A decrease in hemoglobin is called anemia and occurs in 30% of people. The danger is a decrease to 90-110 g / l, a value of 70 g / l and below is a dangerous condition requiring hospitalization.
- malnutrition and problems with digestibility of food,
- digestive system diseases
- the death of red blood cells due to impaired blood formation, as well as autoimmune pathologies in which the body’s own cells are destroyed,
- hypothyroidism – due to a lack of thyroid hormones in the body, iron absorption is impaired, which will certainly lead to hemoglobin deficiency,
- infectious diseases,
- malignant pathologies, especially the digestive tract and blood.
As a result of anemia, oxygen supply to the tissues of the body is difficult. Trying to maintain equilibrium, the body redistributes resources, limiting supply to organs and structures that are not vital. First of all, nails, hair, and skin suffer. Pallor, dry skin, lethargy, dull hair and cracks in the corners of the mouth are the first manifestations of reduced hemoglobin.
A further decrease leads to a lack of oxygen entering the heart and brain. A person is worried about increased fatigue, dizziness, low blood pressure and palpitations, fainting is not uncommon. In pregnant women, the manifestations are especially bright, first of all, there are disorders of smell and taste, the desire to eat chalk, lime, sand, etc., unusual for the diet. This is not a whim, but an occasion for a visit to the doctor.
In addition to appearance and well-being, the immune system and heart suffer, signs of disturbance of the nervous system appear. Sleep problems, irritability, loss of sensation of limbs, etc. In addition, deviations in reproductive function are possible.
Firstly, you should find out the cause of the ailment, but this can only be done with the help of an examination. After the detection of the underlying disease, a set of measures is selected, which includes:
- Correction of nutrition: with food in sufficient quantity, iron should enter the body, the main source of which is meat, liver, spinach, beans, etc. By the way, a diet with meat restriction often causes anemia. In addition, you should limit the use of coffee, chocolate, cereals, which inhibit the absorption of iron.
- The intake of vitamin B12 – it is important in the synthesis of hemoglobin. Today, these drugs are available in different dosage forms, and the doctor should choose the dosage.
- The exclusion of blood loss, which can be associated not only with the cycle or active donation, there may be hidden bleeding with an ulcer, hemorrhoids, polyps in the intestine.
- Inactivity is one of the negative factors affecting the state of health, including blood counts. With insufficient blood circulation due to a sedentary lifestyle, a signal is sent to the brain that the number of red blood cells is sufficient and additional production is not needed at the moment.
In the fight against low hemoglobin, do not self-medicate taking drugs that supposedly helped friends. Almost all iron-containing agents irritate the mucous membrane of the stomach, their administration will either aggravate the existing pathology or provoke the development of the disease in a healthy person.
On the “eye” to do this is impossible. Of course, there are certain signs that make it possible to suspect trouble, but, unfortunately, a woman often attributes the symptoms to fatigue, a bad mood, etc., postponing a visit to the doctor. In addition, often diseases are asymptomatic at the initial stage, and it is problematic to detect the disease at its very beginning.
Blood for examination should be taken in the morning on an empty stomach, it is allowed to drink only water. But it should be noted that the result will be inaccurate during menstruation, so it is better to postpone the examination for several days. In addition, you can not donate blood after physiotherapy procedures, ultrasound and x-ray examination, since the results will be distorted.
- The first step to preventing any disease is a balanced diet. The menu should contain in sufficient quantities all the substances necessary for the body. The exclusion or excess of a product will inevitably lead to violations. Having decided to adhere to a certain diet, it would be nice to consult a specialist, since there are products that increase hemoglobin, and those that interfere with the absorption of iron: in this case, you should not count on the effect of diet therapy. In addition, it is extremely important to observe the drinking regimen, especially on hot days or during physical activity. A healthy person should drink at least two liters of fluid per day, if there are no contraindications for this.
- Vitamins and dietary supplements – it is better to take them after consulting a doctor. In addition, you can take as much as you like taking hemoglobin-enhancing agents, but to no avail, if they are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in the proper way, which is possible with diseases of the stomach.
- An active lifestyle is an equally important aspect in the prevention of the disease. Inactivity is the cause of many diseases, including anemia. Exhausting workouts, daily walking, cycling, swimming are not required at all – there are many options!
