What is adult myocardial dystrophy

Myocardial dystrophy of the heart muscle occurs due to strong loads on the heart during improper and intensive training. Also, an unbalanced diet, a short rest, constant interruption of sleep can provoke the appearance of MCD. Other common factors for the development of myocardial dystrophy include:

  • infectious diseases in the phase of inflammation;
  • chronic tonsillitis;
  • intoxication of the body (poisoning, alcohol, cigarettes, drugs);
  • overweight;
  • myxedema;
  • avitaminosis;
  • diabetes;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • anemia;
  • radiation;
  • muscular dystrophy;
  • genital inflammation;
  • collagenosis;
  • the appearance of menopause in women;
  • overheating;
  • lack of potassium in the body;
  • Cushing’s syndrome;
  • starvation;
  • prolonged stay on mono-diets;
  • deposition of salts in the heart muscle.

Detection of myocardial dystrophy in children, as in adults, is carried out by standard measures: ultrasound of the heart, ECG and examination by a cardiologist, after which a final diagnosis is made.

This pathology is not related to inflammatory processes or heart diseases. Metabolic disorders in muscle tissue occur under the negative influence of external and internal factors. Myocardial dystrophy is a secondary ailment, it is always the result of another anomaly that develops in the body.

In rare cases, one can hear about the identification of ideopathic myocardial dystrophy – a pathology whose reliable origin has not been established. The bulk of the violations can still be classified, depending on the cause that caused it.

The reason for this type of pathology is the negative effect of toxic elements on myocardial cells. Such poisonous sources may include alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, narcotic substances, poison, some groups of drugs (cytostatics, antibacterial agents, cardiac glycosides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) used in large doses.

  1. Dyshormonal (metabolic).

MKD (myocardial dystrophy) in this case includes disorders that have arisen due to endocrine or hormonal disorders. For example, the diabetic form (with diabetes mellitus), thyrotoxic (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism – dysfunctional states of the thyroid gland), adolescence. The cause may also be the formation of pheochromocytoma (a tumor in the adrenal gland).

The reason for dystrophic changes in the structure of myocardiocytes is the menopause, premenstrual syndrome, uterine fibromyoma, and ovarian dysfunction. The hormonal background of the body under these conditions changes significantly, which leads to the development of dysmetabolic phenomena in the myocardium. The main symptoms of menopause: hot flashes, tachycardia, sweating, soreness in the heart, mood swings.

miokardiodistrofiya simptomy i lechenie 1 - What is adult myocardial dystrophy

A type of dystrophy, which is based on severe disorders of the nervous system (for example, VVD). Such pathologies are characterized by increased secretion of adrenaline, which, in turn, creates the prerequisites for the myocardium to work in an enhanced mode. A person experiences constant anxiety, fear, despair, falls into a depressed state. At the same time, the heart works unstable, the rhythm goes astray, breathing quickens, and blood pressure rises.

Most often, this form of pathology occurs against the background of chronic infectious diseases (tonsillitis, tonsillitis). Mostly young people are subject to dystrophic disorders. Immune antibodies “attack” cardiomyocytes, perceiving them as hostile elements along with pathogenic flora (streptococci). Typical manifestations: heart palpitations, shortness of breath during exercise, general intoxication of the body is aggravated in the evening.

It is associated with increased physical stress during intense training. Problems with the work of the myocardium arise during the preparatory phase before the next competition. The following pathological signs are noted: severe palpitations, stitching chest pains, decreased blood pressure and bradycardia.

MKD develops with iron deficiency, heavy bleeding, hemolytic anemia. The result of such conditions is hypoxia. The lack of oxygen negatively affects metabolic processes, the cellular structure of the myocardium undergoes pathological changes. What does a person feel? The skin is bleeding and turning pale, the heart beats frequently, shortness of breath occurs, the carotid arteries intensively pulsate, and noises appear when listening.

