The concept of extrasystole of the heart, symptoms, causes and types of treatment

The human heart is responsible for the transport of blood through arteries and veins. Blood pumping occurs due to the pumping function of the heart provided by muscle tissue. To maintain blood pressure, the heart contracts rhythmically. The moment of contraction and injection of blood from the heart into the vessels is called systole.

Systole is followed by relaxation of the muscle tissue of the heart, diastole. Extrasystole is the additional occurrence of a contraction of the heart after systole. This is a common type of arrhythmia.

The heart is regulated by internal and external mechanisms. The standard heart rate is set by the sinus node. The electrical impulse arising in the node instantly spreads over all muscle cells and causes contraction. The occurrence of additional systole may be associated with early depolarization and other disorders of the conduction system.

This is a benign condition that often occurs in healthy people. Practically every person at least once in his life had an extrasystole. However, this condition can be dangerous under certain conditions.

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Development mechanism

An electrical impulse coming from the sinus node of the heart causes tissue depolarization. Depolarization is a physiological process during which the charge on the cell membrane changes and heart contractions occur. After depolarization and contraction of the heart, repolarization normally follows, restoring the charge of the cell membrane to the next impulse.

Currently, scientists do not have sufficient data on the exact nature of cardiac extrasystole. Only a few studies studied the development of extrasystole in humans, pathology was mainly studied in animals.

Nevertheless, the following main mechanisms can be distinguished:

  1. Violation of automatism. The electrical impulse responsible for the contraction of the heart must occur in special regulatory myocardial cells. Studies have found that in certain conditions, depolarization can occur in the non-specialized department of ventricular tissue. This phenomenon may be associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The occurrence of an abnormal impulse leads to an additional reduction after systole.
  2. Additional regulatory circuit. Such a process can be associated with interactions at the border of tissues with various properties of conductivity. The appearance of slow-conducting tissue in the myocardium may be associated with heart damage that develops with myocardial infarction.
  3. Trigger activity. After depolarization of the heart tissue caused by the previous impulse, additional activation of muscle cells may occur. Repeated depolarization can occur either during repolarization, or after this process. Such an anomaly may be associated with bradycardia and cardiac ischemia.

Depending on the mechanism of development and the nature of the course, different types of extrasystole are distinguished. Extrasystole may vary by source of origin, the number of additional postsystolic contractions of the heart and the length of the compensatory pause.

In addition, extrasystole may have a different manifestation on the electrocardiogram. Often there are several additional contractions of the heart, following each other without diastole. This indicates a serious violation of the regulation of the heart.

After additional systole, there may be complete and incomplete compensatory diastole. Complete diastole is equal to the duration of two heart rhythms, while incomplete takes less time.

As already mentioned, extrasystole occurs due to a violation of the internal regulatory system of the heart. It is assumed that external factors also affect the development of extrasystole. In addition to internal nodes and the conduction system, the heart is controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve structures.

In most cases, doctors are unable to find out the exact cause of the extrasystole. Patients rarely deal with such a problem – this phenomenon often becomes an accidental diagnostic finding. Additional heart contraction is always not as strong as with normal systole. This leads to an increase in the load on the heart. However, single extrasystoles do not harm the work of the heart.

Factors that can cause extrasystole:

  • Use of certain types of medications, including stimulants and asthma medications.
  • Hormonal imbalance.
  • Alcohol consumption.
  • Different types of addiction.
  • The use of caffeine.
  • Increased anxiety.
  • High pressure.
  • Congenital and acquired heart defects.
  • The consequences of acute myocardial infarction or cardiac ischemia.
  • Heart valve diseases, especially mitral valve prolapse.
  • Various forms of cardiomyopathy.
  • Myocardial sprain.
  • Heart injury.
  • Too low or too high heart rate (bradycardia and tachycardia).
  • Imbalance of electrolytes.
  • Surgery on the heart.
  • Infectious heart disease.
  • In healthy people, extrasystole can cause even a single use of a drink containing a large amount of caffeine.

Random extrasystole, as a rule, is not accompanied by any sensations. Sometimes a feeling of vibration or shock in the chest is possible. Repeated extrasystole enhances these sensations.

One-time occurrences of additional ventricular contraction, as a rule, are not dangerous. Patients do not even notice this phenomenon. A great danger is associated with the development of several extrasystoles that arise from different sources.

Repeated extrasystoles indicate a serious violation of cardiac regulation. With other factors, this can lead to heart failure, fainting, and even heart failure.

Extrasystole, which can be caused even by the use of caffeine, alcohol or tobacco, in addition to the factors we noted in the form of overstrain and overwork, is a condition relatively safe for a person, his life and health. Meanwhile, if we are talking about its appearance in people for whom cardiovascular diseases in one form or another are relevant, then extrasystole plays the role of an increased risk factor.

The appearance of extrasystole is explained by the appearance of ectopic foci characterized by increased activity and localized outside the sinus node (that is, in the ventricles, in the atria or in the atrioventricular node). The extraordinary impulses formed in these foci begin to propagate along the heart muscle, thereby provoking premature cardiac contractions to the diastole phase.

The volume of blood ejection with extrasystole is below normal, for this reason frequent extrasystoles (extraordinary contractions of certain parts of the heart), occurring more often 6-8 times per minute, can lead to noticeable changes in the minute volume of blood circulation. It should be noted that the sooner the extrasystole begins to develop, the correspondingly, the less will be the volume of blood accompanying the extrasystolic discharge.

Depending on the specific type of extrasystoles, their individual clinical significance is determined, as well as the corresponding prognostic characteristics. The most dangerous extrasystoles are gastric. Their development is accompanied by the presence of organic damage to the heart, against which they, in fact, arise.

Extrasystole – individual parts of the human body. A decrease in cardiac output in this situation can lead to a decrease in blood flow, including in the brain. Naturally, all this leads to the development of such a rather dangerous ailment as angina pectoris. Paresis may appear, as well as fairly frequent fainting.

Additionally, it is worth noting the fact that single extrasystoles can often occur in a completely healthy person. According to information from numerous studies, the disease is observed in almost 80 percent of people. The disease is observed more often in those patients whose age is in the range of more than 50 years.

The development of the disease can initially be explained by the appearance of certain ectopic nature of the foci with the presence of an increased level of activity. Extraordinary strong impulses appear. They diverge completely throughout the muscle. Also, all this leads to premature reduction. Similar specific complexes can actually form in each variety of department. So what are extrasystoles? With this, everything is clear! But what else do you need to know about this kind of disease?

Causes

The causes of arrhythmia can be of the most diverse nature. Most often, when the adverse factor is eliminated, the symptoms of the disease disappear. Adverse factors in this case include:

  • stressful states;
  • excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages;
  • fatigue;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • excessive physical exertion;
  • heart diseases.

This ailment can occur even after excessive use of coffee. And also it can develop due to a deficiency of potassium and magnesium in the body.

Diseases such as atherosclerosis, rheumatism, myocardial infarction can trigger systolic arrhythmias.

Doctors also diagnose a form of the disease, such as toxic extrasystole. It can occur as an adverse reaction to taking certain medications, such as, for example:

The causes of arrhythmias that were not caused by any disease are called functional. They do not need treatment and quickly pass by themselves. This type of arrhythmia usually occurs in young people with a tendency to neurotic disorders.