Any ailment is an occasion to visit a doctor. Weakness, drowsiness, paleness or yellowness of the skin, dull hair and broken nails, changes in taste or eating habits, cracks in the corners of the mouth, shiny and scarlet tongue, poorly healing scratches – these and other signs are a signal of ill-being.
Oksana Matias, general practitioner
Illustrations: Julia Prososova
|hemoglobin rate for women||hemoglobin rate for men|
|120 – 160 g / l.||130 – 170 g / l|
|Biochemical blood test: Hb (average) 110-180 g / l|
From a lack of iron in the body affects 20% of the total population of the planet. In Russia, iron deficiency is diagnosed in 80% of residents.
If a person has a lack of iron with normal hemoglobin, then in this case they talk about latent anemia. In other words, his body does not absorb the necessary amount of iron ions, but true anemia has not yet manifested. If this condition is detected at an early stage and proper treatment is selected, the patient recovers without consequences for the body.
In the case when therapy is not performed, true iron deficiency anemia develops. The following stages are characteristic of the disease:
- mild when the hemoglobin content in the blood is reduced to 90 – 112 g / l. Clinical symptoms are absent or mild;
- the average at which the hemoglobin level drops to 70 – 90 g / l;
- severe – hemoglobin in the blood of less than 70 g / l.
Symptoms of anemia are manifested:
- pallor and dry skin;
- decrease in working capacity;
- desire to eat chalk, raw meat, land, etc .;
- memory impairment;
- shortness of breath;
- hair loss
- brittle nails;
- tachycardia and arrhythmia;
- muscle pains;
- yellowness of the sclera and mucous membranes;
- fatigue, etc.
Is there a difference between the “female” and “male” hemoglobin norm?
The standard values of hemoglobin in women are slightly lower, this is due to monthly blood loss. In addition, the level of testosterone – the male sex hormone, is significantly lower, and it is he who stimulates blood formation. Therefore, there is a difference between “male” and “female” hemoglobin. It should also be noted that during menstruation, hemoglobin can also fall – up to 100 g / l.
Pregnancy and hemoglobin level. There are normative values for pregnant women, because while waiting for the baby the woman experiences a tremendous load. Due to the development of the fetus, the blood volume increases, therefore, the norm is the hemoglobin indicator for pregnant women within 110-130 g / l.
Age and hemoglobin. However, the indicator is directly affected by age. With the onset of the premenopausal period, hemoglobin increases slightly. After 45-50 years in most laboratories, 160 g / l is considered the normal upper limit. By the way, high values - up to 160 g / l – are noted among athletes or women engaged in physical labor. In smokers, hemoglobin may also increase slightly.
What can cause minor deviations from the norm? Of course, minor deviations are acceptable. They can be caused by physical activity, food, environment. By the way, people who refuse meat have lower hemoglobin. Inhaling clean air increases its concentration. Even climate and seasons affect performance.
Why is hemoglobin reduced?
The norm of hemoglobin in adult women changes against the background of diseases of the blood and internal organs, as well as when maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle. Risk factors include:
- emotional stress and overstrain, which are often accompanied by a deterioration in appetite. At the same time, a woman does not receive the necessary amount of macro- and microelements, especially iron ions;
- unbalanced diet. Mono-diets are a particular danger to the female body when a single food product is included in the diet. No product is able to fully satisfy the body’s need for nutritional components. Vegetarians should be singled out separately, since the main source of iron ions is animal meat. Iron contained in vegetables cannot be fully absorbed by the human body;
- large amounts of blood loss, for example, during surgery, after injuries, childbirth or heavy menstrual bleeding;
- pathologies of the endocrine system, since hormones control the process of full absorption of iron and its deposition in the female body;
- acute intoxication and poisoning;
- diseases of an infectious or autoimmune nature that enhance the destruction of red blood cells, along with which iron-containing protein breaks down.
The causes of high hemoglobin can be very different. First of all, it is physical activity, dehydration in hot weather and even stay in hypoxia, for example, living in high mountains. However, deviations in blood counts in such cases are insignificant, and specialists are not wary.