In addition to the above, you can specify other prerequisites for myocardial dystrophic disorders:

    Nephrogenic include glomerulonephritis (pathological rearrangement of renal tissues), compression of the k >chto takoe miokardiodistrofija serdca 1 - What is adult myocardial dystrophy

Diffuse changes affect the entire muscle layer of the heart, spreading evenly in all directions. While focal dystrophy of the cardiac myocardium affects only certain sections of its tissue.

Diagnostic measures aim to determine the nature of the changes that occur, the causes of the development of pathology, as well as the differentiation of dystrophic disorders from other conditions with similar symptoms. For example, radiculopathy of the chest. It manifests itself as pain in the chest area, loss of sensation in this area, rapid heart rate, increased anxiety, soreness can spread to the left hand.

The following methods are used to make the correct diagnosis:

This study allows us to identify increased organ sizes, edematous phenomena, deviations in the work of the ventricles in different phases of contraction, the level of compaction of the heart walls, worsening contractile activity.

  1. Doppler study.

It detects symptoms of heart defects, chronic myocardial insufficiency, accelerated blood flow and its increased volume, low pressure in the ventricles and atria, as well as inside the vessels.

  1. ECG of the heart (electrocardiography).

On the cardiogram you can see: flatter T waves, reflecting weak contractions of the ventricles, a decrease in the amplitude of all types of teeth due to defective heart function, signs of incomplete blockade in the branches of His, irregular contractile complexes.

  1. By means of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, the following changes can be recorded: the presence of focal or diffuse disorders, enlarged parts of the heart, asymmetric myocardial compaction in the early stage, thinned muscle layer at the late stage of MCD.
  2. X-ray examination.

It reveals a low pulse, hypertrophy of the left or right ventricle, and stagnation of blood in the lungs.

A biopsy of myocardial tissue may also be used. Her analysis makes it possible to identify pathological disorders of enzyme metabolism, the degree of destruction of muscle fibers, structural modifications of cardiomyocytes.

To determine the deviations associated with the penetration of particles of potassium and sodium through the cell membrane, scintigraphy is performed.

A blood test does not detect abnormalities.

A group of cardiac pathologies associated with impaired myocardial function is called myocardial dystrophy (abbreviated as MCD). This pathology has other names – myocardial dystrophy, secondary cardiomyopathy. Symptoms of myocardial dystrophy depend on the form and stage of the disease, and the lesion itself is caused by a number of metabolic dysfunctions.

The patient begins to have heart rhythm interruptions, cardialgia and moderate tachycardia. Add shortness of breath, dizziness and increased fatigue here – here’s the “standard package” of signs of pathology.

What is myocardial dystrophy? This is a metabolic disorder affecting the area of ​​the heart muscle. The disease can develop against the background of pathologies that are not related to cardiac activity. For the first time, doctors began to make such diagnoses in 1936. In many ways, the research of George Lang contributed to this.

There are a lot of factors leading to the development of pathology. For example, alcoholic myocardial dystrophy results from the systematic abuse of alcohol. In addition to alcohol, there are other exogenous intoxications – industrial, drug, radiation.

The cause of the disease can be:

  • obesity;
  • poor nutrition;
  • anemia;
  • kidney and liver disease;
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • endocrine pathologies;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • physical overstrain;
  • connective tissue diseases;
  • infectious ailments.

Among the metabolic and endocrine pathologies accompanying the course of the disease, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, obesity, pathological menopause (in women) and vitamin deficiency are distinguished.

Classification of MKD

Classification of the disease myocardial dystrophy – what is it? These are actually species according to the etiological characteristics of the disease myocardial dystrophy. Classification is represented by the following forms of MKD:

  • allergic
  • mixed genesis;
  • complex genesis;
  • hyperfunctional;
  • neurovegetative;
  • hormonal (endocrine diseases and age-related dishormonosis);
  • hereditary diseases;
  • dysmetabolic (anemia, dystrophy, vitamin deficiency);
  • intoxication (poisoning, infectious diseases, alcohol, smoking, drug addiction).
  • alimentary;
  • radiation;
  • closed chest injuries.

