The very first pressure measuring devices were the “bloody” devices of Stephen Gales, in which a needle was attached to a vessel attached to a tube with a scale. The Italian Riva-Rocci put an end to the bloodshed by proposing to attach a mercury monometer to the cuff placed on the shoulder.
Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkov in 1905 proposed to attach a mercury monometer to the cuff placed on the shoulder and listen to pressure with the ear. Air was pumped out from the cuff of the pear, the vessels were compressed. Then the air slowly returned to the cuff, and the pressure on the vessels weakened. Using a stethoscope on the vessels of the elbow, tones of the pulse were heard. The first strokes indicated the level of systolic blood pressure, the last – diastolic.
Modern monometers are electronic devices that can do without a stethoscope and record the pressure and heart rate.
- Normal pressure and pulse
- What Doctors Say About Hypertension
- How to measure blood pressure
- How to increase blood pressure in adults, if necessary?
- Coffee and pressure
- Increased blood pressure
- Causes and symptoms
- How can to lower
- Low blood pressure
- Pregnancy pressure
- What diseases can we talk about?
- Reasons for high blood pressure
Normal pressure and pulse
What is normal human blood pressure? An important point is that in children, adolescents and adults, in men and women there are differences in the norms of blood pressure and heart rate.
Standards for age are presented in the tables below.
|Up to 2 weeks||67 on 40||96 on 50|
|2-4 weeks||80 on 40||112 on 74|
|8 weeks-1 year||90 on 50||112 on 74|
|Before 1,5 years||100 on 60||112 on 74|
|3-5 years||100 on 60||114 on 72|
|6-9 years||106 on 674||125 on 75|
There are a number of factors that affect the level of blood pressure in a child:
- Age – the older the child, the higher the pressure, this is due to the fact that the vessels develop and their tone rises;
- Growth – the lower the child, the lower his blood pressure;
- Weight – the more weight, the higher the blood pressure;
- Gender – boys have higher blood pressure than girls.
It is advisable to show the child in such cases to a specialist for making an accurate diagnosis, but there is a possibility that after a certain time the situation will stabilize and there will be no need to prescribe medications for treatment. It is much more important that the child’s lifestyle is correct. If the child is engaged in physical activity, blood pressure may be elevated. This is due to the fact that during exercise, increased vascular tone.
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|10-12 years||110 on 70||127 on 70|
|12-15 years||116 on 70||136 on 76|
|15-20 years||110 on 70||130 on 90|
In adolescents, the normal value can be increased, this is due to the restructuring of the hormonal background, the so-called puberty. At this time, it is important to visit a cardiologist and endocrinologist so as not to miss the moment when treatment is needed. If the doctor has not revealed any pathologies, then the blood pressure will return to normal during the process of growing up the child.
|20||122 on 76||117 on 72|
|30||124 on 79||120 on 75|
|40||129 on 81||127 on 79|
|50||137 on 82||137 on 85|
|60||142 on 85||144 on 85|
What is normal adult blood pressure? As you can see, in an adult, systolic blood pressure norms increase with age, and diastolic norms decrease. This is due to the structure of the body, blood vessels lose their elasticity and tone. High blood pressure is almost always hereditary.
It is important to note that in women aged 35-40, the average blood pressure of 150 to 80 is normal, although this is not within the normal range, but it is not cause for concern, this indicator is associated with gender and structural features of the female body.
In each individual case, the causes are purely individual, related to the peculiar structure of the body, and it is accurate to know whether medical care is needed and should only be provided by a doctor after diagnosis.
Often the scale rises in pregnant girls, this is due to the fact that during pregnancy hormonal changes in the body occur, organs are compressed when the fetus is born, this carries an additional burden on the heart and blood vessels of the body. But, if after birth the blood pressure has not returned to the previous norm, a doctor’s consultation is necessary.
What Doctors Say About Hypertension
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor G. Emelyanov:
I have been treating hypertension for many years. According to statistics, in 89% of cases, hypertension results in a heart attack or stroke and a person dies. About two-thirds of patients now die during the first 5 years of the disease.