Various diseases accompany organic extrasystole. This type of arrhythmia requires a serious approach. The patient will need treatment. Before you assign it, you will need to conduct a thorough diagnosis of the body. This type of arrhythmia is usually observed in older people.

Functional extrasystoles can be triggered by a number of reasons:

  • overwork;
  • vegetovascular dystonia;
  • menstruation;
  • neurosis;
  • stress
  • drinking alcohol, strong tea and coffee;
  • smoking;
  • infectious and inflammatory diseases accompanied by high body temperature;
  • osteochondrosis of the cervical and thoracic spine.

Organic extrasystoles can develop with:

  • myocarditis;
  • cardiomyopathies;
  • pericarditis;
  • heart defects;
  • pulmonary heart;
  • amyloidosis;
  • sarcoidosis;
  • hemochromatosis;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • cardiosclerosis;
  • after heart surgery;
  • impaired metabolism of potassium and sodium;
  • type 1 and type 2 diabetes;
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • bronchitis;
  • anemia.

The appearance of toxic extrasystoles can provoke the following drugs:

  • theophylline;
  • cardiac glycosides;
  • diuretics;
  • glucocorticosteroids;
  • tricyclic antidepressants.

Such pathologies can provoke the development of extrasystole:

  • heart defects;
  • vegetative-vascular dystonia;
  • IHD: angina pectoris, myocardial infarction;
  • myocarditis;
  • myocardial dystrophy;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • cardiosclerosis;
  • intoxication with a developed infectious disease;
  • hyperthyro /> The abuse of coffee, drinks containing guarana.

Functional extrasystoles include disorders of the rhythm of neurogenic (psychogenic) origin associated with food, chemical factors, alcohol intake, smoking, drug use, etc. Functional extrasystole is recorded in patients with autonomic dystonia, neurosis.

osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, etc. An example of a functional extrasystole is arrhythmia in healthy, well-trained athletes. In women, extrasystole can develop during menstruation. Extrasystoles of a functional nature can be triggered by stress, the use of strong tea and coffee.

Functional extrasystole, developing in practically healthy people for no apparent reason, is considered idiopathic. Organic extrasystole occurs with myocardial damage: coronary heart disease. cardiosclerosis. myocardial infarction. pericarditis. myocarditis. cardiomyopathies. chronic circulatory failure, pulmonary heart.

Toxic extrasystoles develop with febrile conditions, thyrotoxicosis. proarrhythmic side effect of certain drugs (aminophylline, caffeine, novodrin, ephedrine, tricyclic antidepressants, glucocorticoids, neostigmine, sympatholytics, diuretics, digitalis drugs, etc.).

The development of extrasystole is due to a violation of the ratio of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions in myocardial cells, which negatively affects the conduction system of the heart. Physical activity can provoke extrasystole associated with metabolic and cardiac disorders, and suppress extrasystoles caused by autonomic dysregulation.

Extrasystole, as mentioned above, can be present in any healthy patient. But the causes of extrasystole in reality may be the most diverse. Initially, it is necessary to note the fact that extrasystole, the causes of which are numerous, can actually turn out to be correspondingly functional.

Initially, all sorts of violations in the rhythm itself should be attributed here. It may have a psychogenic origin. At the same time, the main reasons for the development of such a phenomenon should initially include:

  1. Drug use.
  2. Drinking alcoholic beverages.
  3. Too frequent smoking.
  4. Various chemical factors.
  5. Nutritional reasons.

A functional variety of this disease is observed in those people who suffer from the following types of diseases: neurosis, autonomic dystonia, osteochondrosis. The main example of an ailment can be arrhythmia, which occurs in an ordinary healthy completely human.

Extrasystole is of two types:

  1. Ventricular – premature excitation of the heart muscle resulting from impulses emanating from various areas of the conduction system of the ventricles.
  2. The supraventricular is also premature excitation of the muscle, but the cause of premature excitation is impulses coming from outside the conducting system.

The most common option is ventricular extrasystole, since various heart diseases that disrupt the functioning of the heart muscle can be associated with it.

All reasons are divided into two main types:

Functional – arise as a natural reaction of the body to a different type of reaction (smoking, physical and emotional stress, frequent use of alcohol and caffeinated drinks, violation of sleep, nutrition, etc.)

Organic – indicate abnormalities in the work of the heart muscle. The most common causes are:

  • ischemia;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • myocarditis;
  • heart failure.

Classification

Depending on the location of the pulse, extrasystole can have different types. Its main varieties include:

Of all these types of ailment, the most common are ventricular and atrial extrasystoles.

Ventricular extrasystole is characterized by impulses emanating from the ventricles – left or right.

This type of arrhythmia is characterized by a strong impulse and a subsequent long pause. Ventricular extrasystole can go into a more serious disease – ventricular tachycardia.

Atrial extrasystole develops accordingly in the atria. With an unfavorable prognosis, she risks going into atrial or paroxysmal arrhythmia.

There are several classifications of extrasystole depending on various parameters.

  1. Functional. They are associated with the influence of environmental factors or neurogenic disorders.
  2. Organic These are the most complex and serious disorders caused by cardiological ailments.
  3. Toxic. They appear against the background of endocrinological diseases and chronic intoxications.
  4. Idiopathic (for no specific reason).

Depending on the frequency of occurrence:

  • frequent (more than 15 in 1 min);
  • medium (6-15 in 1 min);
  • rare (less than 5 in 1 min).

According to the sequence of normal and additional abbreviations:

  • bigemia (there is an “extra” contraction of the heart after each physiological correct one);
  • trigemia (extrasystoles appear every couple of systoles);
  • quadrogemia (an extraordinary contraction after every third systole);
  • allorhythmia (alternating normal rhythm with any of the above options).
  • atrial (foci of electrical impulses of the heart appear in the atria);
  • atrioventricular (foci occur in the area of ​​the ventricular-atrial septum);
  • ventricular (foci of impulses of contractions in the ventricles appear);
  • sinus (premature impulses of the sinus rhythm);
  • combined options.

By the number of sources of occurrence:

  1. Single (monotropic). Extraordinary impulses come from one focus.
  2. Multiple (polytropic). Impulses come from several foci.

According to life forecast:

  • safe;
  • potentially dangerous;
  • life threatening.

Normally, a contraction occurs in the sinus node, then passes through the atrioventricular node and into the ventricles along the 2 nerve bundles. With extrasystolic disorders, additional excitation occurs in other nodes out of turn. That is, heart contractions are observed simultaneously in the normal cycle and outside this process. Pathology is ectopic in nature, classified according to various criteria.

By localization of the pulse focus:

  1. Ventricular extrasystole (ventricular): pathological lesions occur in the ventricles.
  2. Supraventricular arrhythmia: contractions are noted in the heart over the ventricles. There may be such types:

– Atrial extrasystole (supraventricular) is considered the easiest form, since there is no rhythmic malfunction, but extraordinary contractions in the atrium occur;

– atrioventricular view (atrioventricular): the location of the abnormal contraction in the atrioventricular node, which is located between the atria and ventricles;

– sinus type – in the sinus node there are additional premature foci of nerve impulses.

