What is the risk of bradycardia complications and consequences

What is the danger of bradycardia of the heart, and what types of it happens, we will talk further.

Differences in the symptoms of manifestations of bradycardia of the heart subdivide it into the following varieties:

  • Absolute form is a condition diagnosed without additional clinical studies. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of the patient’s pulse measurement data.
  • A relative form of pathology, the occurrence of which is associated with the action of a certain factor – disease, injury. A known case is the development of sinus bradycardia in athletes.
  • Moderate sinus bradycardia, which often develops in children and manifests itself with respiratory arrhythmia.
  • Extracardial variety, the causes of bradycardia in adults of this form – a violation of the functions of internal organs.
  • A toxic form that develops against the background of poisoning.
  • Medicinal or reflex bradycardia resulting from taking certain medications.
  • A physiological form that appears against the background of natural causes (hypothermia, sleep) and does not cause particular suspicion.

Successful treatment of this disorder depends entirely on identifying the cause of bradycardia in adults and eliminating the sources of its development.

Infants are characterized by a high heart rate. So, during the first month of a child’s life, it is about 140 beats per minute, and by the year it drops to 100 beats per minute. Observation of a lower pulse in a small patient is the reason for his examination for the development of heart rhythm disturbance.

Pediatric bradycardia is divided into two main varieties:

  • absolute form, independent of external factors;
  • a relative variety that develops under certain circumstances.

A common cause of pathology in children is a hereditary predisposition. So, if there is a violation in the mother or father, it can be diagnosed in the child.

If the fetus, being in the womb, experienced hypoxia, there is a high probability of detecting a baby’s heart bradycardia in the future. The development of such a pathological condition as nuclear jaundice can provoke a decrease in the number of heart contractions. The disease is accompanied by an increase in the number of bilirubin contained in the blood of the bile pigment, which over time begins to inhibit the work of the heart.

Symptoms of sinus bradycardia in children are manifested in the following signs:

  • worsening of well-being;
  • weakness and drowsiness;
  • rapid breakdown regardless of the intensity of the load;
  • discomfort in the chest;
  • shortness of breath.

Small patients cannot clearly describe their feelings, and therefore parents should carefully monitor the behavior of their children. It is necessary to pay attention to the apathy of the baby, lethargy, dizziness and the inability to concentrate. Older children may experience chest pain in addition to these symptoms. It is worth remembering that the listed symptoms are not the norm.

It is necessary to timely examine small patients. Ignoring in this case can lead to a complete thinning of the walls of the heart and death – that’s why bradycardia of the heart is dangerous.

The detection of bradycardia in adolescents does not pose such a danger to their health as to young children. The development of pathology during this period is most often associated with the active growth of the patient and the hormonal boom, to which the heart has not yet had time to adapt. With puberty, when a balance is reached between these changes and the mechanism of their regulation by the central nervous system, the violation disappears without causing significant harm to the adolescent’s body.

An increase in heart rate is a common manifestation of pregnancy. But in some cases, patients have a decrease in this indicator – bradycardia. The occurrence of pathology in pregnant women can be associated with both common causes and a regularly increasing uterus. With the growth of the fetus, it expands, gradually oppressing the other organs of the woman.

Most often, the violation does not pose a risk to the normal state of the patient and the fetus, and therefore does not require special therapy. But in some cases, a failure of the heart rhythm can become a source of general malaise, dizziness of the patient. To eliminate these symptoms and improve the health of the pregnant woman, the use of green tea and dark chocolate in small quantities is recommended.

Any woman is worried about the condition of her child, and therefore long-term monitoring of a patient with bradycardia or the difficult transfer of her symptoms is a reason for an additional examination of the fetus. For this purpose, the doctor prescribes the patient a detailed Doppler examination of the fetus.

It should be remembered that the fetus itself cannot, like a mother, suffer from a low number of heart contractions. Being in her womb, he can experience only oxygen starvation (hypoxia). If this pathology is detected, the doctor prescribes a special therapy to the patient, which helps restore fetal oxygen supply.

Detection of hypoxia in the last trimester of pregnancy entails a cesarean section. This deviation refers to pathological conditions that the patient can diagnose on his own. So, using a stopwatch, you can count the number of heart contractions. Observation of a stably low indicator relative to the norm indicates a violation.

Diagnosis of other forms of pathology includes the following procedures:

  • ECG removal, since bradycardia on the ECG is clearly visible, and this is one of the most accurate methods for determining sinus bradycardia;
  • analysis of the daily electrocardiogram to clarify the diagnosis;
  • clinical trials – general and biochemical blood tests, hormonal diagnostics, ultrasound of the heart.

Bradycardia causes heart failure and other negative consequences.

If the symptoms of the disease do not appear, and the person does not feel discomfort, then bradycardia is not life threatening. However, its appearance indicates the presence in the body of a pathology that must be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. Then both bradycardia and the main disease will not progress; it will be possible to restore health.

The most common consequences of the disease appear in the form of:

  • Chronic seizures associated with the physiology of the body. Treatment in this case does not help, because the patient often has dizziness, loss in space, weakness. It is impossible to overcome the disease, because drugs are prescribed to suppress the symptoms.
  • Blood clots, the formation of which is most characteristic of people in old age with frequent attacks. Due to improper heart rate, blood remains in the ventricle, gradually forming a blood clot. From the heart, he can get into any vessel and hammer it. Such a complication leads to the most deplorable consequences, therefore, if a patient is suspected, they are referred for examination, and then special treatment is prescribed.
  • Heart failure when the left ventricle is defective. This leads to a malfunction in blood pressure and poor blood flow to the organs. As a result, the likelihood of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease increases.

First of all, the brain suffers from impaired blood circulation: a small amount of oxygen enters it. Hypoxia contributes to convulsions and loss of consciousness. These are the most dangerous symptoms of bradycardia, which can result in pulmonary or cardiac arrest, and therefore require urgent medical attention.

Bradycardia is not a disease in itself, but a symptom of many different ailments, and non-specific. The pulse rate does not correlate with the severity of the disease. If this symptom is detected, a thorough examination is necessary, because the consequences of bradycardia can be most severe.

Heart contractions are considered to be slow if their frequency becomes:

  • less than 60 per minute in adults;
  • less than 60-70 per minute in children from 1 to 6 years;
  • less than 100 per minute in infants.

Rare heart contractions lead to the fact that blood circulation slows down, tissues and organs lack oxygen and nutrients, and metabolism slows down. Against the background of starvation of vital systems and organs, a person feels:

  • weakness;
  • cold sweat;
  • fatigue even after the usual work;
  • dizziness;
  • darkening of the eyes;
  • visual impairment due to flickering flies;
  • loss of consciousness (duration of fainting depends on the severity of the disease).