The following fact – it is possible and necessary to relieve pressure, but this does not cure the disease itself. The only medicine officially recommended by the Ministry of Health for the treatment of hypertension and used by cardiologists in their work is Normaten. The drug acts on the cause of the disease, which makes it possible to completely get rid of hypertension. In addition, under the federal program, every resident of the Russian Federation can get it for FREE.
In addition to measuring the norm of blood pressure, it is very important to measure the level of the optimal value of your heart rate, since only in conjunction with blood pressure indicators, you can judge the state of the body.
|Age||Norm, beats per minute|
|Before 7 years||90 – 95|
|10 – 12 years||78 – 128|
|13-17||55 – 111|
|20 – 30 years||80 – 85|
|20-60 years||65 – 70|
At the age of 60, it is necessary to constantly monitor your pulse, as this will first of all reveal the pathology of cardiac activity and take the necessary measures to maintain health. An increase in heart rate may indicate an excessive production of thyroid hormones.
There is no exact answer to the question what pressure is considered normal – healthy indicators are individual for each person. Therefore, the mean values were calculated:
figures 120/80 – ev w>
The norm of pressure in children:
- infant age is approximately 80/45;
- older children are approximately 110/70.
In adolescence (up to 18 years), the minimum normal pressure averages 120/70; in boys, systolic pressure is approximately 10 mmHg. higher than girls. Ideal blood pressure in a teenager is up to 125/70.
Sometimes, values over 140/90 are recorded in adolescents (with repeated measurement, at least twice); these indicators may indicate the presence of hypertension, which should be monitored and, if necessary, treated. In adolescents under the age of 18, the presence of hypertension increases the risk of heart and vascular diseases (without prophylaxis) up to 50 years of age by 3-4 times.
Low blood pressure in the teenage population is indicated by blood pressure values: for girls – less than 100/60, for boys – less than 100/70.
During the day, pressure changes occur:
- the lowest rates are usually recorded in the morning, around 3 a.m.
- the highest values are around 8: 00-11: 00, then around 16: 00-18: 00.
Blood pressure can rise or fall as a result of the effects of weather, physical stress, stress, fatigue, temperature (body and environment), quality of sleep, drinking regimen, and even different positions of the body. Therefore, with orthostatic hypotension, it is necessary to measure values in different positions.
- adults 18 years and older – from 140/90 – these indicators are measured several times in a row;
- babies – over 85/50;
- older children – above 120/80;
- diabetic patients – above 130/80;
- people with renal pathologies – above 120/80.
- adult males – below 100/60;
- adult women – below 100/70.
Blood pressure (normal age) to a certain extent depends on gender. The upper (systolic) and lower (diastolic) indicators below are approximate. The minimum and maximum blood pressure can vary not only at different ages, but also depending on the time and what a person does. An important factor is a lifestyle, sometimes for a particular person, it would seem that the norm is seemingly high or low rates.
|at 20 years old – 24 years old||120||79|
|30 years – 34 years||122||81|
|40 years – 44 years||125||83|
The norm of blood pressure by age for men – table
What should be normal blood pressure in pregnant women? The pressure norm is 135/85, ideally, about 120/80. Indicators of 140/90 indicate mild hypertension, with the lower (diastolic) value more important than the upper (systolic). Severe hypertension at this time is a pressure of 160/110. But why do some pregnant women have high blood pressure if they have not encountered a similar problem before?
Experts believe that the placenta is to blame. It releases a substance into the blood that can cause constriction of blood vessels. Narrow blood vessels can not only retain water in the body, but, above all, increase blood pressure. However, it is often difficult to determine what normal pressure a pregnant woman has, due to fluctuations in performance. Standard values are taken as a basis along with factors influencing them (body weight, lifestyle . ).
Pulse pressure (PD) is the difference between the upper and lower blood pressure. How much is its normal value? A healthy indicator is about 50. The pulse can be calculated from the measured values (table of pressure values by age – see above). High PD is a greater risk for the patient.
A condition in which an increased heart rate (PD) is considered a predictor of vascular, cardiac, and mortality. Parameters established by the 24-hour ambulatory control Blood pressure, compared with random parameters, is more closely correlated with target organs.
|20 years||123 on 76||116 on 72|
|30 years||126 on 79||120 on 75|
|40 years||129 on 81||127 on 80|
|50 years||135 on 83||135 on 84|
|60-65 years||135 on 85||135 on 85|
|Older than 65||135 on 89||135 on 89|
How to measure blood pressure
Blood pressure is written as 2 numbers separated by a slash. 1st value – systolic, 2nd – diastolic. In order to determine deviations or normal indicators of blood pressure, it is important to measure it correctly.
