ceruloplasmin., in the lesion of org-foci
softening and sclerotherapy.
On the iris
deposition of the evil-zel of the Kaiser-Fleischer ring.
hyperkinesis, increased tone in the center type,
bunk of intelligence.
copper in the urine, a decrease in ceruloplasmin in the blood.
copper bond (unitiol, penicillamine), lower
tonus mouse (cyclodol), antihistamine,
Dystonia – type
muscle contraction of the limbs, trunk,
neck, face. Torsion dystonia
autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive
type. Most often begins during sexual
ripening, but possibly even later
Start. In the first stages, it may appear
local form – blepharospasm, or
segmental form – spastic
wryneck. During the course of the illness, there may be
increase in plastic tone, various
in individual muscle groups, leads
to pathological posture settings
(deforming dystonia). To the second
congenital form adjoins slowly
progressive dystonia combining
with signs of parkinsonism and severe
fluctuation of symptoms throughout the day
(Segawa syndrome, juvenile dystonic
rigid-hypokinetic form is used
DOPA-containing drugs that
especially effective in youthful
dystonic parkinsonism. At
can recommend this sequence
prescription of drugs: 1) anticholinergics
(trihexyphenidyl); 2) baclofen; 3)
(acquired) torsion dystonia
usually a manifestation of childhood
cerebral palsy. Pharmacotherapeutic
approaches are the same as with torsion
ataxia F rdrekh x and – out-rec.
Degenerative ism in the butt and lateral cords
spinal cord (especially the Gaulle pathway),
spinal cord and pyramidal tract.
6-10 years old, sensitive and cerebellar
ataxia, hyporeflexia, chanted
speech, foot hollow (high arch, extension
core and flexion end phalanges
Charcot-Marie (not suffering pronounced depth
chuv, no to piram nar.)
About l and in about p about N about
cerebral atrophy – characteristic
degeneration of neurons of the cerebellar cortex,
cores of the bridge and lower olives.
the basis of progress, a decrease in memory, intelligence,
Menzel-out-house, debut 14-60 years old, brain
rass-va, paresis, paralysis, nar. Choo-ti
Fickler-Winkler-out-rec. The debut is 20-80 years old,
paresis, cerebral ataxia, hyporeflexia.
3) Atrophy with atrophy
retina-out house. Debut in childhood
paresis, nar sensibility, vision
Shuta-Haymakera- out-house, debut 17-30 years old,
nar senses depth, spastic paraplegia,
5) Degeneration with
dementia and ophthalmoplegia and extrapir
Nar Out house. 7-45 years old. Ophthalmopelgia,
diseases include primary
muscle lesions, secondary or neurogenic
atrophy, myasthenia gravis, and myotonia
characteristic in clinical and genetic
respect as progressive muscle
characteristic in clinical and genetic
relation, like myotonic syndromes;
forms of myopathy with characteristic structural
due to hormonal disorders;
toxic and medical.
Group II included
myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndromes.
• children’s and
juvenile spinal atrophy;
amyotrophy – Charcot’s disease – Marie –
hypertrophic neuropathy dejerine
• neuropathy with
characteristic metabolic disturbance.), 3.
or phenocopies. Group I consists of:
• progressive muscular dystrophies;
myopathy • myotonia; •periodic
paralysis; • neurogenic amyotrophy:
neural and spinal. Group II
includes symptomatic forms
neuromuscular diseases developing
amid any underlying misery
(systemic inflammatory disease,
endocrine pathology, etc.).
neurodegenerative obstruction. In mitochondria
bunks of the Krebs cycle =gt; accumulated milk
to-you = gt; metabolic ac >sim we.
(mitochondrial encephalopathy lactate
acidosis) – debut in any age., more often in
carry loads, stroke-like
episodes, Cramps, Torn red fibers
with a biopsy, lactic acidosis, up to 90%
norms developing. Sim-we start-cramps
GB, vomiting, refusal of food. Acetonemic
vomiting, short stature, hearing loss.
Stroke-like episodes (paresis and
paralysis of the end, dizziness, GB,
coma) Provocation –
stress, infection Diagnosis. Increase
blood lactate, CT, MRI, – foci of transient
ischemia., muscle biopsy, blood and cerebrospinal fluid on
blood liquor lactate, pyruvate, metabolic
acidosis, EEG peak wave, muscle biopsy
therapy, vit, neurotrophic-carnitine, riboflavin,
Q 10, cerebrolysin, actovigin,
ataxia, pigmented rhinitis)
Peroxisomes – Oval
organelles, the cat is located in all Cl except
red blood cells they contain a group
enzymes cat using O2 for oxidation in
H2O2, the number of oxidase enzymes, preservative
Kl from aggression O2.
