Types of kidney stones photo and description

Why are kidney stones dangerous?

Now in the world, a lot of people suffer from urolithiasis, characterized by the presence of stones (calculi) in the kidneys.

There are many reasons for their occurrence, the most common are:

  • Lack of sunlight, and therefore vitamin D.
  • Excessive consumption of spicy, sour, salty foods.
  • Infection.
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary system.

The symptoms of the presence of stones depend on their type, but they are mainly as follows:

  • Dull back pain, especially in the lumbar region.
  • Difficulty urinating, often accompanied by pain.
  • Increase in pressure.

If you do not seek medical help in a timely manner, time may be lost. After all, the stone is growing almost constantly, some species are very slow, and some are too fast. Gradually, the stone interferes with the normal outflow of urine from the kidneys and at the same time causes pain of varying intensity.

In addition, it is possible to add an infectious disease, which can lead to pyelonephritis, when the inflammatory process in the kidneys begins to be chronic.

In medical practice, there have often been cases of purulent inflammation in the kidneys, which leads to a disruption in the functioning of this organ, and, accordingly, can calmly lead to such a well-known disease as renal failure.

But in especially advanced cases, the process is irreversible, and the patient can undergo an operation to remove the kidney.

Therefore, when the first symptoms of stones appear, you should immediately consult a specialist and undergo a full course of examination.

Classification

There is a fairly large classification of kidney stones:

By the number of stones:

  • Solitary.
  • Double.
  • Triple.
  • Multiple.

By the shape of the stones:

  • Oval.
  • Round.
  • Coral (with branches shaped like branches)
  • Oblong.
  • Conical.

Depending on the location:

  • One-sided.
  • Bilateral.

Depending on the predominant stone component:

  • Chemical substance
    • Urates (uric acid or its salts)
    • Phosphates and carbonates (salts of phosphoric and carbonic acids)
    • Oxalates (calcium salt of oxalic acid)
    • Struvites.
  • Organic matter
    • Cystine stones.
    • Xanthine stones.
    • Cholesterol stones.
    • Protein stones.

Types of kidney stones

Let us dwell in more detail on the stones, united by such a criterion as a constituent substance. Indeed, depending on a particular type of stones, the symptoms of the disease, as well as the treatment process, will largely depend.

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Urata

Are yellow in color. They have a hard consistency and a smooth or grainy surface.

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For a long time, urates, being in the human body, may not make themselves felt in any way, pains can arise quite unexpectedly in the lumbar region, while they can be directed to the abdomen or to the bladder region.

As additional symptoms of the disease, one can note the appearance of severe chills, as well as nausea and vomiting.

It will not be possible to detect calculi of this type with the help of analyzes and X-rays, an ultrasound is necessary. Urates can be found both in the bladder and in the ureter and kidneys.

This type of calculus mainly appears in the presence of diseases of the digestive system, with a large amount of uric acid, with gout, when eating poor-quality water, with an insufficiently mobile lifestyle, with a lack of B vitamins in the body, when eating a large number of salty and acidic products.

To get rid of urates, surgical intervention is not required, it is enough to adhere to a special diet, which includes the use of a large amount of dairy products and food containing plant components, and drink large quantities of drinks containing alkali, including mineral water.

Struvites

They are light gray or white in color and have a smooth or slightly rough surface.

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Urinalysis, in which the crystals will be located, will help determine the presence of struvite in the kidneys.

The main cause of struvite formation is infectiousness, as well as an alkaline urine reaction.

These stones tend to grow rapidly and take on a coral shape. Basically, struvites are removed only by surgery.

If the stones are not very large, then they can be eliminated by performing kidney lithotripsy, when stones are crushed using a laser or ultrasound, more often without the use of anesthesia, or percutaneous lithotomy – an endoscopic operation, in which a small skin incision is made, and the stones are crushed in the kidney under the action of a nephroscope connected to it with a special tube.

Oxalates

They are dark in color (gray, dark brown or black), and their shape is similar to a crystal with spike-like sharp edges.

- Types of kidney stones photo and description2019

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Oxalates appear in the kidneys most often with a severe lack of vitamin B6, as well as with an increased content of ascorbic and oxalic acids in the blood and urine.

In the treatment of oxalates, a salt-free diet is always present, accompanied by a reduced intake of carbohydrates.

The presence of oxalates is manifested by the presence of the following symptoms:

  • Dull pain in the side.
  • Discoloration of urine to yellowish red.

An ultrasound scan will help to detect such kidney stones.

You can get rid of these types of stones using a conservative technique, the use of which is possible with small sizes of oxalates, the essence of which will be in pain relief, improving the quality of urine outflow, the use of drugs with a litholytic (dissolving stones) effect, for example Cyston, Rovatinex, Ginjaleling “.

In addition to conservative methods of treatment, it is possible to use lithotripsy – crushing stones without using abdominal surgery, but using a laser or ultrasound.

Most often, surgical intervention is performed, which can be carried out in the following ways:

  • Pielolithotomy, when an incision is made mainly on the posterior wall of the renal pelvis.
  • Nephrolithotomy – the removal of calculi is performed through an incision made in the renal paranhemum.
  • Resection of the kidney, when the calculus is removed from the kidney together with its affected and unrecoverable part,
  • Nephrectomy, when the kidney is completely removed.

The choice of a particular treatment method, as well as the type of surgical intervention, depends on the stage of the disease and the size of the kidney stones.

Phosphate stones

The color of such stones is light gray or white, they are mostly smooth, but they may have a slightly rough surface. They are able to grow quickly, but their shape does not allow damage to the kidney.

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Phosphates can be formed in the presence of infection, impaired metabolism, as well as excessive consumption of dairy products and even a sharp change in taste preferences, for example, switching to vegetarianism.

The symptoms of the presence of this type of calculus are as follows:

  • The appearance of aching and acute pain in the lumbar region, gradually turning into the abdomen or genitals.
  • The presence of blood in the urine.
  • Increased body temperature.
  • Difficulty urinating.

Phosphate rock can be detected mainly with the use of an X-ray.

If the calculi are small, then you can get rid of them by following a diet, eating a significant amount of mineral water, taking one of the following drugs: “Ceftriaxone”, “Kanefron”, “Urolesan”, “Biseptol”, “Papaverin”, ” No-shpa “.

Surgery is used only in the presence of large samples of phosphate stones. In this case, either lithotripsy or nephrectomy is performed.

Cystine stones

One of the rare types of kidney stones. They are yellow in color and round.

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The manifestation of stones is reduced to the occurrence of the strongest pain in the abdomen, from which it is almost impossible to get rid of even taking painkillers.

The main reason for the appearance of cystine stones is such a hereditary disease as cystinuria, which is a metabolic disorder.

For treatment, a sodium diet is used, drugs: “Pennicylamine”, “Tiopronin” and “Captopril”. For large stones, lithotripsy is used. However, it is possible to completely get rid of this disease only by performing a kidney transplant.

As you can see, the presence of kidney stones is a rather serious problem, so you should not postpone treatment.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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