But why is bradycardia dangerous? And the fact that if you do not start treating it in a timely manner, then insufficient blood supply and the symptoms that arise in this connection can provoke the following complications:

  • ischemic myocardial lesions, accompanied by attacks of angina pectoris of varying intensity;
  • the occurrence of chronic circulatory failure;
  • VVD, often hypotonic type, but the development of hypertension is possible;
  • Morgagni-Adams-Stokes attacks, when a sudden fainting is accompanied by convulsions caused by cerebral hypoxia (it differs from an epileptic seizure in that it occurs suddenly, there are no precursors characteristic of epilepsy);
  • sudden cardiac arrest.

In children with bradycardia, the symptoms are more pronounced than in adults and carry a greater health hazard. This is due to the fact that in a child’s body the processes of adaptation to an unfavorable factor are not sufficiently developed and the distribution of income for nutrition of vital organs is not always complete.

Bradycardia of the heart is physiological or organic. It manifests itself in different ways, which is associated with the cause of its occurrence. The danger of pathological bradycardia is the development of attacks of loss of consciousness. From the side of the heart, there are consequences of varying severity. Slow rhythm lends itself to a conservative and surgical form of treatment.

The clinical manifestations of rhythm decline correspond to the degree of disturbance of cerebral and coronary circulation. Consequences of bradycardia:

  • A decrease in the pulse rate during atrial fibrillation indicates a serious complication – Frederick’s syndrome.
  • Slowing of blood circulation affects brain cells. One of the dangerous consequences is Morgagni-Adams-Stokes syndrome (MAS). After a sudden loss of consciousness, the skin becomes sharply pale. After 15-20 seconds, convulsions begin. Pulse is rare or not felt. The condition is dangerous, requires medical intervention. With a prolonged attack of MAS, respiratory arrest may occur.
  • A decrease in heart rate of less than 40 in 1 minute is life threatening – it often ends in death.
  • In old age, against the background of cerebral arteriosclerosis, bradycardia can be complicated by ischemic stroke. From the side of the heart, with a rare pulse of 50 beats per 1 minute, chronic coronary ischemia develops. In older people, a combination of atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis with a rare pulse leads to heart failure.

Types of arrhythmias

In a healthy person, the departments of the heart evenly contract and relax, pumping blood. Normally, heart rate (HR) is between 60 and 90 beats per minute. You can register this indicator by putting a clock with a second hand in front of you and simply counting the pulse on the radial artery. Normally, it should be of good filling and tension, uniform, that is, between the two strokes the same time should pass. If the heart rhythm is broken, then this condition is called arrhythmia. It can be of several types.

What is bradycardia and tachycardia? This question arises in those happy people who have not encountered heart diseases closely. These are two polar rhythm disturbances. Tachycardia is an increase in the number of heart contractions over a hundred beats per minute. There is another type of arrhythmia – extrasystole. It is characterized by premature heart contractions.

What is bradycardia and tachycardia? This question arises in those happy people who have not encountered heart diseases closely. These are two polar rhythm disturbances. Tachycardia is an increase in the number of heart contractions over a hundred beats per minute. There is another type of arrhythmia – extrasystole.

It is characterized by premature heart contractions. Answering the question of what is bradycardia, we can say that this is a decrease in the number of heart contractions to 55 and below. As a rule, such an rhythm disturbance in the early stages has no clinical signs and is detected during a routine examination.

If you, being interested in what sinus bradycardia of the heart is, and counting the pulse, find out that it is below 50, you should not panic and call an ambulance. Those people who play sports or physical labor, bradycardia is not uncommon. However, they do not experience any unpleasant sensations, that is, the volume of blood flowing to the brain does not decrease.

This is due to the fact that, due to the constant load, their respiratory and cardiovascular systems are more developed than in the average person. Thus, the question of what is bradycardia, loses relevance for them. Its occurrence in a healthy person is possible in a stressful situation, with severe fatigue and after a long stay in the cold or in a hot and humid climate (or, for example, in a steam room).

Analyzing what bradycardia is and how dangerous it is, it must be mentioned that a pathological decrease in heart rate can be caused by several reasons. And one of them is the oppression of the pacemaker. This occurs due to a decrease in the tone of the sympathetic nervous system or increased excitation of the vagus nerve. In turn, the reason for these phenomena can be such humoral factors as a high content of bile acids in the blood, low levels of thyroid hormones. The development of bradycardia in this case can be triggered by the following factors:

  • neuroses;
  • vegetative-vascular dysfunction;
  • high intracranial pressure;
  • taking certain medications;
  • high levels of potassium in the blood;
  • myxedema;
  • infectious diseases.

Speaking about what bradycardia is, the following should be noted: heart block can also become its cause (impulse transmission to various parts of the organ is disrupted). However, it can be sinoauricular. Atrial impulse transmission occurs when currents are transmitted from the sinus node to the myocardium every other time. It may be atrioventricular.

In this case, impaired impulse transmission occurs in the ventricles? and part of their contractions simply falls out of the rhythm of the heart. In the development of such blockades, three degrees are distinguished.

In the first case, there is a slight decrease in the rate of impulse transmission to the ventricles, in the second – not all of them reach, and in the third there is a decrease in the number of contractions, caused by the blockade of the conducting system.

Well, finally we got to the most important thing. We will answer the main questions: “Sinus bradycardia – what is it and what are its symptoms?” It should be noted that in most cases this pathology proceeds unnoticed and is detected by accident during routine examinations. Only with the transition to a chronic form, the disease begins to actively manifest itself.

This is due to the fact that as a result of a decrease in the frequency of contractions, the blood volume, as well as the amount of oxygen and glucose entering the brain, is reduced. In the early stages, the disease manifests itself as weakness, dizziness, cold sweat. Sleep and memory are disturbed. Patients complain of feelings of anxiety, sinking hearts, shortness of breath.

Despite the apparent insignificance of the symptoms, in order to understand sinus bradycardia – what it is and what real danger it poses, it is enough to consider the symptoms that appear when the process goes into the acute stage. Here, signs of brain hypoxia are pronounced heart failure.

In addition, the patient may be pursued by pain in the heart (angina pectoris), darkening in the eyes, frequent moments of confused consciousness (fainting). Severe bradycardia may be complicated by a symptom of Morgagni-Adams-Stokes. It is manifested by loss of consciousness, a sharp pallor of the skin, respiratory failure, convulsions.

It must be remembered that if the interval between ventricular contractions exceeds 15 seconds, then cardiac arrest and clinical death are possible.

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Moderate bradycardia is considered if the heart rate falls within the range of 55 to 45 beats per minute. As a rule, it is asymptomatic or manifests itself in small vegetative disorders.

The reason for it most often is an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve, which is responsible for the contractile function of the heart.

Clinically moderate bradycardia may manifest as increased fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath.

Sadly, this disease can manifest itself at any age, and the diagnosis of sinus bradycardia in children is quite often noted. What is it in adults, we examined, however, in young patients, the pathology will have slightly different criteria. The heart of the child beats more often, so the indicators change. Diagnosis of bradycardia in children is possible in the following cases:

  • if the heart rate in a newborn is below 100 beats per minute;
  • in children from one year to six years – less than 70;
  • in adolescents – from 60 and below.