Bol-ni – occurred with a build defect inside
early childhood inherited
autosomal recessive type and
manifested by muscle hypotension,
motor impairment, areflexia,
cardiomyopathy, mental retardation
development, convulsions, liver fibrosis
and kidney cystosis.
craniofacial dysmorphia (high forehead,
low orbit), visual atrophy
nerves, clouding of the lens and cornea,
glaucoma, aplasia of the thymus
From the first months
pronounced delay detected in life
In the cells is noted
increasing the amount of fatty acids with
long carbohydrate chain.
white matter of the brain suffers
accumulated very long chain fatty
set in the brain and adrenal gland.
Children’s debut in
7-9 years old, juvenile at 13 years old, bun behavior,
intelligence, nar. Gait, cramps
Usually get sick
The first symptoms
are found at the age of 5-12 years of life
(violation of behavior, lack of
attention, memory loss)
As you progress
join dementia, loss of vision
due to atrophy of the optic nerves,
pyramidal disorders. Are celebrated
bulbar and pseudobulbar
disorders, sensory deafness.
adrenal insufficiency (general
weakness, vomiting, hyperpigmentation of the skin.
In cerebrospinal fluid increased
the content of immunoglobulins G.
neonatal period or in the first
two years of life and is characterized
severe muscular hypotension,
convulsions, delayed psychomotor
development and enlargement of the liver.
As the disease progresses
joins deafness and decline
vision (retinitis pigmentosa)
adrenal gland and polycystic kidney disease.
Diagnostics. On the
MRI foci of demyelination in the form of a butterfly
in the region, Ur-OTsZhK increase,
tetracazanoic and hexazanoic
and their ratio., increased protein in cerebrospinal fluid,
basal ACTH increased., electrolytes and
Glycerotriolite oil, Larenz oil,
develops in adolescence as a result
accumulation in the body of phytan
acids. Due to the lack of fetonyl CoA hydroxylase
- The concept of blood circulation
- 107. Spinal cord tumors. >Subarachnoid hemorrhage – a frequent complication of a bruise brain =gt; dissociated meningeal syndrome, psychomotor disturbances (delirium, excitement, hallucinations, disinhibition), diencephalic symptoms (thirst, hyperthermia, oliguria), hypertensive syndrome.
- Follow-up treatment for the disease
- Proper nutrition
- Types of vascular origin
- 134. Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.
The concept of blood circulation
The brain and spinal cord of a person are penetrated by many blood vessels, through which blood circulates with a certain speed and pressure. It carries oxygen and nutrients, due to which a person can fully perform many vital functions.
107. Spinal cord tumors. >Subarachnoid
hemorrhage – a frequent complication of a bruise
brain =gt; dissociated meningeal
syndrome, psychomotor disturbances (delirium,
excitement, hallucinations, disinhibition),
diencephalic symptoms (thirst, hyperthermia,
oliguria), hypertensive syndrome.
puncture: CSF red/pink, defin
cytosis, increased protein)
Bruise – damage caused by
easy – there is a focus
With an average focus
larger or several
Treatment method: dehydration,
symptomatic drugs (antipyretics,
antibiotics, heart, anticonvulsant,
tranquilizers). With subarachn-love
puncture, surgical treatment.
In the clinic
there are three periods: acute, due to
exposure (usually occurs with
symptoms of concussion or bruising
brain); latent period – light
the time lag between calmed down already
concussion and not yet
formed compression syndrome;
the actual compression phase of the brain: sharp
bursting headache, impaired
consciousness up to a coma.
Stem symptoms – anisocoria,
increasing mydriasis, horizontal
or vertical strabismus, “floating”
eyeball movements, nystagmus, decrease
corneal and pharyngeal reflexes,
bradycardia, arrhythmias of the pulse and respiration,
a source of hemorrhage
diploetic veins, veins on the top of the brain.
latent period: 3-36h
vein source (nutritional, occipital)
3 days-2 weeks or more.
focal symptomatology predominates
–– rapid development of symptoms,
depression of consciousness, breathing,
heart activity. in cerebrospinal fluid-blood
based on the clinic. symptoms, MRI,
surgical, prescribed hormones. After
extracts from the stats-observation by a neurologist,
vitamin therapy, sedatives .