Difficulties arise if hemoglobin is elevated for no apparent reason. Of course, the cause will still be discovered during the examination. This can be a disease of the heart or respiratory system, diabetes mellitus, intestinal infection, and also a malignant tumor. In addition, elevated hemoglobin levels can be caused by the uncontrolled use of certain drugs: diuretics, vitamins, and iron-containing drugs.
Of particular concern should be an increase in hemoglobin concentration to 180 g / l. At the same time, blood viscosity increases, microcirculation is disrupted, the flow of oxygen to organs is difficult. The patient becomes distracted, irritability and fatigue appear, appetite decreases, fingertips become cyanotic.
To reduce hemoglobin, first of all, you need to find the reason for its increase, for this you will have to undergo a specialist examination, after which treatment methods will be selected. These include:
- Prescribing blood thinners, which reduces the risk of blood clots. However, the decision to take such funds is made by the doctor after examining the patient. The danger is also represented by vitamins of groups B, C, containing iron and folic acid, which are taken uncontrollably.
- Diet therapy – is to restrict foods high in iron: meat, liver, some vegetables and fruits, chicken eggs. You should also exclude products that increase cholesterol from the menu: butter, fastwood, canned foods, convenience foods, etc.
- Specific therapy – prescribed by a doctor in accordance with the diagnosed pathology.
What can increased hemoglobin say? The fact that a person has certain processes in the body that are difficult to characterize as normal.
Most often, an increase in indicators is diagnosed in people:
- with heart and vascular disease;
- with problems in the work of the digestive tract;
- with overwork (mainly of a physical nature);
- with a “lack” of oxygen (often diagnosed by those who like to arrive in the mountains).
If the amount of iron-containing protein in the blood is increased, then the doctor may prescribe medication to the patient.
The main causes of high hemoglobin in men:
- systemic diseases of the heart, kidneys, bladder;
- severe dehydration;
- constant stress, nervous strain;
- damage to the skin (burns, wounds);
- gastrointestinal tract disease;
- oncological pathologies;
- hypovitaminosis (excessive content of B vitamins);
- intoxication, poisoning with toxic substances, drugs, etc.
A slight increase in this blood element may be normal, for example, for pilots, athletes or residents of high altitude regions. People from these categories feel quite normal with their indicators. But if the protein content increases in an ordinary person, he feels a deterioration.
In order to lower the level of hemoglobin in the bloodstream, it is necessary to eliminate the factors that increase it, and only then prescribe the optimal treatment method.
To reduce blood viscosity, you can take medications:
With increased blood viscosity, it is also necessary to adhere to certain dietary recommendations and include in the diet:
- Porridge, namely rice and buckwheat;
- Herbal teas;
- Freshly pressed juices;
- Whole wheat bread.
You should not expect instant results when even all the described recommendations are followed, since the stabilization of the hemoglobin level will take place in stages. Lowering blood viscosity should take place exclusively under the supervision of medical personnel.
How to prepare for the study?
For the analysis, it is permissible to take venous or capillary blood (vein indicators are more accurate).
Preparation for taking biomaterial is the same as for standard analysis. At least 8 hours should elapse between a visit to the laboratory and the last meal. Water can be drunk in unlimited quantities.
One of the most important training rules is to avoid physical and emotional stress in 24 hours. It is better to refuse from a bath, a sauna, hot baths and sports training.
2 to 3 hours before venipuncture, it is not recommended to drink coffee or tea, as well as smoke.
To summarize, important points should be emphasized:
- the norm of hemoglobin in a person is determined by his diet and lifestyle. Improper diet, emotional stress and associated pathologies lead to a lack of hemoglobin;
- hemoglobin is crucial for the process of oxygen transfer and tissue saturation;
- in case of deviation from the norm, it is recommended to repeat the study to confirm. Since a single deviation may occur due to improper preanalytic preparation of the patient for analysis;
- a decrease in hemoglobin during pregnancy and during menstrual blood loss is a physiological norm. However, the value of the indicator should not be less than 110 g / l;
- a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood is observed with iron deficiency anemia. A serious form of the disease is life-threatening to the patient. In the early stages, the pathology proceeds without the manifestation of pronounced clinical signs, therefore, annual monitoring and a complete blood count are extremely important for every woman.
And also: Everything about hemoglobin in pregnant women in trimesters
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