As a rule, such deviations from the normal rhythm, even if they do not have any external manifestations, do not lead to anything good and in the future can cause the development of many pathological conditions.

Therefore, the sooner bradycardia is detected, its cause is determined and treatment is prescribed, the more chances to avoid the complications that brain hypoxia can cause. The reasons that caused this pathology are also different.

Often it can be caused by such ordinary things as breath holding, fear or impressions accumulated during the day (for many children, the heartbeat in the evening is much lower than in the morning). In addition, bradycardia can cause:

  • neurosis, endocrine disorders in adolescents;
  • fetal hypoxia;
  • increase in intracranial pressure;
  • infectious diseases;
  • fast growth;
  • lead poisoning, nicotine;
  • hypothyroidism.

During this disease, three stages of development can be distinguished. If the first bradycardia appears only as a slight deterioration in well-being and it can be determined only with the help of laboratory diagnostics, then in the second stage its manifestations are already more pronounced. You can suspect this pathology in a child if he presents the following complaints:

  • lethargy, fatigue, dizziness;
  • decreased appetite;
  • shortness of breath, shortness of breath;
  • cold sweat, loss of consciousness;
  • distraction;
  • chest pain, slow pulse;
  • pressure jumps.

Despite all these symptoms, moderate bradycardia does not pose a threat to the life of the child and is perfectly treated. However, the third stage of the disease can cause serious pathological changes both in the myocardium and in other organs and have very serious consequences, including death. That is why it is important to promptly identify bradycardia and begin its treatment.

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Bradycardia treatment

What is bradycardia and how to treat it? These questions become vital for those who have been diagnosed with this. It should be noted that this pathology refers to those diseases that require drug therapy only in case of severe clinical manifestations. If you have been given a similar diagnosis, but there are no special deviations in the vital functions of the body, no treatment is carried out.

  • “Atropine” – after three hours, intravenously, 2 milligrams or subcutaneously, 0,5-1,0 milligrams;
  • “Isoproterenol” – intravenous drip up to 4 milligrams;
  • “Alupent” – infusion (10 milligrams per 500 milliliters of saline);
  • extracts of eleutherococcus or ginseng;
  • belladonna preparations.

In severe cases, treatment is carried out in a hospital and is aimed at stabilizing hemodynamics and eliminating the causes of bradycardia. The dose of drugs is determined by the doctor for each patient individually.

In cases where bradycardia is associated with the natural aging of the body or it cannot be stabilized with the help of drug therapy, pacing is prescribed.

Indications for this intervention are a decrease in heart rate to 30-40 beats per minute, frequent loss of consciousness, symptoms of MAS, signs of heart failure. The procedure is performed using a probe, which is inserted through the subclavian vein into the heart cavity.

In this case, pacemaker can be both temporary (in acute disorders) and permanent. The procedure is constantly carried out using implantation of a pacemaker. Modern models are a device, the size of which is no more than a watch and weighing less than 100 grams.

About the disease and its danger

In bradycardia, the sinus rhythm controlled by the sinus node, that is, the “driver” of the entire heart rhythm, is disturbed. Heart contractions, or rather their number is reduced to fifty beats (or less) in one minute.

By the way, in athletes, bradycardia is a normal phenomenon, because the heart needs rest. But if you do not play sports, this is not normal, because bradycardia can be a cause of poor health and weakness, disrupt cerebral circulation, and lead to fainting. But this is not all that bradycardia is dangerous. Slowing of the heart rhythm can provoke blood stagnation, which leads to the formation of blood clots in various chambers of the heart (most often the left atrium suffers), blood clots appear.

Blood clots themselves are not very pleasant, but if they come off, they can enter the coronary vessels and provoke a heart attack. If blood clots enter the carotid artery, it will end in a cardioembolic stroke. In addition, a blood clot can enter the vessels supplying the intestines with blood, and this will lead to necrosis of certain parts of this organ and peritonitis.

If a blood clot brings blood to the vessels of the legs, critical ischemia (i.e., poor blood supply) and even leg necrosis are possible. But even if you are lucky and there are no blood clots, bradycardia leads to a lack of blood supply to many organs and, accordingly, to a disruption in their work. Bradycardia can be a symptom of diseases and the result of problems such as:

  • Autonomic dysfunction and associated neuroses;
  • cardiopsychoneurosis;
  • wearing a tight collar or tie that presses on the carotid sinus;
  • increased intracranial pressure caused by edema or brain tumors, as well as meningitis or injuries;
  • ulcers of the stomach and intestines;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • cardiosclerosis;
  • myocardial dystrophy;
  • myocarditis.

In addition, the effects of intoxication in typhoid fever, sepsis, hepatitis, and uremia can cause a slowing of the pulse. Also, bradycardia occurs as a result of poisoning with morphine, quinidine, antispasmodics, substances where there are organophosphorus components, cardiac glycosides, hyperkalemia and hypercalcemia.

This symptom can also accompany jaundice, renal colic, swelling of the diaphragm or esophagus, intubation, hypothermia. Any reduction in heart rate to 60 beats per minute is considered critical, but bradycardia is different. it is sinoarterial and atrioventricular, it can also be functional, physiological and pathological, neurogenic, organic, toxic, etc.

With a slight slowdown in heart contractions, there may be no symptoms. If slowing down within forty beats per minute, dizziness and weakness are possible, as well as fainting or half-fainting. Fatigue, shortness of breath, impaired attention and memory, chest pain, visual disturbances, and pressure fluctuations are also possible.

With bradycardia caused by heart disease (sinus node syndrome), the risk of sudden cardiac arrest and ischemic stroke is increased, especially if syncope is present among the symptoms. In other cases, it is not bradycardia itself that is dangerous, but the diseases that it may indicate (hypothyroidism, brain tumors, etc.).

  • heart failure;
  • blood clots;
  • chronic attacks of bradycardia.

Symptoms of bradycardia in children

BradycardiaCauses
ExtracardiacVegetative-vascular dystonia
Carotid Artery Clamp
Pressure on the eyeball
Oncology
Bruise, swelling, inflammation of the brain
Renal colic
Starvation
Stomach ulcer
Body hypothermia
Duodenal ulcer
OrganicMyocardial infarction
Cardiosclerosis
MedicamentousExcessive drug use
ToxicUremia
Hepatitis C
Infectious diseases (sepsis, typhoid fever)
PhysiologicalCold season
Chest massage
Smoking
SenileElderly age

Mild and moderate degree of bradycardia (from 60 to 40 beats per minute in adults) does not manifest itself clinically. The first symptoms are noticeable when the pulse drops to less than 40 beats. This leads to poor blood circulation and organic damage to the heart. The initial signs of bradycardia are:

  • dizziness;
  • fainting;
  • changes in blood pressure (increase / decrease);
  • weakness;
  • constant fatigue;
  • pain in the center of the chest;
  • lack of air;
  • labored breathing;
  • impaired memory or attention;
  • temporary visual impairment.