  1. Monomorphic monotopic extrasystoles are characterized by a single source of occurrence with a constant adhesion interval in a single lead. The shape of the ECG is the same, the duration of the QRS is different.
  2. Contractions polymorphic monotopic also have one source and a constant interval, but the shape of the ECG is different.
  3. Extrasystoles are polytopic: there are several ectopic foci with different adhesion intervals, but in one lead. The form of extrasystolic complexes is different.
  4. Paroxysmal tachycardia of an unstable type: at least 3 extrasystoles are formed, following each other (volley contractions). Marked electrical instability of the heart muscle is noted.
  • early form – occurs at the beginning of the interval;
  • medium – in the middle;
  • late – at the end (rest period).
  • frequent reductions – 15 or more beats per minute;
  • medium extrasystoles – from 6 to 15 per minute;
  • rare rhythms – less than 5 per minute.
  • bigemia: pathological extrasystoles (PE) follow after the 1st sinus contraction;
  • trigimeniya: PE occur after every 2nd normal contraction;
  • quadrigimenia: PE follows after the 3rd sinus contraction.
  1. The functional type occurs against the background of external factors (abuse of strong coffee, tea, alcohol, physical overload, psychoemotional bursts). It can also be neurogenic disorders.
  2. The organic appearance appears due to the presence of cardiological pathologies, surgical intervention on the heart organ.
  3. The toxic form is formed due to diseases of the endocrine system, intoxication, taking certain groups of drugs.
  4. Idiopathic and psychogenic appearance – lack of cause, psychosomatic disorders (frequent stress, depression, overwork).
  1. Safe arrhythmia is characterized by extrasystoles that do not violate hemodynamics, do not have an organic nature of occurrence, do not pose a threat to human life. Therapeutic treatment is not required.
  2. Potentially dangerous extrasystole occurs against a background of diseases of the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic disorders are minor. Left ventricular dysfunction, periodic ventricular tachycardia may be noted.
  3. Dangerous arrhythmia – hemodynamics are impaired, there are complications that arise due to severe myocardial lesions.

Extrasystole is ventricular and supraventricular.

The most common arrhythmia with the formation of extraordinary contractions in the conduction system of the ventricles. Premature contractions come from the branching of the bundle of His, Purkinje fibers. It is subdivided into left ventricular and right ventricular arrhythmia. Most often occurs against the background of diseases of various body systems.

Based on the daily monitoring of the ECG, 5 main classes are distinguished:

  • class No. 1 – extrasystoles are not noted;
  • class No. 2 – a maximum of 30 extrasystoles of a monotypic type are noted per hour;
  • class No. 3 – over 60 minutes, 30 or more monotopic reductions are detected;
  • class No. 4 is divided into 2 types: “a” – paired monotopic extrasystoles are registered, “b” – paired polytopes are present;
  • class No. 5 – polytopic extrasystoles are recorded in groups, there can be more than 10 of them per minute.

Class 1 arrhythmia is physiological, that is, not life-threatening. The remaining classes have persistent hemodynamic disturbances, leading to ventricular fibrillation and death.

Types of the disease, based on the frequency of manifestation:

  • rare (single) extrasystoles – up to 5 units occur per minute;
  • average contractions – from 60 to 5 extrasystoles are noted in 15 seconds;
  • frequent manifestations – over 15 contractions per minute.

With medium and frequent extrasystoles, the pulse is significantly accelerated, the person’s condition worsens, therefore, the use of drug therapy is required.

exciting pulses are generated not only in the sinus region, but also in the area above the ventricles (upper half of the heart). Abnormal foci do not properly distribute blood flow, general blood circulation is disturbed, the heart muscle is overstrained and depleted. The disease leads to severe complications – heart failure, heart attack.

According to the number of foci, the supraventricular view is divided into 2 types:

  • single focus – monotopic form;
  • plural – polytopic species.
  • the early type manifests itself in the period of atrial contraction;
  • interpolated view – PE occurs between the ventricle and the atrium;
  • late type – during the period of diastole (with contraction of the ventricles or relaxation).

Depending on the area in which the formation of ectopic foci of excitation occurs, ventricular extrasystoles, atrial ventricular extrasystoles and atrial extrasystoles are determined. In addition, some variants of their combination are also distinguished. Extremely rare cases indicate that extraordinary impulses appear from the sinus-atrial node, that is, from the physiological pacemaker.

In some cases, two rhythms are noted simultaneously, that is, sinus and extrasystolic rhythms, which is defined as parasystole.

The next pair of extrasystoles is called paired, but if there are more than two of them, then extrasystoles are called group (or salvo).

They also distinguish between the rhythm in which normal systoles alternate with extrasystoles (i.e., bigeminia), the rhythm in which two normal systoles alternate with extrasystoles (trigeminia), and the rhythm in which the extrasystole follows every third normal contraction. The regular recurrence of bigeminia, trigeminia, and quadrigeminia defines these conditions as allorhythmia.

Depending on the frequency of the formation of extrasystoles, rare extrasystoles (up to 5 in 1 minute), medium extrasystoles (from 6 to 15 in 1 minute), as well as frequent extrasystoles (more than 15 times per minute) are determined. Depending on the number of emerging ectopic foci, extrasystoles with one focus (monotopic) and extrasystoles with several foci (polytopic) are determined.

Depending on the etiological factors, such types of extrasystoles as functional extrasystoles, toxic extrasystoles and organic extrasystoles are determined.

They are disturbances in the rhythm of psychogenic (neurogenic) origin. They are associated with chemical exposure factors, with the use of alcohol and drugs, with smoking, etc. Functional extrasystole is also recorded in patients with a diagnosis of autonomic dystonia, osteochondrosis, neurosis and other conditions.

As an example of the variety of extrasystole under consideration, arrhythmia can be noted that occurs in trained and quite healthy individuals involved in sports. You can also note the frequency of development of functional extrasystole in women during the onset of menstruation. Functional extrasystoles are provoked, among other things, by stress and the use of such strong drinks as coffee and tea.

Extrasystole in children

In childhood, this pathology can be triggered by heart disease, taking a number of medications, and increased secretion of thyroid hormones. Another reason is the psychoemotional and physical overload on the children’s body.

Most cases are extrasystoles, which are of a vegetative origin. They are distinguished by several varieties:

  1. Sympathetic dependent. Their occurrence is characteristic of the period of puberty. A distinctive feature is a decrease during sleep, a predominance in the afternoon, amplification in an upright position.
  2. Combined dependent. Occur in young children and schoolchildren.
  3. Wag dependent. Usually occur in older children.

The disease is often asymptomatic and is detected by a pediatrician during a routine examination. Possible complaints:

  • poor appetite;
  • problems with memory and attention;
  • general weakness;
  • difficulty falling asleep and poor sleep.

If the child has failures, strokes, sinking hearts, dizziness, general severe weakness, this may indicate serious pathologies of the cardiovascular system.

In childhood, extrasystole of an organic nature rarely occurs. The main cause are diseases of the cardiovascular system of the congenital and acquired species. Arrhythmia can develop against the background of increased production of hormones in the thyroid gland. Some groups of drugs provoke the disease, physical overload, mental fatigue.

Children’s extrasystole is of the following types:

  1. Symptomatically dependent type occurs during puberty.
  2. The combined-dependent kind is found in schoolchildren and preschool children.
  3. Vago-dependent type – mainly in adolescents.