- Use only an accurate and reliable blood pressure monitor.
Without the right device, you won’t get reliable results. Therefore, a good tonometer is the basis.
Sit down and stop thinking about worries, you should be completely at ease. From the measurement process, make a small ritual that is carried out in the morning and in the evening – always at the same time of day.
Put the cuff directly on the skin, always choose its width according to the circumference of the hand – a narrow or too wide cuff greatly affects the measurement results. Measure the circumference of the arm 3 cm above the elbow.
Keep the arm on which the cuff is worn free, do not move it. At the same time, make sure that the sleeve is not squeezing the hand. Do not forget to breathe. Holding your breath distorts the results.
– At a usual tonometer put a hand on a table.
– At the automatic tonometer (on the wrist), the wrist should be at the level of the heart.
- Wait 3 minutes and repeat the measurement.
Leave the cuff and wait about 3 minutes. Then take measurements again.
- Record the average of two measurements
Record the values indicated by the scale: systole (upper) and diastole (lower) from each measurement. Their average is the result.
Blood pressure measurement can be performed using invasive methods. These methods give the most accurate results, but the patient is more burdened by the need to place the sensor directly into the bloodstream. This method is used, in particular, to determine the pressure in the lungs or, if necessary, repeated measurements. In such cases, it is impossible to use non-invasive methods due to deformation of arterial memory and the associated change in pressure in the arteries.
Fluctuations in blood pressure are just as dangerous as high blood pressure; some experts consider unstable deviations from the norm to be even worse. Vessels undergo significant changes and influences, so blood clots are more easily torn away from the vascular walls and cause thrombosis, embolism or increased heart pressure, therefore, increase the risk of heart and vascular diseases.
The most common causes of upper and lower pressure fluctuations in the upper side include:
- age (normal indicators also increase depending on age);
- hyperlipidemia (usually due to poor lifestyle).
The mechanism of development of oscillations in the upper direction:
- increase in stroke volume;
- increased peripheral resistance;
- a combination of both factors.
Reasons for increasing stroke volume:
- an increase in heart rate (sympathetic activity, reaction to the effects of catecholamine – for example, hyperthyroidism);
- an increase in the amount of extracellular fluid (excessive fluid intake, kidney disease).
Reasons for increasing peripheral resistance:
- increased sympathetic activity and vascular reactivity;
- increased blood viscosity;
- high impulse volume;
- some autoregulatory mechanisms.
Causes of downward oscillations, which are also applicable to the development of hypotension:
- dehydration, blood loss, diarrhea, burns, adrenal insufficiency – factors that reduce the amount of blood in the vascular system;
- pathological changes and heart diseases – myocardial infarction and inflammatory processes;
- neurological disorders – Parkinson’s disease, inflammation of the nerves;
- fluctuations can occur with increased physical and psychological stress, stress;
- sudden change in body position from lying to standing;
- a low value may cause some medications – diuretics, sedatives, antihypertensive drugs.
Initially, high blood pressure may remain asymptomatic. With an increase in the usual (normal) value over 140/90, the most common symptoms are presented as follows:
- headache – especially in the forehead and neck;
- increased heart rate;
- acceleration of heartbeat;
- excessive sweating;
- ophthalmic disorders (visual disturbances);
- noise in ears;
- nasal hemorrhage;
- disturbance of consciousness;
- swelling of the ankles;
- decreased breathing.
Some of these symptoms for a person are not suspicious, because often mean age-related disorders. Therefore, hypertension is often diagnosed by chance.
Malignant hypertension is a condition in which the lower and upper borders increase significantly – even up to 250/130 or more. Dangerous values can persist for several days, hours, and only a few minutes; pressure with these indicators increases the risk of damage to blood vessels in the kidneys, retina, or brain.