Dyshormonal MCD

Dyshormonal myocardial dystrophy – what is it?

Dyshormonal myocardial dystrophy is a heart disease caused by a dysfunction of the thyroid gland. During hypothyroidism (decreased function), the body’s metabolism slows down, pressure decreases, edema and prolonged aching pain appear. With thyrotoxicosis (increased thyroid function), metabolism is accelerated and contributes to rapid weight loss. Also, the patient feels stitching heart pains, thirst, excessive nervousness; disturbed heart rate and sleep.

Symptoms of dishormonal MKD are:

  • dizziness;
  • lack of air;
  • disturbed sleep;
  • stitching pains in the heart;
  • irritability and more.

As a rule, such myocardial dystrophy appears in women from 45 to 50 years old, since at this age the ovarian function malfunctions. Men aged 50-55 are also susceptible to this disease due to impaired testosterone production.

Forms and stages of the disease

The classification of MCD is quite extensive. In the practice of doctors, dysmetabolic myocardial dystrophy associated with metabolic disorders is constantly found. A high percentage of prevalence in MKD of physical stress and toxic poisoning. So, myocardial dystrophy takes the following forms:

  1. Dyshormonal (we wrote above about failures in the production of testosterone and estrogen).
  2. Anemic (caused by iron deficiency and large blood loss).
  3. Tonsillogenous (a consequence of transferred tonsillitis or chronic tonsillitis).
  4. Alcoholic (characterized by a decrease in pulse pressure, sweating, fussiness, trembling hands, lack of air).
  5. Physical stress (found in athletes preparing for competitions).

To think that toxic myocardial dystrophy is found only in alcoholics is wrong. Yes, this ailment affects men aged 20-50 who abuse alcohol-containing liquids. But you can get poisoned with drugs.

For example, with prolonged therapy with immunosuppressants (glucocorticosteroids, cytostatics), taking antibiotics, NSAIDs and tranquilizers. Of the substances found in industry, arsenic, chloroform, carbon monoxide and phosphorus are the most dangerous.

So, MCD is a secondary lesion of the heart. In addition to these forms, the so-called “mixed type” is known. Myocardial dystrophy of mixed origin is often caused by endocrine disruptions provoked by B-vitamin deficiency, starvation, or obesity.

There is an ailment in both children and adults, and a characteristic symptom of this MKD is moderate tachycardia. The mixed type is treated with stem cells – you’ll learn more about this later.

Pathology is divided into three pronounced stages.

The first of these is the compensation stage. The cells surrounding the myocardium begin to grow – this leads to an increase in the volume of the heart muscle. Pressing heart pains, fatigue and shortness of breath occur.

The second stage is subcompensation. Myocardial nutrition worsens, the affected area grows, the foci of pathology begin to merge. The main manifestations: arrhythmia, shortness of breath, swelling of the legs (noted by patients in the evening). The contractility of the heart at this stage worsens, which entails small volumes of pushed blood.

The third stage is decompensation. Dysfunctions of the heart muscle and pathology in the structure of the heart become threatening. Normal blood circulation is not possible. Signs:

  • shortness of breath at rest;
  • circulatory congestion inside the lungs;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • swelling;
  • cardiogram abnormalities;
  • liver growth;
  • poor working ability;
  • serious malfunctions in the heart rhythm.
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The neuroendocrine variety of MKD in children is almost not found. Congenital pathology is most often caused by maternal malnutrition, rickets, viral infections, bacterial ailments, hypervitaminosis.

To prevent the development of myocardial dystrophy can a balanced diet and timely access to doctors in the infectious diseases department. At first, the disease proceeds in a latent form, but at an early age there is a surge in pathological activity.