Pathology is detected during a random examination, as it proceeds without symptoms. But parents need to pay attention to such signs:

  • deterioration of appetite;
  • poor concentration of attention and memory;
  • frequent weakness;
  • insomnia;
  • trouble falling asleep.

If extrasystolic signs are found, you must immediately contact a cardiologist, undergo a full examination, change your lifestyle and strictly adhere to the prescribed therapy. And if necessary, carry out surgical intervention.

Extrasystole of the heart: symptoms (signs)

Extrasystole itself has practically no external manifestations and it is rather difficult to distinguish it without special devices. But with frequent occurrences of extrasystoles in patients, the following can occur:

  • complaints of strong heartbeats and tremors;
  • feeling of freezing in the chest.

It is most likely to determine the disease by its consequences:

  • increased sweating;
  • unreasonable feelings of fear, anxiety;
  • feeling of lack of air;
  • angina attacks;
  • frequent fainting.

It is worth remembering that the above symptoms can be signs of other diseases associated with both the cardiovascular and other systems of the human body. Therefore, do not hesitate, it is better to immediately contact a cardiologist who will prescribe all the necessary tests and help you find the true cause of the symptoms.

Extrasystole is divided into several classes, depending on the complexity of the manifestation.

Grade 1 – the occurrence of up to 30 extraordinary strikes within an hour. It is not dangerous to human life, since such a number of strokes is considered the norm.

Grade 2 – over 30 extraordinary beats per hour, a more complex manifestation than Grade 1, but practically does not lead to negative consequences.

Grade 3 – extrasystoles in a certain ECG section have a different shape (they are also called polymorphic). With frequent occurrence, they require additional diagnosis and treatment.

Grade 4 is divided into 2 subclasses:

  • 4A – pair jumps following one after another;
  • 4B – from 3 to 5 extrasystoles in a row.

Grade 5 – the occurrence of early extraordinary strikes.

If grades 1-3 do not practically harm the body and with timely treatment, the symptoms completely disappear, then 4 and 5 can lead to ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia, which in turn causes complete cardiac arrest. This is especially true for people over the age of 50 and having heart ailments.

With a large number of extrasystoles, cardiac performance also decreases, since the basic function of the heart is disrupted.

The disease can be diagnosed in several ways. The most common option is that a patient with appropriate complaints and symptoms comes to the doctor, who in turn prescribes the most usual daily ECG. After which, depending on the identified class of the disease, treatment is prescribed. The latter occurs only if it is truly necessary.

The main diagnostic methods include:

  • daily ECG monitoring;
  • analysis of patient complaints;
  • differential diagnosis.

If it is not possible to detect rhythm disturbance in a calm state by means of an ECG, special tests are prescribed in which the body is physically loaded (running, walking, exercise).

The most common tests:

  • treadmill test – the use of a treadmill with an electrocardiograph and instruments for measuring blood pressure connected to a patient;
  • Bicycle ergometry – the use of an exercise bike to create physical activity, equipment for measuring ECG and blood pressure during direct exercise, as well as at the resting stage.

In the presence of possible concomitant deviations in the work of the heart, it can also be prescribed:

  • Ultrasound of the heart;
  • magnetic resonance therapy of the heart (MRI);
  • stress echo cardiogram.

Extrasystole: symptoms

Extrasystoles in most cases may not be felt. Sometimes there is a single sharp jolt and temporary cardiac arrest. When a group of extrasystoles occurs, a person may feel a slight malaise, which is expressed by the following symptoms:

  • dizziness;
  • weakness;
  • feeling short of breath;
  • pain in the heart.

Ventricular extrasystoles pose more danger to the body than atrial.

Frequently recurring arrhythmias can be dangerous. They cause a decrease in cardiac output, which in turn leads to a slowdown in cerebral and renal circulation. They become the cause of chronic insufficiency of coronary, renal, cerebral circulation.

In some cases, the symptoms of extrasystole are completely absent. Especially when it comes to pathologies of organic origin.

Characteristic signs for extrasystole may be:

  • turning over and tremors in the region of the heart;
  • heartache;
  • sinking heart;
  • hot flashes;
  • sweating;
  • general weakness;
  • pallor of the skin;
  • increased anxiety;
  • lack of air;
  • feeling of fullness in the chest area;
  • cough;
  • paresis;
  • dizziness;
  • fainting conditions;
  • transient speech impairment.

Quite often, symptoms do not occur for a long time, the patient may experience predominantly

In the future, such signs are observed:

  • feeling of a sinking heart;
  • tremors in the chest area;
  • feeling of turning over the heart organ;
  • sternal pain;
  • hot flush;
  • increased sweating;
  • sudden feeling of tiredness;
  • weakness of the body;
  • blanching or redness of the skin;
  • lack of air;
  • dyspnea;
  • chest fullness;
  • cough;
  • dizziness and pain in the head;
  • pre-syncope, loss of consciousness;
  • paresis;
  • impaired speech and motor activity;
  • sharp anxiety, a sense of fear.

With extrasystole, sensations of a subjective nature do not always have the severity of their own manifestations. The hardest marked tolerance of extrasystoles in those individuals for whom the diagnosis of vegetative-vascular dystonia is relevant. At the same time, persons with organic lesions of the heart can, on the contrary, be much easier to tolerate extrasystole.

Most manifestations of extrasystole are expressed in a kind of shock or push that occurs in the chest from its inside. Such manifestations are caused by the energy of ventricular contractions that occur after a compensatory pause.

In addition, there are also manifestations of this condition, such as “turning over, somersaulting” of the heart in combination with interruptions in its work and fading. For a functional extrasystole, the characteristic manifestations are hot flashes, a sense of anxiety, weakness, general discomfort, lack of air and excessive sweating.

Frequent extrasystoles with their characteristic group and early character lead to a decrease in cardiac output, respectively, this provokes a decrease in the order of up to 25% of indicators of cerebral, renal and coronary circulation. Patients who have signs of atherosclerosis experience dizziness; in addition, transient forms of disorders related to cerebral circulation (paresis, aphasia, fainting) can also develop. Patients with coronary heart disease, in turn, experience angina attacks.

The most dangerous are rhythm disturbances that are not felt by a person and are detected only with the help of a cardiogram.

If the symptoms of extrasystole are felt, then it is described by patients as follows:

  • strong push of the heart from the inside;
  • “Turning over” of the heart or its “somersault”;
  • interruptions in work, sinking hearts;
  • Measurements of the pulse rate are often not indicative, since only pulse beats that develop during normal heart contractions reach the limb arteries.

1) With functional extrasystole – a sensation of heat in the form of “tides”, a sense of anxiety, lack of air, sweating;

2) With organic forms of this arrhythmia. when a rhythm disturbance leads to a decrease in blood supply to the brain, blood vessels of the heart, kidneys, it feels like:

  • dizziness,
  • headache,
  • shortness of breath,
  • fainting
  • angina attacks (pain in the heart, behind the sternum),
  • decrease in the amount of urine excreted per day.

Subjective sensations with extrasystole are not always expressed. Tolerance of extrasystoles is harder in people suffering from vegetative-vascular dystonia; patients with organic heart damage, on the contrary, can tolerate estrasystole much easier. More often, patients feel extrasystole as a stroke, a push of the heart into the chest from the inside, due to an energetic contraction of the ventricles after a compensatory pause.