Normal blood pressure is a parameter that varies depending on a person’s activity. For example, with physical exertion, emotional stress, blood pressure rises, with a sharp rise can fall. Therefore, to obtain reliable parameters, blood pressure should be measured in the morning without getting out of bed. In this case, the tonometer should be located at the level of the patient’s heart. The arm with the cuff should lie horizontally at the same level.
Such a phenomenon as “white coat hypertension” is known, when the patient, regardless of treatment, stubbornly gives an increase in blood pressure in the presence of a doctor. Also, blood pressure can be slightly increased by running up the stairs or straining the muscles of the legs and hips while measuring. To have a more detailed idea of the level of blood pressure of a given person, the doctor may recommend keeping a diary where the pressure is recorded at different times of the day.
How to determine blood pressure? It is measured by special devices – tonometers, which are manual and automatic. The result of the tonometer measurement is the upper (systolic) and lower (diastolic) pressure. Systolic – at the time of contraction of the heart, determines the degree of myocardial functioning, and diastolic – at the moment of relaxation of the heart muscle, determines the degree of vascular contraction.
Before measuring it is important:
- do not smoke, do not take food and drinks;
- Do not burden yourself with physical activity;
- take a sitting position, rest your back on a chair, put your hand on the table, at heart level;
- sit silently and not move;
Systolic and diastolic pressure is the force of blood flow through the vessels at the time of contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. To obtain reliable results, during the measurement of blood pressure, observe some recommendations:
- 40 minutes before the measurement exclude the use of salted, spicy and fried foods, strong tea and coffee, as well as no smoking;
- excessive physical activity affects the results, therefore, one hour before the measurements, you need to engage in quiet activities;
- take a comfortable sitting or semi-sitting posture;
- the hand involved in the measurement is taken to the side and placed on a hard surface;
- to establish the exact result, two measurements are taken at intervals of 2-3 minutes.
Measurement is carried out by a mechanical or electronic tonometer. The cuff is set 6 cm above the elbow. A stethoscope is put on a bend and a pulse is heard at the moment of air descent. The first knock defines the upper bounds. Gradually, the intensity of the tones decreases, and the last sonorous beat denotes the lower bounds.
How to increase blood pressure in adults, if necessary?
Since different people have their own physiological characteristics, fluctuations in blood pressure levels in different people may vary.
First of all, it is necessary to establish a mode of sleep and physical activity. It is important to regularly replenish the body with the necessary vitamins and minerals in order to maintain immunity. You need to eat more foods rich in vitamins: meat, fish, hard cheeses, black tea, coffee and chocolate. If you resort to the use of medicines, then drugs such as Citramon, Papazol, Gutron are recommended.
A variety of sources suggest that there are disagreements about the relationship between drinking green tea and blood pressure. So, some sources claim that green tea raises it, while others – which lowers it. In general, green tea in any form (both cold and hot) contains a lot of useful substances and antioxidants, which tend to normalize a person’s pressure, having a beneficial effect on his cardiovascular system.
Coffee and pressure
Everyone knows the fact that coffee is a drink that increases blood pressure, this is due to the ability of caffeine. Yes, indeed, people who suffer from high blood pressure are not recommended to drink coffee, but drinking 1-2 cups of coffee a day is considered normal. But do not forget the fact that coffee is not able to raise blood pressure to a critical level.
In some cases, a person has the power to protect himself from problems caused by a violation of blood pressure, and from concomitant diseases. You need to monitor your health from adolescence in order to please your family and friends for a long time with excellent health.
Increased blood pressure
Pressure increases due to many unfavorable factors, the symptoms are unpleasant and cause serious consequences.
|Degree of hypertension||Minimum values||Maximum performance|
|Borderline state with hypertension||129/87||139/88|
|First degree hypertension||139/91||160/100|
|Hypertension of the second degree||161/101||179/110|
|Hypertension of the third degree||180/111||210/121|
|Fourth degree hypertension||Above 210/121|
Causes and symptoms
Measurement results may increase as a result of the following adverse factors:
- lack of rest, stress, excitement;
- improper nutrition containing harmful foods;
- smoking, excessive alcohol consumption;
- diseases of the internal organs.
Hypertension develops in patients with burdened heredity and the presence of diabetes mellitus.