What can provoke the development of MCD in a child? Usually – excessive physical activity. Cases of drug poisoning are known. There are dysfunctions of neuro-vegetative and endocrine regulation. To timely identify the problem, pay attention to asthenia, shortness of breath and high fatigue.

Doctors say that the list of causes that caused metabolic problems is very large. Here is some of them:

  1. Poor heart nutrition, as a result of which the cells lack oxygen.
  2. Stress leading to excessive adrenaline production and increased heart function.
  3. Strong loads.
  4. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a lack of nutrients.
  5. Improper nutrition, accompanied by pathologies in the electrolyte balance.
  6. Metabolic disorders causing changes in the heart.
  7. An increase in hormonal levels, which leads to an increase in contractions of the heart muscle. And this process significantly depletes the myocardium.
  8. Intoxication of the body, damaging cells.
  9. In newborns, myocardial dystrophy occurs due to oxygen starvation of the fetus, infections developing in the womb or the occurrence of perinatal encephalopathy.

Specialists distinguish several stages of the pathology:

  1. Compensation. Here there are changes in metabolic processes and destruction of cells in the myocardium. As a result, the compensation mechanism is triggered, and the cells begin to grow. The phenomenon leads to the fact that the heart increases in volume. At this stage, a person feels pain in the heart and shortness of breath after exercise.
  2. Subcompensation. This condition is characterized by a deterioration in myocardial nutrition. In addition, there is an increase in problem areas and the fusion of several foci. Unaffected areas become large in volume and are considered destroyed by cardiomyocytes. The heart walls thicken and changes occur in the contractions of the heart: it pushes less blood.
    Symptoms are expressed in shortness of breath, arrhythmias, tachycardia, swelling of the extremities.
  3. Decompensation. This stage indicates serious changes in the structure and function of the heart muscle. At this stage of the development of the disease, the heart cannot contract properly and prov >miokardiodistrofiya simptomy i lechenie 2 - What is adult myocardial dystrophy

Symptoms are as follows: blood in the lungs stagnates, shortness of breath is observed even at rest, swelling, hepatomegaly, problems with heart rhythm appear. A person partially loses ability to work.

The third stage of myocardial dystrophy is dangerous because the changes cannot be corrected.

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Violations in the structure of myocardial cells go through several stages in their development.

  1. The first stage is called compensatory.

The initial period of changes under the influence of dysmetabolism is characterized by a lesion of the focal type. In this case, the compensation mechanism is triggered: new cells appear around the damaged areas, the size of the heart tissue increases. Occurring processes are considered reversible. Symptoms of the first stage: pain in the chest region of a compressive nature at rest, shortness of breath with moderate physical exertion, rapidly onset fatigue.

  1. The second stage is known as subcompensatory.

Myocardial nutritional deficiencies are exacerbated. Affected foci grow in size and combine with each other. Healthy tissues are overgrown with new cells in large numbers, trying to replace a group of altered cardiomyocytes. As a result, the heart walls thicken, contractile function worsens.

  1. The third stage is decompensatory.

Structural modifications of myocardial cells are pronounced and acquire a diffuse character. Violations are recognized as irreversible. Heart contractions become inferior. Heart failure develops. Symptoms of the third stage: severe shortness of breath even in the absence of physical exertion, almost complete loss of working capacity, aggravation of malfunctions of the sinus rhythm, the liver is enlarged, persistent edema, the skin becomes pale in color, the blood stagnates in the lungs, the cardiogram reflects significant changes in the work of the heart.

What is complex myocardial dystrophy?

Myocardial dystrophy of mixed origin has a negative effect on the heart muscle, deforming it over time. As a result of this, stretching of the ventricular tissue occurs, flabbiness and thinning of the septum appear.