The main risk factor for bradycardia is age. In older people, diseases and symptoms associated with a rare pulse occur more often than in young people.

Bradycardia is often a consequence of heart disease. Therefore, factors that increase the risk of heart disease, thereby increasing the likelihood of a rare pulse:

  • high blood pressure;
  • smoking;
  • excessive drinking;
  • psychological stress.

Bradycardia can be caused for 3 main reasons:

  1. Intracardiac blockade of the pathway.
  2. Slowing down pulse generation in the sinus node.
  3. Atrial Ventricular Blockade

The heart consists of 4 departments, or chambers – two upper (atria) and two lower (ventricles). The natural “pacemaker” that sets the rhythm of contractions is the sinus node located in the right atrium. It regularly produces electrical signals that excite every contraction of the heart muscle.

These electrical impulses travel through the tissue of the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. Then these impulses enter a cluster of cells called the atrioventricular node and lies between the atria and ventricles.

After passing through the cells of the AV node, the pulses go in two ways – to the right and left ventricle. The right ventricle pumps venous blood into the lungs, and the left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood to all organs of the body.

Bradycardia occurs when these electrical signals are slowed down or blocked. Common reasons for these conditions:

  • IHD;
  • infiltrative processes – amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, lymphogranulomatosis, multiple myeloma, the consequences of radiation therapy;
  • infections: Chagas disease, diphtheria, Lyme disease, syphilis, toxoplasmosis;
  • collagenoses: rheumatism, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma;
  • taking or overdosing of drugs (beta-blockers, digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, antiarrhythmic drugs, lithium, clonidine);
  • reflex effects associated with the vagus nerve: vasovagal fainting, reflex reaction to cough, vomiting, urination, defecation;
  • a decrease in blood potassium content or an increase in calcium;
  • hypothyroidism (decreased hormonal activity of the thyroid gland), in rare cases, hyperthyroidism; sleep apnea syndrome.

Most often, bradycardia occurs due to a slowdown in the formation of an impulse in the natural pacemaker – the sinus node. The causes of sinus node dysfunction, in addition to the general factors listed above, may be:

  • age-related degenerative fibrosis (sprouting of a node by connective tissue);
  • pericarditis;
  • correction of congenital heart defects;
  • hypothermia (hypothermia);
  • increased intracranial pressure (injuries, structural defects, hydrocephalus, tumor, stroke).

Pathology of the sinus node is more common in old age, but even in this age group it is only 5 cases per 3000 people.

This is another reason for a rare heartbeat, which is accompanied by a slowdown or interruption in the passage of the pulse between the atria and ventricles. In addition to the common causes listed above, bradycardia of this origin can cause:

  • Lenegra-Lev disease (progressive damage to the conduction system);
  • neuromuscular diseases: myotonic muscular dystrophy, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Erb myopathy, peroneal muscular atrophy;
  • myocarditis;
  • prosthetics of the aortic and / or mitral valve, complications of RFA after treatment of supraventricular tachycardia, RFA of the atrioventricular connection.

The frequency of development of far-reaching atrioventricular blockages, causing a sharp slowdown in heart rate, is 200 cases per 1 million people. Among newborns, this indicator is 1 case per 20 thousand children.

In adolescents and babies, this symptom is frequent, but the norms and indicators are different. For a young child, the heart rate will be considered as a heart rate less than a hundred beats per minute. For kids from a year to six, this figure is less than 70 strokes. Next are the adult indicators. Symptoms are shortness of breath, fatigue, not typical for a child, fainting, cold sweat, chest pain.

For children, this symptom is dangerous because the child has not yet developed adaptation mechanisms in the body, which means that redistribution of blood is impossible. This leads to exhaustion, fainting, and even death of the child. Also, this symptom can be observed in the fetus (heart rate less than 110). If he appeared in adolescence, then it can pass by itself, with the disappearance of adolescent diseases.

An extracardial form of bradycardia can develop with neurocirculatory dystonia, neurosis with autonomic dysfunction, pressure on the carotid sinus (when wearing a tight collar or tie), pressure on the eyeballs (Ashner’s reflex), increased intracranial pressure (with meningitis, cerebral bruising, subneal bruising, or brain tumors), gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer.

Bradycardia that develops with myxedema is proportional to the severity of hypothyroidism. The causes of the organic form of bradycardia can be myocardial infarction, myocardial dystrophy, myocarditis, cardiosclerosis. These diseases lead to degenerative and fibrotic changes in the sinus node or impaired conduction in the myocardium, accompanied by the development of bradycardia.

With organic damage to the pacemaker, a sick sinus syndrome develops, and the frequency of pulse generation in it decreases sharply. This condition is accompanied by sinus bradycardia – rhythmic, but very rare contractions of the heart; change of brady and tachycardia or alternation of spontaneous pacemakers.

The extreme degree of damage to the sinus node is manifested by the failure of the function of automatism, as a result of which the electrical impulses of the heart cease to be generated. When the myocardial pathways are damaged, blockade of impulses develops, as a result of which part of the signals generated by the sinus node is blocked and cannot reach the ventricles – bradycardia develops.

The development of the dosage form of bradycardia can be facilitated by the intake of cardiac glycosides, quinidine, β-blockers, sympatholytic drugs (e.g. reserpine), calcium channel blockers (e.g. verapamil, nifedipine), morphine. The toxic form of bradycardia develops with severe intoxications caused by sepsis, hepatitis, uremia, typhoid fever, poisoning with organophosphorus compounds, and slowing down the processes of automatism and conduction in the heart muscle.

This group also sometimes includes bradycardia caused by hypercalcemia or severe hyperkalemia. The so-called athletic bradycardia is characterized by a heart rate of up to 35-40 per minute even in the daytime. Its reason is the features of the autonomic regulation of heart rate in people who are professionally involved in sports.

Slowing of the rhythm is found in organic heart diseases. The death of the cells of nodes or bundles of His (“wires”) occurs due to impaired circulation of the myocardium. Causes of bradycardia:

  • coronary artery disease,
  • atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis,
  • hypertonic disease,
  • hypothyroidism
  • organophosphate poisoning,
  • prolonged fasting
  • myocardial infarction
  • toxic infections – typhoid fever, sepsis,
  • post-infarction cardiosclerosis.
  • the consequences of taking certain beta-blocker drugs, reserpine, nifedipine, morphine, digoxin.

These diseases lead to degenerative changes in the sinus node or cardiac conduction system. In some patients, it is not possible to identify the cause of bradycardia, then it is treated as idiopathic. A rare pulse is detected in children with congenital heart defects, after infections, and malnutrition.

One of the reasons for the slow rhythm in young children is the autonomic dysfunction of the main pacemaker. In young people, when the body grows faster, an imbalance in the nervous regulation of the heart and other organs occurs. Their sinus bradycardia is combined with arrhythmia. They are characterized by increased rhythm during exercise. At the same time, adolescents have no heart pathology.