101. spinal injury
brain. Etiology. Classification.
Hematomyslia. Hematrachis. Clinic.
Injury sp.m .:
concussion, bruise, compression
impact on the spine (fracture
vertebral crush, hemorrhage, hemorrhage
in the place of a bruise, etc.)
In children, younger
in the region C1-2 and the upper chest.
temporary har-r because of irritation does not hold
burs of pelvic functions
or full cross., at full break
hematoma above and below
body separation, paralysis, anesthesia
cervical collar, bedsore prevention,
creation of roundabout ways of blood circulation. Spin
in sp.m localization in the regional center of the channel and back
horns. Symptoms: segmental-dissociated
disorders, vegetative-trophic.gt; peripheral paresis,
wire feels pelvic disturbance.
can be epidural and subdural
and are characterized by radicular and
meningeal symptoms to which
paresis of limbs can join,
conduction disturbances of sensitivity
and pelvic disorders.
bed, hemostasis. The use of dehydrating,
slow growth, 3 stages: radicular, syndrome
half defeat (Brown-Secara),
syndrome of transverse lesion of the spinal cord.
Pain is very pronounced.
at the location of the tumor, at pressure
to pain points. Paresthesia. Act
tumors =gt; pelvic, sensitive,
motor, vegetative trophic
tumor localization: symptomatic lesion of the spinal cord,
trunk and cerebellum.expression intracranial hypertension, on
ocular day stagnant
spinal cord-epidermal tumors, samples of cysts
as a result of skidding of the epidermis in
subarachnoid space with lumbar puncture.
Symptoms: sharp pain in lumbar region, irrad
in lower end, tension symptoms,
decline/loss of dry refl. leg.
pains, paresis, lunges. reflexes, disease.
Lumbar puncture, cerebrospinal fluid
tests, myelography (p-counter substance is administered
after suboccipital puncture in
cerebellar brain tank.
tuberculous spondylitis, syringomyelia, arachnoiditis, mild epiduritis, hemorrhage
vvo sp.m, tumors of a vertebra., scattered
The prognosis is more favorable for extramedullary tumors.
violations are often combined with
developmental delay in speech and mental
diverse: infectious, somatic
and endocrine diseases of the mother,
pregnancy toxicosis, pathology
umbilical cord and placenta, birth anomalies
activities, obstetric operations,
immunological incompatibility of blood
mother and fetus etc
changes in the nervous system are diverse.
30% of children have developmental abnormalities
brain – microgyria, pachygyria, heterotopia,
underdevelopment of hemispheres and others. Dystrophic
brain tissue changes,
with cerebral palsy
cover different sides of motor skills
– pyramidal innervation, extrapyramidal
regulation of positonic automatisms,
cortical mechanisms of formation
targeted motor acts. Tonic
labyrinth reflex in children with cerebral
paralysis is manifested by maximum
increased tone in extensor groups
muscles in the supine position and flexor
in position on the stomach. High muscular
tone contributes to
cerebral palsy ..
(Little syndrome) – the most common
common form of cerebral
paralysis. It is characterized by motor
disorders in the upper and lower extremities,
moreover, the legs are more affected ..
characterized by motor impairment
mostly on one side
characterized by motor impairment
in all limbs
(“Sluggish” form of infant cerebral
paralysis. In the clinical picture on
characterized by predominant
damage to striopallidar structures
systems). Muscle tone is variable, often
fluctuates between hypotension and normotonia,
intermittent spasms are observed.
characterized by impaired coordination
sensorimotor skills training with
reflex their fixation
promotes timely development
motor skills. Exercise therapy, orthopedic
methods, physiotherapy (lek. electrophoresis,
healing baths, pulse current,
muscle electrostimulation), preparations for
improved process conversion (glutamine
acid, lipocerebrin, aminalon, nootropil,
Follow-up treatment for the disease
Scientists have identified the main risk factors that provoke cerebrovascular insufficiency:
- genetic heredity;
- congenital or acquired thin and brittle blood vessels;
- vascular diseases (atherosclerosis, etc.);
- increased blood viscosity;
- disturbances in the work of the heart (defects, a change in its rhythm, etc.);
- high blood pressure;
- disorders in the musculoskeletal system;
- excessive abuse of alcohol and tobacco;
- taking a certain group of medicines (hormonal contraceptives or drugs that change the rheological properties of the blood);
- nervous tension or stress;
- increased physical activity;
- duration of observance of exhausting diets.
