood pressure, but are not used for hypertension.
Nitrates reduce the amount of blood entering the heart, reduce pressure in the pulmonary artery and in the right atrium; reduce vascular spasm. The myocardium becomes easier to work, it does not have to overcome the resistance of blood vessels, therefore its oxygen demand decreases and the pain in the heart goes away if it is not caused by myocardial infarction.
Side effects: headache, which can be relieved only with menthol-containing drugs (validol, barbowal), lowering blood pressure after rising, which is manifested by dizziness, weakness, and sometimes – loss of consciousness. They also include a sensation of fever, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, diarrhea, irritability, and visual impairment.
Nitrates and nitrate-like preparations are contraindicated in:
- lowering blood pressure below 100/60 mm Hg (any of these two digits);
- acute myocardial infarction, when the filling pressure of the left ventricle is too low;
- hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy;
- angle-closure glaucoma with high intraocular pressure;
- heart rate less than 50 per minute;
- toxic pulmonary edema;
- heart tamponade;
- taking Viagra or similar substances;
- pregnancy and lactation (sidnoniminy possible from 2 trimesters, with lactation is impossible);
- with caution – with aortic and mitral stenosis.
With the constant intake of nitrates, you can not visit the bathhouse, sauna, take a hot shower and bath. If nitrates are used for a long time, insensitivity develops to them, which requires either an increase in the dose or replacement with sydnonimines.
Analogues: Gluconit, Deposit 10, Nirmin, Nitradisk, Nitro, Nitro Mack retard, Nitro-dur, Nitro-Nick, Nitroglycerin Nycomed, Nitroglycerin with glucose, Nitrocor, Nitroject, Nitrong Forte, Nitrolingval-Aerosit Nitropert Nitropert Nitroprit, Nitro Nitropert Nitro, Nitro Nitro Trent, NitroGnit, Nitro Nitro Trent, Nitro , Perlinganite, Sustak mite, Sustak forte, Sustonit, Trinitrolong.
How to use: The doctor selects the dose and treatment regimen. With an attack of angina pectoris, you can put 1 tablet under the tongue and dissolve without swallowing. The effect is after 0.5-2 minutes. If it is not there for 3-5 minutes, taking the pill (NOT RETARD and NOT FORT-form) can be repeated.
For 1 time you can no more than 3 tablets, per day – no more than 6 tablets.
Price: Nitroglycerin 500 μg capsules No. 40 – 20 r, Nitroglycerin 500 μg tablets No. 40 – 50 r, Nitrocor 500 μg No. 40 – 50 r, Nitrospray – 100 r, Nitromint aerosol 180 doses – 150 r
Analogues: Isosorbide mononitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate, Isosorbide mononitrate retard, Cardix Mono, Monizid, Monisol, Mono Mack, Mono Mack 50 D, Mono Mack Depot, Mono Rum retard, Monolong, Mononite, Monosan, Monochincve, Monochinqué retard, Olicard 40 retard 60 retard, Pectrol, Pentacard-10, 20, 40, Sorbimon, Efoks 20, Efoks long.
Active ingredient: isosorbide mononitrate.
How to use: used for long-term treatment; the dose and schedule are chosen by the doctor. Usually start from 10-20 mg 1-2 r / day, from 3-5 days you can increase to 20-40 mg * 2 r / day. Long and retard forms are prescribed ONLY by a doctor.
Price: Monosan 20 mg No. 30 – 80 r, Efoks 20 No. 50 – 130 r, Monosan 40 mg No. 30 – 150 r, Monochinkwe No. 30 – 180 r, Monochinkwe retard 50 mg No. 30 – 330 r, Pectrol retard 60 mg No. 340 – 230 r, Efoks long retard 50 mg No. 30 – 310 r.
Analogues: Dinisorb, Isacardine, Iso Mack retard, Iso Mack spray, Isoket, Isolong, Isosorbide dinitrate, Cardiket, Cardix, Nitrosorbide, Nitrosorbide-Rusfar.
Active ingredient: isosorbide dinitrate.
How to use: Only the doctor selects the dose. Forms in the form of sprays are used to stop attacks of angina pectoris: for 1 time they perform 1-3 injections under the tongue, under the control of blood pressure and pulse.
Price: Nitrosorbide 10 mg 60 tab – 25 r, Cardiket retard 20 No. 20 – 60 r, Cardiket retard 40 No. 20 – 100 r, Cardiket retard 40 mg No. 50 – 230 r, Isoket 300 doses (spray) – 400 r
S >Analogues: Dilacid, Corvaton, Corvamin, Molsidomin.
How to use: For the prevention of seizures 1-4 mg * 2-3 r / day, up to 8 mg * 1-2 r / day. For stopping attacks: 1-2 mg under the tongue.
Price: Sydnopharm 30 tab, 2 mg each – 220 r.
Analogues: Efoks 20, Efoks long.
Active substance: pentaerythritol tetranitrate.
How to use: 1 hour before meals, 10-20 mg every 4-6 hours, unless otherwise indicated.