In addition to the tonometer, a decrease in pressure indicates an increase in pressure. Dizziness, headache, heart rate, redness of the face, sweating, nausea, tinnitus, weakness may bother you.
How can to lower
In the case of increasing the tonometer, take a horizontal position, put several pillows under the head and provide access to fresh air. Warm foot baths will help expand blood vessels and improve blood flow from the head. If the condition allows, take a contrast shower or lie for 12 minutes in a bathtub with warm water.
In chronic hypertension, the doctor prescribes medications that can prevent hypertensive crisis in time. Effective drugs with fast action are: Captopril, Verapamil, Bisoporolol, Valsartan.
Low blood pressure
Lowered human blood pressure is also a pathology that can occur with an improper lifestyle. Any deviation from the normal indicator is an occasion to consult a specialist. Indicators may vary by age.
The main reasons for the decline are:
- hereditary predisposition;
- change of residence and climatic conditions;
- inadequate diet;
- bad habits.
Symptoms of low blood pressure, its features are usually as follows:
- lethargy, drowsiness;
- sweating and numbness of the feet and hands;
- joint pain;
- weather dependence.
The consequences of low blood pressure can be: a deterioration in the quality of life, high fatigue and the risk of such serious diseases as: osteochondrosis, gastric ulcer, anemia, heart failure and rheumatism.
Less dangerous is the lowering of the measurement results. In the event that low indicators are accompanied by a deterioration in the state of health, it is necessary to consult a doctor to determine the cause and receive recommendations.
|Degree of hypotension||Minimum level, mmHg||Maximum level, mmHg|
|Slight drop||90 on 60||100 on 65|
|Moderate hypotension||69 on 41||89 on 60|
|Severe hypotension||51 on 37||68 on 39|
In healthy pregnant women, blood pressure does not change until the sixth month of pregnancy. Blood pressure is normal in non-pregnant women.
Further, under the influence of hormones, some increases can be observed, not exceeding 10 mm from the norm. In pathological pregnancy, gestosis can occur with jumps in blood pressure, damage to the kidneys and brain (preeclampsia), or even the development of seizures (eclampsia). Pregnancy with arterial hypertension can worsen the course of the disease and provoke hypertensive crises or a persistent increase in blood pressure. In this case, the correction of drug therapy, observation by a therapist or treatment in a hospital is indicated.
What diseases can we talk about?
As a result of pressure reduction, blood flow slows down. Internal organs receive oxygen and nutrients in limited quantities. The brain and heart suffer most from this condition.
Hypotension may develop against the background of:
- cardiac pathologies: arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis;
- lesions of the endocrine system: hypothyro >
A patient who has low blood pressure may feel dizzy, weak, drowsy, headache, or nausea. The skin turns pale, the pulse quickens, or weakens. If hypotension is a consequence of the disease, then other characteristic signs join.
Reasons for high blood pressure
- Essential arterial hypertension (hypertension, see drugs with high blood pressure) gives persistent increases in pressure and hypertensive crises.
- Symptomatic hypertension (adrenal tumors, renal vascular disease) gives the clinic a similar hypertension.
- Vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by episodes of jumps in blood pressure, not exceeding 140 to 90, which are accompanied by autonomic symptoms.
- An isolated increase in lower pressure is inherent in renal pathologies (developmental abnormalities, glomerulonephritis, renal vascular atherosclerosis, or their stenosis). If the diastolic pressure exceeds 105 mmHg. for more than two years, the risk of cerebral catastrophes has increased by 10, and heart attack by five times.
- Systolic blood pressure rises more often in the elderly, people with thyroid pathologies, patients with anemia and heart defects.
- An increase in pulse pressure is a serious risk of heart attack or stroke.
With little hypotension, people live quite fully. When the upper blood pressure drops significantly, for example, in shock, the lower blood pressure is also very low. This leads to centralization of blood circulation, multiple organ failure and the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Thus, for a long and full life, a person should monitor his pressure and keep it within the physiological norm.
The basis for the prevention of hypotension and hypertension are the rules of a healthy lifestyle:
- excessive intake of salt, fatty, salty, spicy foods should be excluded from the diet;
- moderate physical activity, which must alternate with relaxation;
- It is worth getting rid of bad habits.