Myocardial dystrophy of complex origin is one of the varieties of the common disease myocardial dystrophy. What is it and what are the causes of its occurrence? The disease affects the heart muscle and is non-inflammatory. Factors affecting the formation of MCD of complex origin are not associated with heart disease:

  • intoxication of the body (poisoning, alcohol, drugs, cigarettes);
  • violation of the functions of the endocrine system;
  • metabolic failure.

Such myocardial dystrophy (its symptoms and treatment, in principle, are very similar to any other heart diseases) is manifested in tachycardia, shortness of breath, heart failure, chest pain, fatigue, chills.

When treating, first of all, they eliminate the reason why the MCD of complex genesis was caused. Doctors prescribe various kinds of medications: Potassium Orotate, Nerobol, Cardiomagnyl, and others. Such drugs restore myocardial metabolism.

However, without observing the correct daily routine and nutrition, the tablets will be ineffective, so you should adhere to a healthy and active lifestyle.

Approaching the treatment of the disease in a comprehensive manner, we can count on a speedy recovery and improvement in the general condition.

Separately, it is possible to distinguish such forms of MCD as disorders of mixed or complex genesis. In this case, the origin of pathological phenomena in cardiomyocytes is associated with several reasons at once, for example, thyroid gland dysfunction, vitamin deficiency, a drop in the level of hemoglobin in the blood, and infectious lesions.

Determining exactly which of the reasons more influences the ongoing changes is rather difficult. The treatment of such patients also causes some difficulties, since it is necessary to take into account various factors in the selection of drugs. On the condition of the myocardium, such a pathology is reflected more noticeably: under the influence of several negative phenomena at once, the heart muscle wears out faster, it deforms, the cells stretch, lose their strength, the septa become thinner.

How is MCD diagnosed?

Diagnosis begins with an objective examination of the heart area. The doctor’s goal is to detect muffling of heart sounds, irregular heartbeat, systolic murmur, and attenuation at the apex of the first tone. In addition, a number of instrumental studies are being conducted. Here they are:

  • ECG (reduction of teeth, flattening of a T-wave, irregular heart contractions are monitored);
  • Echocardiography (reveals myocardial edema, expansion of the heart cavities, dysfunction of contractility, impaired diastolic/systolic functions, decreased motor activity);
  • Doppler echocardiography (determines the signs of cardiac pathologies, changes in the volume and speed of blood circulation, measures the pressure inside the vessels and heart chambers);
  • fluoroscopy (fixes left-sided growth of the heart, the presence of congestive processes inside the lungs, decreased cardiac pulsation);
  • Nuclear MRI (notes enlarged heart chambers, asymmetric thickening of the heart walls and diffuse myocardial lesions).

Doctors are often limited to non-invasive examinations, but in doubtful situations they can prescribe a biopsy. Pharmacological tests are also taken. Potassium chloride is introduced into the patient’s body, then the ECG apparatus is turned on.

miokardiodistrofiya simptomy i lechenie 3 - What is adult myocardial dystrophy

The disease is diagnosed if, after an hour in the heart, anomalies are still observed.

Methods for diagnosing pathology

These adverse factors provoke heart failure and slow down the normal rhythm.

Conditionally, the causes of MCD can be combined into eight groups – nervous tension, poor heart nutrition, exorbitant physical activity, chronic gastrointestinal diseases, metabolic and nutritional dysfunctions, poisoning by toxins and hormonal disorders.

Poor heart nutrition is caused by coronary circulation dysfunction, malformations, arterial hypertension, mountain sickness and low hemoglobin in the blood. Depressive conditions, neurosis and stress should also be avoided.

In modern clinics, treatment of myocardial dystrophy is aimed at the speedy normalization of metabolism. Doctors also seek to heal the underlying disease and improve the supply of heart nutrients. Dystrophic changes in the myocardium are eliminated through metabolic drugs.