Physiological bradycardia

If you, being interested in what sinus bradycardia of the heart is, and counting the pulse, find out that it is below 50, you should not panic and call an ambulance. Those people who play sports or physical labor, bradycardia is not uncommon. However, they do not experience any unpleasant sensations, that is, the volume of blood flowing to the brain does not decrease.

This is due to the fact that, due to the constant load, their respiratory and cardiovascular systems are more developed than in the average person. Thus, the question of what is bradycardia, loses relevance for them. Its occurrence in a healthy person is possible in a stressful situation, with severe fatigue and after a long stay in the cold or in a hot and humid climate (or, for example, in a steam room).

Not always rare heart contractions indicate the development of pathology, in some cases they also occur for physiological reasons. The types of physiological bradycardia include:

  • Athletic. The pulse of an athlete or a person constantly engaged in heavy physical labor, even while awake, can be 35-40 beats per minute. This occurs because the heart muscle trained by the loads accelerates blood through organs and tissues without special efforts, providing them with full nutrition. During physical exertion, the athlete’s pulse is 60-80 beats (an ordinary person has physiological tachycardia at this time), and is reduced at rest.
  • Respiratory. On exhalation, the heartbeat slows down, and on inspiration it returns to normal. This change in heart rate is due to the fact that breathing fluctuates pressure inside the chest. It is easy to identify this cause: it is enough at the time of removal of the ECG to ask to hold your breath for a short time. Holding your breath will even out your pulse.
  • Peace. In children and adults under the age of 40, a temporary atrioventricular block may appear during sleep, slowing the pulse to 30-40 beats. This condition is a variant of the norm, and treatment of bradycardia is not required.
  • Old age. In old and senile age there is a gradual extinction of all body functions, a decrease in the activity of metabolic processes. If there are no serious diseases and the condition does not cause severe discomfort to a person, then heart rate reduction in the elderly is considered normal.

With a physiological decrease in the frequency of myocardial contractions, there is no discomfort, the person’s well-being does not suffer. Treatment measures for physiological bradycardia are not required.

Diagnostics

Before treating bradycardia, you need to determine what caused it, that is, find the underlying disease. The easiest way to detect a slowdown in heart rate and blockade during attacks is electrocardiography. It is also possible to carry out Holter daily monitoring, that is, an electrocardiogram is recorded for a whole day, and the patient is doing his usual business.

Echocardiography is good in that it allows you to detect an increase in heart cavities and those pathologies that caused a decrease in heart rate. A transesophageal electrophysiological study will help to study the cardiac pathways to determine the nature of bradycardia. Since this is only a symptom, it is most important to find out what disease caused the slowdown of heart rate.

If there are no clinical symptoms of slowing heart rate, then you can do nothing with bradycardia. If the slowdown in heart rate is accompanied by arrhythmia, fainting, heart failure, pressure drop, then you need a purely individual treatment. If the slowdown in heart rate is caused by an overdose of drugs, then the dose should be adjusted immediately. You can speed up your pulse quickly with the following medicines:

  • Atropine. It is injected into the veins and under the skin. Dosage – from half a milligram to two. Enter three times a day. You can slightly increase the dosage (if the result is not yet available) and add adrenaline in a dosage of up to 0,1 mg. If there is, you can enter a temporary pacemaker and monitor;
  • Eufillin is injected into a vein in a dosage of up to 480 mg or taken once inside by 600 mg;
  • Isadrine is also injected into the veins. Dosage – from 2 to 20 μg per minute, dilute it in a glucose solution (5%);
  • If the slowdown in heart rate is slight, you can take Zelenin drops. Dosage – from 35 to 40 drops three times a day.

But this will only help remove the symptom of bradycardia, and the treatment of all the main ailments is not canceled.

Alternative treatment also has a right to exist, but if you combine it with the treatment of the underlying disease. Then you can achieve the result of maximum and stable.

  • Be sure to eat walnuts. They are needed not only to the heart, but also to the brain, and indeed the body is strengthened. It is better to eat them at breakfast and every day;
  • Garlic, lemon and honey. They are needed not only for colds, but also to improve and speed up the main pump in the body. Use them in a mixture. Wash and scald several lemons, then juice is squeezed out of them. Garlic (a dozen heads of medium size) is peeled and chopped (or rubbed) with a blender. It remains to mix the garlic porridge with lemon juice until smooth. Now honey (1 thousand ml) is added here and everything is placed in a container (it is tightly closed). Insist in the refrigerator a week and a half. Eat a mixture of 20 g daily before each meal;
  • Yarrow. It needs 50 g (dry). Pour half a liter of water (hot), boil for 10 minutes and insist 60 minutes. After everything is filtered and drunk three times a day for 25 g.

A diet for bradycardia is also needed, but there is nothing complicated. You just need to eat foods with a low calorie content, limit fats and alcohol. It will be useful to refuse soda, fatty meat, too fatty dairy products, cakes, pastries, canned and smoked products. Salt is used to a minimum (sea salt is also possible).

It is important to include omega-6 and 3 in the diet, so fish oil and fish will be very necessary, as well as linseed oil, as well as corn. But meat and fish (sea) non-greasy must be. You also need to eat seafood, cottage cheese (nonfat) and generally dairy products, hard and nonfat cheese, buckwheat, rice, corn and oatmeal, vegetable soup and borsch, vegetables in the form of, stewed, fresh and baked, dried fruits and fresh fruits.

It is best to cook all food (including steamed) or stew, and eat small meals six times a day. You also need magnesium, which helps to absorb energy in the cells of the heart muscle. This element contains wheat bran, its seeds sprouted, seeds (flaxseed, pumpkin, sesame seeds), nuts (pine and walnut), cocoa, beans, lentils and other legumes.

An element such as potassium, that is, a vitamin for the heart, is also essential for bradycardia. This is the main intracellular cation for the myocardium and its cells. A lot of potassium contains baked potatoes, as well as fresh cucumbers, banana, tomato, carrot, zucchini, orange and many berries (lingonberries, red currants), as well as pumpkin and melon, prunes, raisins, figs, dried apricots, nuts (peanuts, cedar, almond).

Calcium is also needed not only for bones, nails and teeth with hair. This element helps maintain the contractility of the heart muscle. Among the sources of the element are milk, dairy products, cabbage, all the same almonds, egg shells, etc. So, calcium-containing products for bradycardia will also be needed, and every day. You can take all these elements in the form of additives.

Symptoms characteristic of bradycardia are detected during the collection of patient complaints and objective examination. On examination, a rare pulse is detected, which has the correct rhythm with sinus bradycardia, heart sounds of normal sonority are heard, and respiratory arrhythmia is often detected. Cardiologist consultation is recommended for patients with identified bradycardia.