Also, there are “somersaults or flipping” of the heart, interruptions and fading in his work. Functional extrasystole is accompanied by hot flashes, discomfort, weakness, anxiety, sweating. lack of air.

Frequent extrasystoles, which are early and group, cause a decrease in cardiac output, and, consequently, a decrease in coronary, cerebral and renal blood circulation by 8-25%. In patients with signs of cerebral arteriosclerosis, dizziness is noted. transient forms of cerebrovascular accident (fainting, aphasia, paresis) may develop; in patients with coronary heart disease – angina attacks.

Extrasystole today is observed in a huge number of people. But subjective sensations in the presence of such a disease can often not be very pronounced. The disease is more severely tolerated much more complicated in those patients who suffer from dystonia. In addition, it is worth noting here people with the presence of an organic variant of heart damage. In this case, the disease is tolerated much easier. Often sensations appear under the guise of:

  1. The strongest blows.
  2. Significant ventricular contraction.
  3. Shocks directly into the chest itself.

Additionally, the “turning over” of the main organ is also noted. Fading or significant interruptions in functionality is considered an exception. In any case, with the ailment of this patient often complain about the presence of the following problems: hot flashes, uncomfortable feelings, significant weakness, extreme anxiety. Also, the presence of a huge lack of air and severe sweating is often observed.

Too frequent manifestation of the disease can have both a group and an early specific character. All this provokes the occurrence of a decrease in the corresponding cardiac output. Naturally, there is a decrease in blood circulation in the brain. At the same time, it is necessary to note the fact that in patients with the presence of atherosclerosis, severe dizziness can often be observed. But people with coronary artery disease also have significant bouts of angina pectoris.

Diagnosis of extrasystole

The main diagnostic method of the disease is an electrocardiogram. The disease can be suspected by the patient’s complaints. In order to start treatment, it is important to first determine that these are extrasystoles, and not another type of arrhythmia.

Particular attention when talking with a patient is given to the following issues:

  • the time of occurrence of extrasystoles;
  • the frequency of rhythm disturbances;
  • the influence of emotional and physical factors is studied;
  • what medicines the patient takes;
  • are there any heart and chronic diseases.

This type of arrhythmia can be determined by examining the pulse. This disease is characterized by a pulse wave, knocking out of the general heart rhythm and subsequent lull.

The doctor diagnoses this disease with auscultation.

To confirm the diagnosis, an ECG is performed, it can also be a daily mount. this type of diagnosis also involves prolonged monitoring of the heart rhythm.

Heart pulsation is recorded on special portable equipment, which is installed for a patient for a day or more.

Sometimes the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound of the heart, MRI, Echo-KG for a more thorough study of the disease.

To establish an accurate diagnosis, consultation with an experienced cardiologist is necessary. He interviews the patient for complaints, past illnesses, heredity. Next, the doctor conducts an objective examination of the patient, listens to the heart with a phonendoscope, reveals changes in heart rate and heart rate.

  • General analysis of blood and urine.
  • Blood test for hormones.

Other diagnostic methods:

  1. Electrocardiographic examination is a non-invasive examination of the heart using cutaneous electrodes. It confirms the presence of extraordinary contractions of the heart and allows you to determine the pathological impulse based on the characteristic changes in the graph of the heart cycle.
  2. Daily ECG monitoring. This is a diagnostic procedure, which consists in the fact that a portable ECG device is connected to the patient. With it, you can estimate the number of additional reductions during the day.
  3. Treadmill test is a stress test, which is carried out by walking the patient on a treadmill with preliminary and subsequent recordings of a cardiogram.
  4. Bicycle ergometry helps to identify extrasystoles and violations of ischemic processes by conducting electrocardiography at the time of physical activity. The researcher turns the pedals on the simulator at different speeds (the load is constantly increasing).
  5. Ultrasound of the heart. Detects myocardial pathology and the condition of the heart valves.
  6. Transesophageal electrophysiological examination of the heart. The patient is injected with a probe with an electrode through the esophagus, weak impulses are fed through it, and cardiac muscle responses are measured.
  7. MRI of the heart. This is an expensive study, which is required with an uninformative cardiogram and to identify pathologies of other organs.

Irregular extrasystole is difficult enough to diagnose. Typically, this phenomenon is accidentally detected in completely healthy patients during the analysis of electrocardiogram data. If you suspect a regular extrasystole, special instrumental diagnostic methods can be prescribed.

At the doctor’s appointment, it is necessary to report symptoms of heart dysfunction and other complaints. The doctor will conduct a physical examination, listen to the heart using a phonendoscope, measure blood pressure and pulse.

Also, for the diagnosis of extrasystole, the following methods will be required:

  • Electrocardiography Using this procedure, the doctor records the electrical activity of the heart, including the heart rate. Analysis of ECG data allows you to accurately identify any rhythm disturbance.
  • Echocardiography. This is a visualization technique that uses sound waves to project a moving image of the heart onto a monitor. Detailed images of chambers and heart valves allow the doctor to diagnose pathologies.
  • Angiography of the heart. For this procedure, a catheter is placed in the artery (in the groin or on the arm). The device is carefully moved along the channel of the artery in the heart. By introducing a contrast medium, accurate x-rays of the heart can be made and the functional state of the organ diagnosed.
  • Holter study. The method involves the use of a portable ECG device during the day. During the study, the patient notes the time of occurrence of discomfort in the chest. Holter study allows you to diagnose irregular extrasystole.

In addition to diagnosing extrasystole directly, it may be necessary to diagnose primary diseases that caused a violation of the regulation of the heart.

In order to prescribe adequate therapy, it is necessary to accurately establish the diagnosis and cause of arrhythmia. When visiting the clinic, the doctor collects an anamnesis – interviews the patient about the signs that appear, the frequency of the rhythm failure. It is important to consider what time of day interruptions begin (morning, evening, night). The circumstances preceding this are clarified (physical exertion, stress, excitement, calm state).

A cardiologist or therapist studies the history of all past diseases and pathologies of a chronic nature that could provoke arrhythmic disorders. Next, a laboratory study and other hardware diagnostic methods are assigned.

An obligatory measure is an electrocardiogram, due to which the appearance of extrasystoles is detected. The film reflects all premature contractions with alternating normal extrasystoles. If there are several, this indicates group extrasystoles. If they are early, then layering on the tops of the teeth, deformation or expansion is visible.

An ECG is a non-invasive electrophysiological test that records the bioelectric potentials of the heart organ. Electrodes are connected to the patient’s chest area, which transmit indicators to the monitor and a sheet of paper in the form of graphs. The following is evaluated:

  • level of conductivity and excitability;
  • automatism of the process;
  • depolarization;
  • source of heart rhythm;
  • frequency and regularity of heartbeat;
  • hypertrophic abnormalities in the chambers;
  • myocardial change;
  • repolarization (relaxation).

Based on the data obtained, myocardial functionality, the location of pathological contractions, and the nature of extrasystole are determined. Excitation is displayed by the teeth of the atria P, and the ventricles by Q, R, S. Repolarization is indicated by the T wave, the intervals and segments are detected against the background of the relationship of all the teeth.