Prices: Erinit 10 mg No. 50 – 50-65 r
They reversibly block receptors for noradrenaline and adrenaline. Receptors are special molecules located on each cell. Their set on different cells is different, which makes this or that tissue differently sensitive to hormones and other biologically active substances that exist in the body.
When the substance to which it is sensitive arrives at the receptor (in this case, adrenaline, norepinephrine, or dopamine), a certain, programmed type of reaction occurs. For example, the interaction of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors located in the walls of the smallest arteries with adrenaline / norepinephrine / dopamine causes them to cramp, which increases blood pressure.
And when these hormones interact with beta-1-adrenergic receptors that dot heart cells, the heart rate and strength will increase, which is good when saving from danger, but increases the risk of various arrhythmias. If these receptors are blocked, that is, temporarily bound to some molecule that takes the place that adrenaline / noradrenaline / dopamine usually occupies, then these hormones cannot do anything.
For the treatment of heart diseases accompanied by a lack of oxygen in the heart muscle, mainly drugs that block only beta receptors are used. They, reducing the strength and frequency of contractions, reduce the oxygen demand of the heart, which facilitates its work in conditions of plaques in the vessels supplying the heart.
At elevated pressure, the same agents are used that are listed in the previous section. Dosages are the same.
They have the same effect as ACE inhibitors, they only do not block the enzyme that turns renin into angiotensin II (it causes pressure increase), but makes its receptors insensitive to it.
Contraindications to angiotensin antagonists are:
- children’s age (ACE inhibitors are used in children).
They cause side effects such as swelling of the lips, face, and larynx (like ACE inhibitors), but more often they can trigger headaches, fainting, and fatigue.
Analogues: Vazotens, Lorista, Lozarel, Blocktran, Lozap, Cozaar.
Active substance: Losartan.
How to use: 25-50 mg / day
Prices: Vazotens 25 mg No. 30 – 80 r, Losartan 25 mg No. 30 -170 r, Lorista 25 mg No. 30 – 200 r, Cozaar 50 mg No. 14 – 260 r, Lozap 100 mg No. 30 – 320 r.
Analogues: Valsacor, Valz, Diovan.
Active substance: Valsartan.
How to use: dosage is selected by a doctor; standard – 80 mg / day, maximum – up to 640 mg / day.
Prices: Valsartan Zentiva 80 mg No. 28 – 220 r, Valsartan 160 mg No. 30 – 160 r, Valz 160 mg No. 28 – 350 r, Diovan 80 mg No. 28 – 1500 r.
Analogues: Telmista, Mikardis.
Active substance: Telmisartan.
How to use: 40 mg * 1r / day
Prices: Telzap 40 mg No. 30 – 280 r, 80 mg No. 30 – 380 r, Telmista 40 mg No. 28 – 280 r, 80 mg No. 28 – 390 r, Mikardis 80 mg No. 28 – 950 r.
First-line drugs prescribed for hypertension are beta-blockers. The main drugs of this group are discussed in the previous section, but in fact the list of such vasodilator tablets is much larger.
But often, to reduce blood pressure, it is important not only to block beta-adrenergic receptors, but also alpha-1B receptors located in small vessels. This is possible with the help of combined alpha-beta blockers: Proxodolol, Carvedilol, Labetalol. There are also drugs that, in so doing, have a “helping” effect on alpha-2 receptors, which further reduces pressure in hypertension.
If the pressure is increased due to such a tumor of the adrenal glands as pheochromocytoma, then purely alpha-blockers are used: Prazosin, Doksazozin, Alfuzozin, Tamsulozin, Terazozin.
Analogues: only in the form of eye drops.
Active substance: Proxodolol.
How to use: intravenously in a stream or drip in a dosage calculated by the doctor.
Prices: 10 ampoules of 10 mg – 1430 r
Active substance: Carvedilol.
How to use: 12,5 mg * 1 r / day for two days, then 25 mg / day is possible.
Prices: Carvedilol 6,25 mg No. 30 – 170 r, Carvedilol 12,5 mg No. 30 – 175-200 r, Carvedilol 25 mg No. 30 – 240-270 r, Dilatrend 6,5 mg No. 30 – 470 r, Dilatrend 12,5, 30 mg No. 550 – 25 r, Dilatrend 30 mg No. 660 – r.
Analogues: Biprol, Bisoprolol, Bidop, Bisogamma, Biol, Aritel, Coronal, Niperten, Bidop Cor, Concor, Cordinorm.
Active substance: Bisoprolol.
How to use: 5 mg * 1 r / day, can be increased to 10 mg / day.
Prices: Biprol 10 mg No. 30 – 70 r, Bisoprolol 5 mg No. 30 – 70 r, Bisoprolol SZ 5 mg No. 50 – 100 r, Bidop 2,5 mg No. 30 – 100 r, Aritel 5 mg No. 30 – 110 r, Coronal 5 mg No. 30 – 120 r, Niperten 5 mg No. 30 – 150 r, Cordinorm 5 mg No. 90 – 300 r.