An electrocardiographic study for bradycardia allows you to record a rare heart rate, the presence of sinoatrial or atrioventricular block. If episodes of bradycardia are not detected at the time of registration of the ECG, resort to daily monitoring of the ECG. In the organic form of bradycardia, an ultrasound of the heart is performed.

The method of ultrasonic echocardiography determines a decrease in the ejection fraction of less than 45%, an increase in heart size, sclerotic and degenerative changes in the myocardium. An increase in heart rate in connection with a given physical load is assessed using exercise bike ergometry. If it is impossible to detect transient blockades by ECG and Holter monitoring, a transesophageal electrophysiological study of the cardiac conduction pathways is performed. Using the PEEFI, it is possible to determine the organic or functional nature of bradycardia.

Severe bradycardia, when a rare pulse persists for a long time, is easily diagnosed. Enough ECG. But moderate bradycardia, in which a low heart rate will alternate with a normal one, is more difficult to diagnose and often a cardiologist will have an examination for a complaint of chronic fatigue. To identify pathology appoint:

  • ECG. If even at the time of the examination there is no rhythm reduction, then on the film there will be signs of weakness of the sinus node or the presence of blockages will be detected, suggesting a tendency to bradycardia.
  • ECG monitoring. Removing the ECG after a certain time during the day. The examination is carried out in the following way: electrodes are attached to the patient’s body, and the person returns to his usual way of life. The survey data allow us to determine the severity of bradycardic phenomena in connection with the degree of human activity.
  • Echocardiography. It examines the state of the myocardium and allows you to detect changes in the structure of the tissue (necrosis, ischemia).
  • Blood biochemistry. The biochemical composition of venous blood allows you to determine the ratio of its main components (potassium, sodium), as well as to identify pathological compounds that occur during poisoning or infectious toxic processes.

These examinations help not only identify the alleged cause, but also determine the severity of the process:

  • light (50-60 per minute, no treatment required);
  • moderate (40-50 per min, adjusted by diet and lifestyle changes);
  • pronounced (less than 40 per minute, needs serious treatment).

Bradycardia treatment is carried out on the basis of data obtained from examinations.

Symptoms characteristic of bradycardia are detected during the collection of patient complaints and objective examination. On examination, a rare pulse is detected, which, with a sinus shape, has the correct rhythm, heart sounds of normal sonority are heard, and respiratory arrhythmia is often detected. A consultation with a cardiologist is recommended for patients with identified bradycardia. An instrumental examination, which includes:

  • electrocardiography (ECG) – detect signs of atrioventricular or sinoatrial heart block, decreased heart rate. If necessary, daily ECG monitoring (Holter monitoring) is prescribed;
  • ultrasound examination of the heart (EchoCG) – the method allows you to evaluate the size of the heart, the presence of foci of degenerative and sclerotic changes in the heart muscle;
  • exercise bike ergometry – allows you to assess the change in heart rate under the influence of dosed physical activity;

To diagnose bradycardia, the doctor evaluates the symptoms of the disease, clarifies the medical and family history, conducts a physical examination – listens to the heart, determines the pulse, etc. Additional research methods are also used:

  • Electrocardiography (ECG) is the main method for identifying and evaluating persistent bradycardia. If changes are not detected on the ECG at rest, the daily recording of the ECG is applied.
  • Daily ECG monitoring – recording a cardiogram on an outpatient basis using a small device and electrodes glued to the surface of the chest wall. Such a device records a cardiogram within 24 to 72 hours.
  • Cardiac event recorder. This device monitors cardiac activity for several weeks. When the patient feels unpleasant symptoms, he presses the button and records the ECG at this time.

Additionally, such studies with bradycardia can be prescribed:

  • transesophageal electrophysiological examination to detect sinus node dysfunction;
  • tilt test (test with a slope): the study helps to identify the relationship of vagotonia, syncope and bradycardia;
  • ECG test with a load: the doctor monitors the reaction of the pulse to physical exercises (riding a stationary bike, walking on a treadmill).

Symptoms of a rare pulse

Speaking about what bradycardia is, the following should be noted: heart block can also become its cause (impulse transmission to various parts of the organ is disrupted). However, it can be sinoauricular. Atrial impulse transmission occurs when currents are transmitted from the sinus node to the myocardium every other time.

It may be atrioventricular. In this case, impaired impulse transmission occurs in the ventricles? and part of their contractions simply falls out of the rhythm of the heart. In the development of such blockades, three degrees are distinguished. In the first case, there is a slight decrease in the rate of impulse transmission to the ventricles, in the second – not all of them reach, and in the third there is a decrease in the number of contractions, caused by the blockade of the conducting system.

Bradycardia of the heart may be:

The development of pathology is possible for several reasons:

  • Organic. Violation of myocardial conduction (the heart muscle ceases to fully conduct the contractile impulse to the heart). It can occur due to the weakness of the sinus node (pacemaker, setting the frequency of contractions), various blockages or myocardial necrosis that occurs with ischemia.
  • Toxic. Infectious diseases, accompanied by severe intoxication of the body (meningitis, hepatitis, typhoid fever), provoke the appearance of organophosphorus compounds in the blood. These blood substances inhibit the contractile function of the heart. Sometimes this can occur due to an excess of potassium or sodium ions in the blood. To the same group can be attributed poisoning by gases and certain substances.
  • Hormonal Inhibition of thyroid function (hypothyroidism) and some adrenal disease provoke a change in hormonal levels. Hormone deficiency often provokes a decrease in rhythm.
  • Medicinal. Taking certain medications (veropamil, nifedipine, reserpine) has a depressing effect on the sinus node.
  • Household. Alcohol and smoking cause chronic intoxication, depressing the activity of the heart rate driver.
  • Starvation. This most often happens in women seeking to lose weight quickly. Most diets exclude foods from the diet that contain substances important for metabolic processes, which leads to a change in the blood formula and general cellular starvation. Women after the diet feel severe weakness, fatigue and note that the heart began to beat less often.
  • Extracardiac, extracardiac. Occur due to indirect effects on the contractile function of the myocardium. These include: irritation of the carotid sinus (located at the bottom of the neck on the right and left) by wearing tight collars, with peptic ulcer of the stomach and intestines or with increased intracranial pressure.
  • Ideopathic. When it is not possible to identify the causes of bradycardia, but there is a periodic or constant lack of pulse, an ideopathic bradycardia is diagnosed.
  • Pregnancy Changes in the body associated with pregnancy can cause malfunctioning of systems and organs. This condition is dangerous for the pregnant woman and for the child being born to her. Bradycardic symptoms of pregnant women require immediate examination and treatment.

But despite the difference in reasons, all of them cause life-threatening organ malfunctions. The most dangerous reduction is accompanied by arrhythmia (the pulse becomes uneven, a long pause occurs between 2 pulse waves). Bradyarrhythmia is most often observed against a background of organic disorders and with severe intoxication.