Circulatory disorders occur equally among men and women. However, in elderly people, this pathology is diagnosed much more often. This is due to the appearance of chronic diseases that cause disturbances in the natural circulation of blood. Vascular genesis can provoke:
- Transient disturbances;
- Complete or partial blockage of blood vessels;
- Vascular rupture and severe cerebral hemorrhage.
Symptoms of cerebrovascular accident depend on its type and stage. In the acute phase, there are: severe and sudden headache, nausea and vomiting, rapid breathing and heart rate, problems with speech and coordination, paralysis of limbs or parts of the face, split eyes, slight strabismus.
Severe nervous shock often leads to the development of ischemic stroke, which manifests itself against the background of existing atherosclerosis. In this case, the patient experiences severe headache, impaired speech and coordination of movements. All symptoms appear spontaneously and gradually increase.
An intermediate stage between acute and chronic brain failure is a transitional stage. In this case, cerebrovascular accident occurs with a combination of persistent arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. The patient has the following symptoms:
- numbness of half of the body or face, but of which the foci of vascular origin are concentrated;
- “An attack of epilepsy”, partial paralysis;
- increased photosensitivity (reaction of pupils of the eyes to bright light);
- bifurcation in the eyes;
- loss of orientation;
- partial memory loss.
With further progression, the disease goes into a chronic stage. There are three main stages. The initial manifestations of cerebrovascular insufficiency, which are characterized by severe patient fatigue, dizziness and headaches. Often these people suffer from frequent mood swings or loss of concentration.
At the next stage, noise in the head, poor coordination of movements, and inadequacy in reaction to various situations are added to the above symptoms. In addition, the patient becomes drowsy, loses attention, he has significantly reduced performance.
If effective treatment is not timely carried out, then with a lack of oxygen, brain neurons will begin to die, which will lead to serious complications. It is impossible to restore these cells and a person can remain disabled for the rest of his life.
After receiving the results of a comprehensive examination, an individual treatment regimen is selected for the patient. As a rule, he is prescribed a certain course of medications that help stabilize blood circulation in the brain.
It is very important to determine the form and stage of cerebrovascular accident, the effectiveness of therapy directly depends on this.
In acute hemorrhagic type of cerebrovascular accident, patients are prescribed drugs to lower blood pressure, stop bleeding and reduce swelling in the brain. For this, the following medicines are used:
- Arfonad, Pentamin, etc. – help to stabilize the pressure;
- ascorbic acid, calcium gluconate – increase the permeability of the walls of blood vessels, improve the function of blood coagulability;
- Caviton, Cinnarzin, etc. – improve the rheological properties of blood;
- Lasix – helps relieve swelling.
In most cases, drugs are administered intravenously or intramuscularly. With increased intracranial pressure, the patient is punctured.
In ischemic stroke, drugs are used to stabilize the cardiovascular system (Strofantin, Cardiamine, etc.), and a course of stabilizers of intracranial pressure is also prescribed.
If chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency is diagnosed, antioxidants, ventotonics, neuroprotectors, and blood circulation enhancers are used. Since this condition often develops against a background of severe nervous shock, the patient is prescribed light sedatives and vitamin complexes. The course of treatment and dosage are selected by the attending physician individually.
If cerebrovascular accident is caused by atherosclerosis, then medications are used that help break down cholesterol plaques (Vabarbin, Simartin, etc.). With multiple blockage of blood vessels, surgical intervention may be required.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.
It is possible to improve cerebral circulation using folk remedies. Most often, infusions or decoctions based on medicinal plants are used: ginseng and Schisandra chinensis, hawthorn, chamomile, motherwort, etc.
These funds should be used in conjunction with the main treatment regimen, otherwise the risk of complications increases. Before using traditional medicine, you should consult your doctor.
A balanced diet plays a large role in the treatment of circulatory dysfunction. Obese people should avoid fatty, spicy, smoked foods. It is better to eat fresh fruits and vegetables seasonally, healthy cereals, fish, seafood and lean meats.
Drug therapy allows you to stop the progression of the disease, but does not return to the patient lost abilities (restoration of speech, movements, etc.). Therefore, it is important to consult a doctor in a timely manner, since the sooner the changes are recorded, the easier they respond to therapy and have less negative consequences for the patient.
Prevention of cerebrovascular accident includes a healthy lifestyle and nutrition, walking in the fresh air, minimizing strong physical and emotional stress. In the presence of a genetic predisposition to such a disease, it is necessary to regularly undergo examinations by a doctor.