Here is a sample list of drugs that you can prescribe (depending on the underlying disease):

  1. Beta-blockers (Anaprilin) ​​- reduce the beat of heart contractions, reduce the load on the heart muscle.
  2. Stimulants of metabolic processes (Mildronate, Riboxin) – normalize metabolic processes, redistribute blood flow.
  3. Drugs that reduce blood coagulability (for example, Theonikol) – enhance redox processes.
  4. Derivatives of magnesium, calcium and potassium (ascorbic acid calcium, Asparkam) – restore the electrolytic balance.

Hospitalization with MCD is extremely rare. All the drugs described above can be used at home under the supervision of a doctor. Of course, if the case is running, they may put you in the hospital. Such cases include shortness of breath at rest, severe arrhythmia, pastous edema of the extremities (non-passing).

MCD of mixed origin is treated with stem cells. In the first stage of treatment, cells are taken out of the body. In the second stage, the most viable cells are selected. The selected material is cultivated and again “migrates” into our body.

In medicine, there is the concept of “irreversible changes.” This term means that at a certain stage of the course of the disease, the body cannot be restored.

Adequacy of therapy and timely treatment is the guarantee that you will quickly recover. Myocardial dystrophy in the advanced phase will lead to heart failure and myocardiosclerosis.

The elimination of current diseases is the basis for the prevention of MCD. This takes into account the age and physical condition of the patient.

It is necessary to completely abandon alcohol, do not overload yourself in training, eliminate the infectious foci and deal with professional “hazards”. If it comes to treatment, repeated medical courses are prescribed every two to three years.

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Daily routine and nutrition

With myocardial damage, you need to get enough sleep and be sure to include daytime rest in your schedule. Physical training is recommended, but it is better to refuse excessive “fanaticism”. The best solutions are swimming, walking, breathing exercises, and a bicycle. Training load is strictly dosed. The diet includes the following foods:

  • eggs;
  • lean meat and fish;
  • dairy/sour milk products;
  • fruits and berries;
  • soups (weak vegetable, fish or meat broth);
  • puddings, casseroles and cereals;
  • vegetables (especially broccoli, spinach, bell peppers, cauliflower, sweet potato, carrots);
  • peanut.

Animal fats, spicy, spicy and smoked dishes are strictly prohibited. Refrain from eating oily fish and meat. Eliminate rich broths, coffee and strong tea from the diet. By following these recommendations, you will be able to return to normal.

miokardiodistrofiya simptomy i lechenie 4 - What is adult myocardial dystrophy

Myocardial dystrophy of the heart is a process of metabolic disorders in the heart muscle. The disease does not appear on its own – it is the result of any diseases that negatively affect the myocardial metabolism and lead to weakening of the muscle walls of the heart. It is very important to know the symptoms and treatment of myocardial dystrophy, so as not to start the ailment.

Doctors distinguish several types of pathology, depending on the causes leading to them.

  1. Dyshormonal myocardial dystrophy appears due to metabolic disorders and hormonal disruptions. Often this disease affects women after 50 years of age who have menopause.
  2. Tonsilogenous myocardial dystrophy is found in people with chronic tonsillitis or tonsillitis. Here doctors state an “attack” of immunity on heart cells. Most often, the pathology occurs in a young body and has the following symptoms: severe tachycardia, shortness of breath, worsening in the evening.
  3. The anemic type of MKD manifests itself as a result of severe blood loss, iron deficiency or hemolytic anemia. Here, the human body receives little oxygen, so you can observe the pathology of the myocardium.
  4. Alcoholic myocardial dystrophy occurs in a person suffering from alcohol dependence. The disease is characterized by cell membrane problems caused by the influence of toxins. This type of ailment can be expressed by trembling in the extremities, excessive sweating, shortness of breath and fussiness. In addition, there is arrhythmia, weak pulse, enlarged heart, swelling, cardiac asthma.
  5. Myocardial dystrophy due to physical exertion occurs in athletes after intense training. Symptoms are varied: increased heartbeat, tingling sensation, low blood pressure.