The term bradycardia means a decrease in the heart rate in adults to 60 beats in 1 minute at rest. A rare heartbeat during sleep is the physiological state of the body. For athletes, bradycardia is a normal option. At night, the heart does not need a lot of oxygen, so the number of heart contractions decreases reflexively.

In trained people, bradycardia is caused by an increased ejection of blood from the left ventricle, due to which the myocardium is reduced less often. In both cases, a moderate sinus rhythm of 50-60 beats per 1 minute is detected. This does not represent any danger. Pathological bradycardia develops with a violation of the “wires” of the heart at different levels:

  • sinus node
  • atrioventricular node,
  • pathways inside the myocardium.

The immediate cause of sinus bradycardia is the sinus node weakness syndrome. The anatomical formation consists of special cells and is the main pacemaker of the heart. Due to partial death, the node loses activity, as a result of which it cannot generate the necessary number of pulses. If the cells of another node, atrioventricular, are destroyed, only a part of the pulses reach the ventricles.

Moderate bradycardia occurs without clinical signs or discomfort. A slight slowdown of the heartbeat up to 50-60 beats does not affect blood circulation. A decrease in the frequency below 50 in 1 minute is accompanied by symptoms such as:

  • sweating,
  • dizziness,
  • weakness, shortness of breath with little physical effort,
  • darkening in the eyes
  • semi-fainting conditions caused by hypoxia (oxygen starvation) of the brain,
  • excessive fatigue.

Important! If fainting appears, screening is mandatory. First of all, the brain feels hypoxia. A rare pulse can lead to various consequences on the part of the heart and brain.

Classification of bradycardia

The localization of the revealed disorders distinguishes between sinus bradycardia associated with impaired automatism in the sinus node and bradycardia in heart block (sinoatrial or atrioventricular), in which impulses between the sinus node and the atria or atria and ventricles are disturbed.

The heart rate may decrease under physiological conditions (in athletes, in sleep, at rest) – this is a functional or physiological bradycardia; pathological bradycardia accompanies the course of various diseases. Pathological bradycardia can occur in acute form (with myocardial infarction, myocarditis, intoxication, etc.).

) and disappear after the cure of the disease that caused it, or chronic form (with age-related sclerotic heart disease). For the reasons for the development of sinus bradycardia, the following forms are distinguished: extracardial (neurogenic), organic (with heart damage), drug, toxic and sinus bradycardia of athletes. Sometimes, according to the etiology, bradycardia is divided into toxic, central, degenerative and idiopathic.

A healthy heart is on the left and bradycardia is on the right. Depending on the development mechanism, bradycardia is divided into the following varieties: Sinus bradycardia, due to a decrease in the activity of the sinus node of the heart. Most often occurs in a chronic (extracardiac) form. But it can also have an acute (intracardial) course, which is caused by myocarditis, post-infarction cardiosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction. Non-sinus bradycardia associated with the blockade of electrical impulses between the heart nodes:

  • Violation of the impulse between the sinus and sinoatrial nodes;
  • Violation of the impulse between the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes.

Fetal bradycardia

Fetal bradycardia can occur at any stage of pregnancy. In the first half of pregnancy, a lack of oxygen can affect the formation of the baby’s organs, causing their underdevelopment. In the second half, oxygen starvation leads to disturbances in the development of the central nervous system and the occurrence of problems during childbirth.

Adolescents

Teenage bradycardia occurs in the age period from 12 to 17 years and is explained by a hormonal surge and restructuring of the body, rapid growth, the body adapts to the rhythm of which. Usually passes independently as the puberty (transitional) period fades.

In athletes, bradycardia is a normal physiological state, since the load on the heart is great, it pumps a much larger volume of blood per 1 reduction, due to which it suffices a much smaller number of contractions per minute to fully supply the body with oxygen. The main causes of physiological bradycardia in people, involved in sports and leading an active lifestyle, are associated with increased functionality of their respiratory and cardiovascular systems, providing the brain with sufficient the amount of oxygen even with rare heart rate.

Most often, physiological bradycardia is observed in the following athletes: In other words, those sports in which a person performs a moderate load for a long time contribute to the training of the heart muscle. Regardless of the reasons that provoked this condition, its basis is unchanged and is a violation of the ability to the generation by the sinus node of electrical impulses of a standard frequency for a normal state of the body from 60 beats / min.

  • Pharmacological (medication), which is caused by the use of certain tablets or drugs.
  • Pathological. In this case, the disease develops due to some kind of deviation in the body.
  • Physiological, when the slowed-down work of the heart does not cause trouble. A person at this rhythm feels great.
  • bradycardia, registered with trained people, athletes. The usual, everyday load is not something transcendental for them, the body begins to give signals about the need for a higher frequency only under extreme loads, then the frequency of heart contractions increases;
  • this also includes sinus bradyarrhythmia in children and adolescents;
  • congenital complete AV blockade;
  • ideopathic bradycardia.

The pulse with bradycardia, in these cases, will necessarily increase with physical exertion, and with sinus bradyarrhythmia it will also become correct in this case. Pathological bradycardia can be acute or chronic, depending on the specific causative factor.

  • The acute form develops sharply, simultaneously in various conditions that directly or indirectly injure the heart, for example, poisoning, myocarditis or heart attack.
  • Chronic bradycardia has existed for many years and is associated with severe, long-lasting diseases of the heart or other organs and systems.

Symptoms of bradycardia

Well, finally we got to the most important thing. We will answer the main questions: “Sinus bradycardia – what is it and what are its symptoms?” It should be noted that in most cases this pathology proceeds unnoticed and is detected by accident during routine examinations. Only with the transition to a chronic form, the disease begins to actively manifest itself.

This is due to the fact that as a result of a decrease in the frequency of contractions, the blood volume, as well as the amount of oxygen and glucose entering the brain, is reduced. In the early stages, the disease manifests itself as weakness, dizziness, cold sweat. Sleep and memory are disturbed. Patients complain of feelings of anxiety, sinking hearts, shortness of breath.

Despite the apparent insignificance of the symptoms, in order to understand sinus bradycardia – what it is and what real danger it poses, it is enough to consider the symptoms that appear when the process goes into the acute stage. Here, signs of brain hypoxia are pronounced heart failure.

In addition, the patient may be pursued by pain in the heart (angina pectoris), darkening in the eyes, frequent moments of confused consciousness (fainting). Severe bradycardia may be complicated by a symptom of Morgagni-Adams-Stokes. It is manifested by loss of consciousness, a sharp pallor of the skin, respiratory failure, convulsions. It must be remembered that if the interval between ventricular contractions exceeds 15 seconds, then cardiac arrest and clinical death are possible.

Moderately expressed bradycardia is usually not accompanied by circulatory disorders and does not lead to the development of clinical symptoms. The occurrence of dizziness, weakness, fainting and fainting conditions is observed with bradycardia with a heart rate of less than 40 beats per minute, as well as against the background of organic heart lesions.