  1. P: phase of excitement in the atria.
  2. Q and S: the tooth is negative.
  3. R: tooth positive.
  4. T: ventricular relaxation wave.
  1. AV node.
  2. Leg of the bundle of His.
  3. The trunk of the bundle of His.
  4. Purkinje fibers.

The electrocardiogram indicates the electrical axis (EO), showing the average total position of the vector with a full cycle of contractions. According to the standard, the EA should be as follows: direction – down and to the left by 30-90 degrees. With arrhythmia, deviations will be in the form of teeth.

How is an electrocardiogram performed:

  1. The patient is placed on a couch in a stationary state horizontally.
  2. The chest, wrists, ankles are exposed. Sensors are installed in these places.
  3. The patient should relax and breathe evenly.
  4. For 5-7 minutes, indicators are fixed.
  5. There is a tape containing information about the person being examined.

This method involves the study of the myocardium throughout the day using a portable ECG device. The device independently captures and records data. In the end, the results are obtained with the following indicators:

  1. The average heart rate in the daytime (normally from 60 to 100 beats per minute).
  2. Average heart rate during sleep day and night. The number of strokes without deviations is 40-80 units.
  3. Change in heart rate during the day, depending on the change in activity (physical activity, taking medications, etc.).
  4. The number of gastric extrasystoles. With a healthy heart – 0. But a maximum of 200 cuts is allowed.
  5. The number of supraventricular contractions. Normally, there should be 960 extrasystoles per day. Valid up to 1.
  6. Duration of intervals PQ, QT, schedule of change. The norm of the QT interval: for women is 340-450 ms, for men 340-430 ms. PQ is 120-200 ms.
  1. The patient is asked to expose the chest, after which the vegetation is shaved, and the area is treated with an alcohol solution.
  2. Electrodes are attached to the chest, similar to those used on a simple electrocardiogram. These electrodes are attached to a portable battery-powered device. The device is also attached to the body for convenience. To do this, use a special belt, adhesive plaster.
  3. The patient should do the usual things within 24 hours, do physical exercises, rest.
  4. At a strictly designated time, the patient is sent to the clinic to remove the device.
  5. The doctor removes disposable electrodes that are disposed of. The device is connected to a computer, after which the records are viewed and decrypted.

A cardiologist recommends keeping a diary in which data is recorded recording the time of such actions:

  • food intake (and what exactly the patient ate);
  • sleep day and night (beginning and end);
  • emotional malfunction (e.g., excitement, stress, worry, joy);
  • moment of activity (cleaning, charging and the like);
  • taking medications (indicate which drugs were taken, in what dosage).

Other surveys

A dynamic load in the form of an exercise bike is used, due to which the fact of disturbed extrasystoles is established. Physical activity increases the heart rate, which is why the heart begins to consume more oxygen and nutrients.

Against this background, pulsation, heart rhythm is becoming more frequent. Changes are displayed on the electrocardiogram. Be sure to take into account the degree of stress, the time of formation of oxygen starvation. The results are evaluated by diagrams and tables. VEM is carried out as follows:

  1. The patient is given an electrocardiogram at rest for 12 leads. Additionally measure blood pressure.
  2. The test subject is sent to an exercise bike. The warm-up lasts a couple of minutes, after which a continuous stepwise-increasing load is carried out (each level lasts a maximum of 5 minutes).
  3. At the end of the workout, ECG readings and blood pressure are again recorded.

How to treat extrasystoles?

If extrasystole is of neurogenic origin, then a visit to a neurologist is necessary. He can prescribe medications with a sedative effect (Diazepam, Rudotel) or sedative herbs (peony, valerian, hawthorn). Additional recommendations:

  • psychotherapy;
  • dieting;
  • regular exercise;
  • establishing a regime of work and rest.

In the presence of osteochondrosis, a neurologist consultation and appropriate treatment (muscle relaxants, B vitamins) will be required.

Antiarrhythmic drugs are needed in several cases:

  • if the amount of extrasystoles per day is more than 200;
  • if changes in the structures of the chambers of the heart are detected or the functional ability of the myocardium is reduced.

The main task of medicines:

  • decrease in myocardial excitability, decrease in the number and strength of heart contractions;
  • restoration of a normal rhythm;
  • effect on the conduction system of the heart (impulses propagate through it).

For the treatment of ventricular extrasystole, the drugs of choice will be:

For the treatment of supraventricular extrasystole:

Therapy takes a long time and does not always give a positive result. Radiofrequency catheter ablation (installation of an artificial pacemaker) is required in the absence of the effect of treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs or with the ventricular form of extrasystoles.

The prognosis will depend on the presence or absence of an organic pathology of the heart, the degree of ventricular dysfunction. Functional extrasystoles usually have a benign course. Morphological changes in the heart muscle, on the contrary, are fraught with formidable complications.

Folk remedies are also allowed to be used for this pathology. It should be noted that this is only an auxiliary method of solving the problem. They have a soothing and calming effect. However, they can be taken only with the permission of the attending physician. In addition, this option is suitable only for those cases when the extrasystole is not accompanied by hemodynamic disturbances and is not life threatening.

Here are some popular recipes:

  1. Eating a mixture of apple and onions in between meals.
  2. A mixture of lemon and garlic (for cleansing blood vessels). It is prepared according to the following recipe: chop seven cloves of garlic and a couple of lemons and mix thoroughly, place the mixture in a three-liter jar and add water to the top. Drink half a glass daily.
  3. Decoction of adonis herb (to normalize the heartbeat with tachycardia and atrial fibrillation). It has a strong antiarrhythmic effect due to the high content of cardiac glycosides. Recipe: Pour 30 g of dried flowers into boiling water and cook over low heat for 3 hours. Strained and chilled broth drink 50 ml twice a day. The duration of the treatment course is 14 days.
  4. Calendula. Plant flowers are poured with boiling water and infused for an hour. Consume 100 g 3 times a day.
  5. A mixture of apricots, honey and lemon (one tablespoon per day).
  6. A decoction of hawthorn (with arrhythmias of any localization). A good tonic for the heart muscle. Pour 5 g of flowers with boiling water and insist on a water bath, then add water to a volume of 200 ml. Take 2 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
  7. Melissa broth. It has a pronounced sedative effect and has a beneficial effect on the state of the nervous system. A tablespoon of grass pour 500 ml of water and insist. Strained infusion to drink three times a day in half a glass.
  8. Motherwort. One tablespoon of the plant pour 200 ml of water. Ready broth to take 3 times a day before meals. The duration of the treatment course is three weeks.
  9. Infusion of black radish with the addition of honey (to improve blood circulation). The components are mixed in equal proportions, mixed thoroughly. Only store ready pulp in the refrigerator. Use a tablespoon three times a day.

Therapy of extrasystole depends on the general health of the patient, the causes of the condition and the presence of secondary diseases.

As a rule, the following methods of treatment and prevention are prescribed:

  1. Lifestyle change. In healthy people, a rare appearance of extrasystole may be a sign of caffeine, tea, and alcohol abuse. Your doctor may recommend changing your diet, stop using certain medications, and stop smoking. It is also important to get rid of stress and anxiety.
  2. Medical methods. Mostly antiarrhythmic drugs are used.
  3. Radiofrequency catheter ablation. This is a surgical treatment for complicated extrasystoles and arrhythmias. Radio-frequency waves are used to destroy pathological cardiac tissue, causing additional contractions after systole.