To improve blood circulation, doctors recommend visiting saunas or baths 1-2 times a week (in the absence of direct contraindications). This will help open the clogged vessels and enrich the brain with the necessary amount of blood. In addition, it is recommended to regularly take complexes of vitamins and minerals that help strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
Circulatory problems in the brain are common enough. They appear for various reasons and are subject to immediate treatment. Otherwise, the risk of developing irreversible consequences for the patient increases (speech and movement disorders, memory loss, etc.). For therapy, special medicines are used, which the doctor selects, depending on the form and severity of the disease. Self-medication with this diagnosis is unacceptable.
Vascular pathologies that provoke a violation of cerebral circulation can be very different:
- blood clots
- looping, kinks;
We can talk about cerebral vascular insufficiency in all cases when the amount of blood actually transported to the brain does not coincide with the necessary.
If treatment is not scheduled on time, the plaque will inevitably accumulate platelets, thereby increasing in size, eventually forming a blood clot. It will either block the vessel, obstructing the movement of blood through it, or break off the flow of blood, after which it will be delivered to the cerebral arteries. There, he plugs a vessel, causing an acute cerebrovascular accident called a stroke.
Hypertension is also considered one of the main causes of the disease. For patients suffering from hypertension, a frivolous attitude to their own pressure, including ways to normalize it, was noted.
In the event that treatment is prescribed and the doctor’s prescriptions are followed, the likelihood of vascular insufficiency is reduced.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine can also cause difficulties in blood flow, because it compresses the arteries that feed the brain. Therefore, the treatment of osteochondrosis is not only a question of getting rid of pain, but more of an attempt to avoid serious consequences, including death.
Head injuries can also be a direct cause of the disease. Concussions, hemorrhages or bruises cause compression of the centers of the brain, and as a result – disturbances in cerebral circulation.
The following symptoms are characteristic of cerebrovascular accident:
- headaches of unknown origin, dizziness, goosebumps, tingling sensations not caused by any physical causes;
- immobilization: both partial, when one limb partially loses motor functions, and paralysis, causing complete immobilization of a part of the body;
- a sharp decrease in visual acuity or hearing;
- symptoms indicating problems with the cerebral cortex: difficulty speaking, writing, loss of reading ability;
- epileptic seizures;
- a sharp deterioration in memory, intelligence, mental abilities;
- suddenly developed absent-mindedness, inability to concentrate.
Types of vascular origin
The classification of cerebrovascular accidents can be based on the nature of the course of pathological processes. Possible:
- The acute stage. In this case, the patient most often has a stroke. It occurs suddenly, characterized by a prolonged course and the development of negative consequences (impaired vision, speech, etc.);
- Chronic cerebrovascular accident. Most often appears as a result of atherosclerosis or persistent hypertension.
The vascular genesis of the acute brain is divided into two main groups:
- Ischemic stroke, which is characterized by the formation of blood clots in the vessels of the brain, as a result of which a sufficient amount of blood does not flow to it. There is an acute lack of oxygen and the death of some sections of neurons;
- hemorrhagic stroke, which is accompanied by rupture of a blood vessel and the emergence of a blood clot from it.
Chronic disorders of cerebral circulation develop gradually and do not always have pronounced symptoms. There are three main stages, which are accompanied by various signs.
When the first signs appear, you must immediately consult a doctor who will conduct a comprehensive diagnosis and establish the cause of this condition. Among the main studies distinguish:
- MRI of cerebral vessels;
- ultrasound examination;
- neurologist consultation.
The first method is most often used, it allows you to most reliably establish the place of violation of blood circulation. A more modern technique is magnetic resonance angiography.
It is not carried out in all clinics and requires special equipment and highly qualified specialists. Using this type of research, you can establish how well cerebral circulation functions and identify possible pathologies.
Today, the method of electroencephalography remains popular. It is carried out with epilepsy attacks, problems with speech or brain injuries. Due to fluctuations in electronic potentials, the doctor can identify possible irregularities.
The complexity of the diagnosis lies in the absence of characteristic signs of the disease. Symptoms are very similar to other pathologies, so doctors need to conduct several studies at the same time, which allow reliable data to be obtained.
134. Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.
and putamenny hematoma with a volume of more
30 cm3 (according to other sources – more than 20-30
cm3), accompanied by brain dislocation
and severe neurological deficit;
2. with cerebral hemorrhage
more than 14 cm3 (according to other sources – more
10-15 cm3), resulting in compression IV
ventricle and/or occlusal hydrocephalus;