Also, with bradycardia, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, fluctuations in blood pressure, impaired concentration of attention and memory, short-term visual disturbances, episodes of confused thinking appear. In general, the manifestations of bradycardia correspond to the severity of hemodynamic disturbances developing against its background. slowing blood circulation is the first to respond to the brain, experiencing hypoxia.

Therefore, bradycardia often leads to attacks of loss of consciousness, seizures (seizures or prodromes of Morgagni-Adems-Stokes), which can last from a few seconds to 1 minute. This is the most dangerous condition in case of bradycardia, requiring emergency medical measures, because with a prolonged attack, respiratory activity may stop.

Why does the heart need to contract at a certain frequency? One goal – to deliver nutrients and oxygen to organs. This is only possible with the blood that the heart pumps. If the supply is insufficient, the authorities cease to fulfill their tasks or switch to a protective, economical mode of operation.

First of all, a lack of nutrition affects brain cells. Mild or moderate bradycardia generally does not disturb blood circulation and does not contribute to the occurrence of certain symptoms of the disease. Explicit manifestations occur when the heart rate is below 40 beats or in the presence of organic organ lesions. Pronounced bradycardia is recognized due to the following symptoms:

  • dizziness
  • weakness;
  • fainting and fainting;
  • increased fatigue;
  • pain in the chest;
  • difficulty breathing
  • impaired concentration of attention, memory;
  • a sharp change in blood pressure;
  • short-term vision problems;
  • cases of confused thinking;
  • hypoxia;
  • Morgagni-Edems-Stoke syndrome. The manifestation of this symptom requires immediate treatment. It is impossible to ignore the syndrome, in some cases it leads to respiratory arrest.
  • Symptoms with mild bradycardia are usually absent, so most patients do not even notice that their pulse has slowed and do not go to a cardiologist.
  • At this stage, the treatment of pathology is a mandatory measure to save the patient’s life

During the slowing of the pulse, the brain and other organs may not receive enough blood and oxygen. As a result, the following symptoms may occur:

  • fainting;
  • dizziness;
  • fatigue;
  • shortness of breath during physical exertion;
  • chest pain;
  • confusion or memory problems;
  • poor tolerance of physical exertion.

Bradycardia treatment

Functional and moderate bradycardia, not accompanied by clinical manifestations, do not require therapy. With organic, extracardiac, toxic forms of bradycardia, the underlying disease is treated. With drug bradycardia, dosage adjustment or cancellation of drugs that slow the heart rate is required.

With manifestations of hemodynamic disturbances (weakness, dizziness), belladonna, ginseng root, extract of eleutherococcus, isoprenaline, ephedrine, caffeine and others are individually prescribed in individually selected doses. Indications for the active treatment of bradycardia are the development of angina pectoris, arterial hypotension, fainting, heart failure, ventricular arrhythmia.

The onset of the Morgagni – Adams – Stokes attack requires the consultation of a cardiac surgeon and the solution of the implantation of a pacemaker, an artificial pacemaker that generates electrical impulses with a physiological frequency. An adequate and constant preset heart rate helps restore normal hemodynamics.

How to treat bradycardia? Can she be cured at home? And is it always necessary to treat this ailment? The treatment of bradycardia almost always takes place in a hospital, at home you can cure this ailment only if it is caused by starvation with the aim of losing weight. If the diet was not very long, and only mild or moderate bradycardia is diagnosed, then it will be possible to correct the violations with good nutrition.

  • elimination of a provoking factor (rejection of bad habits, treatment of infectious processes), very often this is enough to eliminate the symptoms that have arisen;
  • establishing a full-fledged regime of work and rest;
  • selection of adequate physical activity appropriate to age and general health;
  • making a menu for a nutritious meal;
  • prescribing medications.

In severe cases (usually with a weak sinus node or with complete blockages, when the conduction of the heart pulse is completely blocked), bradycardia is treated by implanting a pacemaker. The indication for implantation of a rhythm stimulator will be a decrease in heart rate below 40 per minute, if there is a pause between contractions and pauses for more than 2 seconds or in the presence of frequently occurring bradyarrhythmia.

The treatment of the disease in question is carried out in a strictly individual order, based on the specific pathology present, as well as the characteristics of the patient’s transfer of the disease.

  • Functional, as well as bradycardia, which has a moderate degree of severity and is not accompanied by clinical symptoms, do not require conservative treatment.
  • Bradycardia of organic, toxic or extracardiac origin requires, first of all, the treatment of the underlying disease.
  • Medicinal bradycardia requires the discontinuation of drugs that caused symptoms (or the correction of their intake)

    In addition to treating the underlying disease that provoked bradycardia, a symptomatic increase in heart rate is carried out using the following drugs:

    • Atropine – is administered intravenously or subcutaneously at 0,6 – 2 mg, 2-3 times a day;
    • Isadrine – is administered intravenously at 2 – 20 μg per minute in a 5% glucose solution until a normal heart rate is reached;
    • Eufillin – is administered intravenously at 240 – 480 mg or tablets are taken orally at 600 mg once a day.

    With a decrease in heart rate, the patient will need to take anticholinergic drugs. The group of these drugs includes drugs that block the effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on the body. To treat bradycardia, these drugs are used: In addition, in this case antiarrhythmic drugs that regulate the work of the heart are shown: Potassium and magnesium salts also have antiarrhythmic effects.

    Surgical treatment for bradycardia is very rare and only in cases where a decrease in heart rate significantly affects hemodynamics. The location and nature of the surgery is determined by the cause of the bradycardia. With congenital anomalies in the development of heart tissue, surgical correction is done as far as possible in childhood, to ensure normal growth and development of the child.

    Р ›РµС З РµРЅРёРµ Р ± СЂР ° РґРёРєР ° СЂРґРёРё, которР° СЏ РїРѕ РґР ° РЅРЅС‹ Рј Р’РћР— СЃС ‡ итР° ется РЅРєР ° РґРґР ° РґР ° Р ± РѕР »РµРІР ° РЅРёРµ, есл Рё РїРѕРєР ° Р · Р ° тели ЧСС состР° РІР» СЏСЋС ‚РѕС‚ РІСЂРІРѓРјРѓРѓРѓРґРґРґРґРґРґРґРґРґРґРґРґ жно вроводится РїРѕРґ РЅР ° Р ± Р »СЋРґРµРЅРёРµРј РІСЂР ° С ‡ Р °.

    Under local anesthesia, he is implanted just below the collarbone. Thanks to this, the patient gets the opportunity to simulate a heart rhythm. For example, with constant bradycardia, the device also works constantly, and if it has a transient character, then the pacemaker turns on only during the attack, and turns off after its completion.

    Modern medicine is able to withstand many dangerous diseases. But, despite all its possibilities, heart pathologies occupy the first place in terms of mortality. To avoid such a sad outcome, be more attentive to your health. Eliminate bad habits, and if you feel unwell – do not delay the visit to the doctor. Then the question of how bradycardia is manifested, what it is and how to treat this disease, will lose its relevance for you.

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  • Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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