Experts note the main signs of the development of the disease:

  1. Carrying out electrocardiography showing a violation in the myocardial cells.
  2. Echocardiography, which speaks of the changes that appear in the late stage of such a pathology as myocardial dystrophy of mixed origin. But it is worth considering that many patients may have no symptoms.
  3. Doppler – echocardiography.
  4. MRI.
  5. X-ray.

Therapeutic measures in diagnosing pathology should include ridding the patient of the underlying disease and measures to normalize the nutrition of the heart.

Drug therapy consists in the following actions:

  1. Reception of a beta – adrenergic blocker, which weakens the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. Of the drugs, Anaprilin is most often taken.
  2. The appointment of Riboxin or Mildronate, which improve metabolic processes.
  3. Asparkam restoring electrolyte balance.
  4. Taking medications that reduce blood coagulability. For example, Theonicol.
  5. The use of vitamin and trace elements.

Treatment of myocardial dystrophy should take place under the strict supervision of the attending physician, because diffuse – dystrophic changes must be prevented.

Myocardial dystrophy is a non-inflammatory non-degenerative lesion of the myocardial layer of the heart, the pathogenesis of which is based on metabolic disorders in cardiomyocytes, accompanied by a significant decrease in not only the intensity but also the regularity of the heart.

miokardiodistrofiya simptomy i lechenie 5 - What is adult myocardial dystrophy

The result of dysmetabolic processes occurring in cardiomyocytes is a transition to an oxygen-free airway, which inevitably provokes a decrease in the efficiency of trophism of the myocardial layer of the heart.

Myocardial dystrophy is still insufficiently studied as a separate nosology and requires the attention of scientists in terms of determining the management tactics of patients suffering from this pathology.

In everyday practice, specialists of any profile, including cardiologists, use the uniform generally accepted classification of ICD-10, in which each nosological form is indicated by a serial number (myocardial dystrophy code according to ICD-10: I42). The practical use of this code allows the doctor anywhere in the world to recognize the diagnosis verified in a particular patient.

Depending on the origin, myocardial dystrophy is divided into two large categories: formed against the background of any pathology of the heart or developing against the background of diseases that are not accompanied by impaired cardiac activity. As a cardiac pathology, against the background of which myocardial dystrophy can develop, any cardiovascular disease, except for inflammatory myocardial damage, can act.

The most common situation in which this energy imbalance develops in the myocardium is a prolonged deficiency of vitamins and essential nutrients in the human body, which occurs with prolonged unbalanced nutrition, hunger. In addition, with excessive physical activity in professional athletes, as well as during pregnancy, myocardial dystrophy develops not because of insufficient intake of nutrients into the body, but as a result of their excessive consumption.

According to the etiopathogenetic classification of this pathology, a number of specific forms are distinguished: tonsillogenic myocardial dystrophy (damage to cardiomyocytes as a result of intoxication with tonsilitis), intoxication myocardial dystrophy (alcohol) due to toxic effects on cardiomyocytes.

For the development of alcoholic myocardial dystrophy, a long condition for alcoholism is a prerequisite. In addition, toxic myocardial dystrophy can be provoked by prolonged exposure to the human body of toxins of various kinds (benzenes, nicotine, aniline), as well as drugs in case of overdose.

Neuroendocrine myocardial dystrophy is formed against the background of various disorders of the patient’s hormonal status, as well as with violations of neurohumoral regulation. Dystrophic myocardial damage develops due to the fact that the structures of the nervous system are in a constant excited state, accompanied by excessive production and the release of adrenaline into the general bloodstream. The above changes inevitably provoke an increase in the load on the myocardium, which ends with the formation of irreversible degenerative changes.

Despite the polyetiological nature of this pathology, all etiopathogenetic variants of myocardial dystrophy are characterized by a single pathogenetic development mechanism, which is based on a violation of the energy of intracellular metabolism. The development of myocardial dystrophy in severe anemia is explained by the formation of a hemic hypoxic lesion, which inevitably provokes the development of energy deficiency in the myocardium.