If a person has never visited a cardiologist, initially it is necessary to undergo a preliminary examination with a local therapist, after which the patient is sent to a cardiologist.

After the initial diagnosis, consultation with other specialists may be required, depending on the alleged cause of the arrhythmia. It can be an endocrinologist, a psychotherapist, a neurologist, a heart surgeon, and even a gynecologist.

To date, there are a variety of areas of therapy.

Preparations

The main objective of drug therapy is to reduce the level of excitability of the heart muscle, the number of extrasystoles and their strength. It is important to restore normal rhythm and have an effect on the conductive system. For this, antiarrhythmic drugs are used. Additionally, such funds are prescribed:

  1. Sedative drugs prevent the overexcitation of foci of contraction by acting on brain signals. These are drugs such as Persen, Novo-Passit, tincture of motherwort.
  2. To strengthen the myocardium, potassium and magnesium medicines are used: Panangin, Asparkam. If the patient is taking diuretics, the tablets are replaced with an intravenous solution of Adenosine.
  3. If arrhythmia occurs due to tachycardia, cardiac glycosides are used: digitalis preparations.
  4. With a bradycardic cause, agents with belladonna are used – Atropine.

Medicines are aimed at slowing depolarization in tissues with a high-speed and slowed down electric response, and suppressing the incoming sodium current. They do not adversely affect repolarization. The most commonly used drugs:

    Allapinin inhibits the incoming calcium current at a slow electric current. It has a slight sympathomimetic effect, teaching heartbeat. The effect reaches 80%, but there are also disadvantages:

For these reasons, the drug is more often prescribed at a young and middle age (older people tolerate it more difficult).

  • Propafenone (Propanorm) reduces the heart rate, as it has beta-blocking activity. It is used for late and middle diastolic contractions. Almost no adverse reactions (dyspepsia are sometimes observed), but the antiarrhythmic effect is 70%.
  • Etatsizin inhibits the incoming calcium current during a slow electrical response. It is prescribed for ventricular extrasystole of the middle diastolic type. In rare cases, adverse reactions occur in the form of dizziness. It has a high degree of effectiveness (90%), is well tolerated by the body.
  • It is forbidden to take Class 1 antiarrhythmics in such cases:

    • reduced left ventricular ejection fraction;
    • post-infarction condition.

    The group slows down repolarization with a fast and slow electric response, potassium current is inhibited. It does not affect depolarization. Preparations:

    1. Sotalol (analogues – Sotagexal, Sotalex). Reduce the heart rate, have a b-adrenergic blocking effect. They are used for early and superearly tachisensitive contractions (type P on T, R on T, T wave). Not valid for long grip intervals. Antiarrhythmic efficiency is low (30%), it is easily tolerated.
    2. Amiodarone (Cordaron) blocks sodium and calcium currents, cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors. It slows down the rhythm in early and early extrasystoles by 50%. You can not take for a long time, as adverse reactions develop. With short-term use, the risk of negative effects is reduced.

    This is a group of beta-blockers that reduces the heart rate, slows down the depolarization of diastole in tissues with a slow electrical response. Efficiency increases with a tachysensitive form of the disease in combination with hypertension and coronary artery disease. All drugs reduce the heart’s need for oxygen, lower blood pressure. Facilities:

    1. Anaprilin contributes to the inhibition of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, a decrease in the rate of occurrence of impulses, slowing their spread along the pathways. Quite effective, but has many adverse reactions.
    2. Egilok reduces the heartbeat rate, reducing the load on the heart. Helps accelerate blood circulation. It has many side effects.
    3. Concor prevents the development of coronary heart disease, restores myocardial contractility, and reduces blood pressure. It is prescribed for different types of extrasystole, but not in conjunction with bradycardia.

    Calcium channel blockers help slow down spontaneous diastolic depolarization during slow and fast electric currents. Most often used for parasystole, a tachis-dependent form and ventricular arrhythmias of an idiopathic type. Preparations:

    1. Verapamil is prescribed for supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles. Slows down the transport of calcium ions to the myocardium. Additionally lowers blood pressure.
    2. Diltiazem eliminates calcium ions, reducing the frequency of contractions. The strength of extrasystoles does not change. Additionally reduces oxygen demand.
    1. Etatsizin.
    2. Sotalol.
    3. Amiodarone.
    4. Verapamil.
    1. Propafenone
    2. Allapinin.
    3. Etmozin.
    4. Concor.

    The appointment of drugs is exclusively done by the attending cardiologist after a comprehensive examination. The choice is influenced by the characteristics of the body, the type of disease, stage of severity, associated pathologies.

    General recommendations

    Therapeutic measures

    Arrhythmia is treated only if it has an aggravating nature of occurrence and is a danger to human life and health. In this case, the doctor is looking for the cause of the disease, which is any disease.

    In this case, treatment is mainly aimed at the underlying disease, which provokes extrasystoles. This may be: atherosclerosis, heart disease, diseases associated with the functioning of the intestine.

    An indication for the start of medication is an excess of the norm of extrasystoles per day, which is equal to 200 arrhythmic pulses.

    With concomitant diseases, the heart rate must be kept under strict control. For these purposes, they start taking antiarrhythmic drugs:

    And other drugs of similar action.

    To normalize the heart rhythm, the patient will need to follow the doctor’s recommendations. The doctor may prescribe to the patient:

    • bed rest;
    • physiotherapy exercises;
    • taking sedatives;
    • taking funds, which include potassium and magnesium;
    • anti-inflammatory drugs.

    In folk medicine, there is a wide range of medicinal herbs that can be used as an additional treatment for arrhythmia. Before starting herbal treatment, a doctor’s consultation is required.

    To eliminate extrasystole in folk medicine, such medicinal plants are used:

    From these herbs make decoctions and infusions, make tea.

    Single extrasystoles in most cases do not require treatment.

    To avoid extrasystole, you need to monitor nutrition and consume foods enriched with magnesium and potassium.

    It is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, exercise, give up smoking, taking alcoholic and energy drinks.

    When the first symptoms of the disease appear, you need to visit a doctor and undergo a diagnosis.

    Medications / medications for the treatment of extrasystole

    • etatsizin;
    • beta-blockers;
    • propafenone;
    • verapamil
    • amiodarone.
    • sotalol
    • amiodarone
    • etatsizin
    • propafenone.

    The most commonly used treatment is propafenone.

    Propafenone is a drug that belongs to the class 1C antiarrhythmic drugs. It normalizes the rhythm of the contraction of the heart muscle, and also dilates the blood vessels, thereby reducing excessive heart load. During its existence, with proper use, it shows efficiency results of more than 70%.

    Side effects: dizziness, double vision, sensation of heaviness in the head.

    Contraindications: if the patient has kidney or liver failure, impaired excitation of the cardiac conduction pathways, as well as intraventricular conduction; in case of circulatory failure, as well as for pregnant women, it is used only under the close supervision of the attending physician.

    Despite the fact that the initial stages of extrasystole do not pose any threat to a healthy human body, it is still necessary to periodically undergo a preventive examination, as this is the best way to not only cure the disease at an early stage, but also to prevent its occurrence with all the negative consequences.