Myocardial dystrophy in children

Myocardial dystrophy in children often develops in the process of fetal development. During an unsuccessful pregnancy, the unborn child may, for various reasons, experience acute or chronic oxygen starvation. Another reason for the occurrence of degenerative processes is infection of the fetus in the womb of the mother. You can specify some other common causes of the development of MCD in childhood:

  • susceptibility to frequent colds and viral diseases;
  • detection of perinatal encephalopathy;
  • anemia;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • excessive exercise;
  • excessive fullness;
  • endocrine dysfunction;
  • drug intoxication.

Most often, it is this type of pathology that is diagnosed as dystrophy of the left ventricle. This is explained by the fact that most of the load in the process of contractile activity falls on this part of the heart. Particularly affected are areas of the myocardium that block the posterior portion of the left ventricle and atrium, as well as delimiting both ventricles.

  • mental and emotional stress of children;
  • irrational physical stress;
  • malnutrition;
  • lack of protein in the body;
  • improper child care;
  • infectious diseases in an advanced stage.

Myocardial dystrophy in children is not very pronounced and is asymptomatic, therefore, with any suspicion of heart problems, you should immediately consult a cardiologist.

If this disease has a place to be, then it is better to cure it in childhood, in order to eliminate the risk of further development of MCD and its detrimental effect on the children’s body.

Treatment and prevention

The duration and effectiveness of treatment with MKD in children depends on the pathology of the development of the disease, which provoked myocardial dystrophy. Most often, children are prescribed potassium and magnesium salt preparations. These drugs restore metabolic processes in the myocardium, normalize the ECG, eliminate electrolyte cellular disorders, replenish the body with potassium and magnesium.

It is also possible to use sedatives in combination with psychotherapy and acupuncture.

The most effective prevention of myocardial dystrophy in children is a healthy and active lifestyle. Therefore, it is very important to teach a child to this from an early age, so that in adulthood he can easily adhere to proper nutrition and abandon bad habits.

Some tips for daily routine

A person who has been diagnosed with dysmetabolic myocardial dystrophy should adhere to the following rules in everyday life:

  1. Fall asleep and wake up according to the regimen, at a certain time. You need to sleep at least 9 hours at night and 2 hours in the afternoon.
  2. Perform daily workouts lasting no longer than half an hour. It is worthwhile to ensure that the body does not get tired very much, which can provoke diffuse – dystrophic changes in the myocardium. If the patient’s condition worsens sharply, the doctor recommends a half-bed regimen.
  3. Regularly engage in physical therapy, breathing exercises, swimming, walking, cycling. Weight lifting and various sports competitions should be excluded.
  4. Observe the body while performing physical exercises – it is worthwhile to prevent the appearance of shortness of breath. If diffuse – dystrophic signs have arisen, then be sure to interrupt the training and rest a bit.
  5. Do not overheat or supercool.
  6. Do not ignore physiotherapy. A shower, baths with needles and sea salt are very useful.
  7. Take a massage several times a year, which reduces swelling.
  8. It is very important not to overwork mentally. With an increase in emotionality, it is worth drinking valerian or motherwort, otherwise excess stimulation of the heart muscle by the nervous system will appear.
  9. It is recommended that alcohol and tobacco smoking be completely eliminated. Bad habits lead to hypertension and a heavy load on the heart.

All the described actions improve the blood circulation and accelerate the treatment of myocardial dystrophy. In addition, an active life position normalizes metabolism and is considered a guarantee of avoiding blood clots.

It should not be forgotten that it is myocardial dystrophy of complex genesis that leads to irreversible consequences. This suggests that pathology should be treated in a timely manner. In addition, the patient should have a positive mood and change his lifestyle for the better. Dyshormonal myocardial dystrophy is not fatal with proper therapy.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.