    In any case, when symptoms are detected, you should not rely on the fact that this is temporary, but you should immediately seek the advice of the appropriate specialist. Such an action will help preserve health, nerves, as well as money for treatment.

    Possible complications

    Extrasystole can lead to serious complications. Some of them pose a serious threat to human life and health. Here is the complete list:

    • paroxysmal tachycardia;
    • atrial fibrillation;
    • atrial flutter;
    • ventricular fibrillation;
    • cardiogenic shock;
    • aortic stenosis;
    • heart failure;
    • kidney failure;
    • sudden death.

    The first thing that a person thinks about when the heart is disturbed is the probability of a fatal outcome. With the functional type of extrasystole, there is no threat to human life. But organic causes can contribute to death.

    Why it happens? In diseases of the cardiovascular system, blood vessels and myocardium are significantly damaged, general blood circulation is disturbed, blood supply to the heart is suspended. All this reduces the ability to pump blood fluid.

    Random extraordinary contractions deplete the heart muscle, and frequent polytopic and group extrasystoles provoke heart failure, heart attack, which leads to cardiac arrest. In case of impaired blood supply, atherosclerotic plaques first form on the walls of the vessels, then thrombosis.

    • atrial fibrillation;
    • aortic stenosis;
    • paroxysmal tachycardia;
    • pulmonary and heart failure;
    • renal and hepatic impairment;
    • atrial flutter;
    • cardiogenic shock;
    • ventricular fibrillation;
    • thromboembolism;
    • myocardial infarction;
    • stroke;
    • sudden death.

    Extrasystoles of the group type of manifestation tend to transform into much more significant disturbances in the rhythm. So, atrial disorders pass into atrial flutter, ventricular disorders are transformed into paroxysmal tachycardia. Patients with dilation or congestion of the atria may experience a transition of extrasystole to atrial fibrillation.

    In the case of its frequent occurrence, extrasystoles provoke the occurrence of chronic insufficiency of renal, cerebral and coronary circulation. Ventricular extrasystoles are considered the most dangerous, because the features of their course can lead to the development of ventricular fibrillation, which, in turn, leads to a sudden death.

    Group extrasystoles can transform into more dangerous rhythm disturbances: atrial ones – into atrial flutter. ventricular – into paroxysmal tachycardia. In patients with overload or dilatation of the atria, extrasystole can go into atrial fibrillation.

    Frequent extrasystoles cause chronic coronary, cerebral insufficiency. renal blood circulation. The most dangerous are ventricular extrasystoles due to the possible development of ventricular fibrillation and sudden death.

    Extrasystole can be both a consequence and a cause of severe cardiological diseases. Particularly dangerous conditions accompanying extrasystole are severe organic myocardial lesions, which increase the risk of atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death.

    • Supraventricular tachycardia, accompanied by a sharp increase in heart rate to 220-250 beats per minute.
    • Aortic stenosis, which reduces cardiac output and reduces cerebral, coronary and renal blood supply by up to 25%.

    Prevention of extrasystole

    A patient with similar problems should be registered with a cardiologist and undergo regular examinations. To prevent the appearance of extrasystole, experts advise to adhere to several recommendations:

    1. Exclude chemical, food and drug intoxication.
    2. Include potassium-rich foods (cereals, walnuts and pine nuts, persimmons, prunes, seaweed, baked potatoes) in the diet.
    3. Prevent the diseases underlying the development of extrasystoles (myocarditis, cardiomyopathy and others).
    4. Avoid stressful situations.
    5. Exclude alcohol, energy, caffeinated drinks, strong tea from the diet.
    6. Do gymnastics, go for other physical activity, breathing exercises.
    7. Spend a lot of time outdoors.
    8. Refuse to eat fatty and junk food.

    If an extrasystole is detected, you should not panic, you need to undergo a full examination and determine the cause of the ailment. If the doctor prescribes treatment, then all his recommendations should be followed in order to cope with the pathology as soon as possible.

    In order to eliminate the risk of development and relapse of extrasystole, it is important to adhere to simple preventive rules:

    • Avoid stressful situations, worries, worries;
    • eat right – foods enriched with magnesium, potassium are useful;
    • seek qualified help in a timely manner at the first sign of a disease;
    • give up bad habits;
    • do not abuse tea and coffee drinks;
    • walk more in the fresh air, take walks;
    • refuse a sedentary lifestyle – regularly do exercises, exercise.

    In a broad sense, the prevention of extrasystole provides for the prevention of pathological conditions and diseases that underlie its development: coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, myocardial dystrophy, etc. as well as the prevention of their exacerbations. It is recommended to exclude drug, food, chemical intoxications that provoke extrasystole.

    Patients with asymptomatic ventricular extrasystole and without signs of cardiac pathology are recommended a diet enriched with magnesium and potassium salts, quitting smoking, drinking alcohol and strong coffee, moderate physical activity.

    Prevention of all types of arrhythmias, including those caused by extrasystoles, consists in the prevention and correct treatment of pathological processes in the cardiovascular system.

    • monitor health, treat chronic and ongoing diseases of all body systems;
    • avoid stressful situations, take sedatives;
    • increase the level of potassium in the body – take vitamins and consume potassium-containing foods;
    • exclude from the diet or limit the consumption of coffee, strong tea;
    • completely give up smoking, alcohol;
    • practice regular morning exercises, breathing exercises, restorative massage.

    The prognosis depends, first of all, on the presence of other cardiological diseases and the degree of myocardial damage. If there are none, then extrasystoles themselves do not threaten human health and often stop on their own. And the presence of severe heart pathologies is a serious risk factor for sudden death.

    Extrasystole is characterized by the occurrence of relapse if the underlying disease is not treated. Regular monitoring of the heart and a visit to a cardiologist are necessary. Extrasystoles, as a rule, do not change the working capacity and quality of life of a person, but they can provoke other, more significant arrhythmias.

    Found a mistake? Select it and press Ctrl Enter

    Raynaud’s disease (Raynaud’s syndrome) is an ailment in which there is a violation of arterial circulation in the limbs. The disease occurs as a result of hypothermia.

    A prognostic assessment of extrasystole directly depends on the presence of organic damage. A huge role is played by the level of dysfunction. The most serious fears arise in the situation when the disease occurs due to the presence of myocarditis.

    In the presence of truly pronounced changes, a phenomenon such as flicker is also possible. But in the absence of a structural variety of the lesion, the disease does not significantly affect the prognosis itself. In this case, the malignant course can lead to huge problems.

    Prediction and prevention of the disease

    Assessment of the prognosis is based on the type of extrasystole, degree of neglect, the presence of complications and the characteristics of a particular organism. With organic myocardial damage, there is a chance of death. If timely start adequate treatment – the prognosis will be favorable.

    A prognostic assessment of extrasystole depends on the presence of organic damage to the heart and the degree of ventricular dysfunction. The most serious concerns are caused by extrasystoles that developed against the background of acute myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis. With severe morphological changes in the myocardium, extrasystoles can go into atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation. In the absence of structural damage to the heart, extrasystole does not significantly affect the prognosis.

    The malignant course of supraventricular extrasystoles can lead to the development of atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles – to persistent ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and sudden death. The course of functional extrasystoles is usually benign.

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