The blood in the vessels has a mechanical effect on their walls. Technically there is always pressure in the arteries and veins. But when measuring it with a tonometer, other points are important.
With the contraction of the heart muscle, blood is released from the ventricles into the vessels. This impulse creates the so-called “upper”, or systolic pressure. Then the blood is distributed through the vessels, and the minimum level of their filling, at which a heart beat is heard in the stethoscope, gives a “lower” or diastolic indicator. This is how the result is formed – a figure reflecting the state of the body at the moment.
- Measuring instruments
- What is normal pressure in an adult? Table of pressure standards by age
- In men
- In pregnancy
- How to measure blood pressure
- Modern views on blood pressure indicators
- Working pressure – what is it?
- The norm of blood pressure in children
- Deviations of blood pressure
- Blood pressure
- Opinions of foreign scientists
- Pregnancy pressure
- Age changes
- Human pressure: normal age, table of blood pressure and pulse
- Blood pressure
- Hell in children
- What does blood pressure depend on?
- Operating pressure
- How to measure blood pressure
- Performance after 60 years
- Causes of hypotension
- How to monitor the performance?
The very first pressure measuring devices were the “bloody” devices of Stephen Gales, in which a needle was attached to a vessel attached to a tube with a scale. The Italian Riva-Rocci put an end to the bloodshed by proposing to attach a mercury monometer to the cuff placed on the shoulder.
Nikolai Sergeevich Korotkov in 1905 proposed to attach a mercury monometer to the cuff placed on the shoulder and listen to pressure with the ear. Air was pumped out from the cuff of the pear, the vessels were compressed. Then the air slowly returned to the cuff, and the pressure on the vessels weakened. Using a stethoscope on the vessels of the elbow, tones of the pulse were heard. The first strokes indicated the level of systolic blood pressure, the last – diastolic.
Modern monometers are electronic devices that can do without a stethoscope and record the pressure and heart rate.
What is normal pressure in an adult? Table of pressure standards by age
In the medical environment, there are disputes about what indicators to focus on in measuring pressure. The blood pressure standards in adults have been compiled many times. The table shows the numbers from which cardiologists and therapists repelled during the period of the USSR.
– 109 (0,5 x age) (0,1 x weight),
– 63 (0,1 x age) (0,15 x weight).
The lower limit of the systolic pressure was considered 110 mmHg. Art., top – 140 mm. All indicators that were outside of this framework were taken for pathology. Similarly, the lower limit of the diastolic pressure was taken to be 60 mmHg. Art., top – 90 mm. By putting these numbers together, we get a run-up of normal values from 110 / 60 to 140 / 90. Many therapists and cardiologists of the old school in their medical practice are still guided by this.
The norm for the age of a person’s pressure is important for understanding their condition, therefore it is necessary to know it and, in which case, consult a doctor in a timely manner. For high performance and quality of everyday life, it is necessary that there is normal pressure in an adult.
Since deviations in indicators in any direction negatively affect all areas of life – neither work, nor rest. Each person has their own blood pressure. Various factors can provoke its change, therefore, when choosing a treatment, complex diagnostics are always carried out.
From this article you will learn all about blood pressure – what it is, how it changes with age, why it rises or falls, etc.
Normal pressure in the arteries is created under the influence of the force of blood flow on the vascular walls. When the heart contracts, the blood pressure rises, and when the muscle relaxes, the performance decreases.
This happens because at the time of contraction there is a strong ejection of blood into the arteries, which in turn resist this flow. Due to this ability of blood vessels, pressure does not jump after each cardiac contraction, but is constantly regulated.
- Blood pressure is measured using mechanical or electronic blood pressure monitors.
- Along with this, the following indicators are taken:
- Systolic Hell, otherwise upper, which is determined by the contraction of systole of the heart.
- Diastolic pressure, or lower, is an indicator for relaxation of cardiac diastole.
There is also the concept of “pulse pressure.” It is determined by the difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Even if a person always has normal pressure, he is not immune from its increase or decrease. For this reason, if you feel worse, you need to use a tonometer.
Well, when the normal blood pressure. But a lot of factors that are not related to diseases can provoke changes in indicators.
Blood pressure can change under the influence of:
- Age features.
- Time of day.
- Products with caffeine or other stimulants.
- Physical activity.
- Weather conditions.
If the deviations of pressure from the norm are insignificant, then this will have little effect on the human condition. When changes in indicators are more serious, you need to see a doctor, because the whole body suffers.
- The pressure indicator is normal for everyone, it directly depends on the person’s age and even gender.
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Many problems in the female body arise from hormonal disorders. Fluctuations in hormone levels adversely affect normal pressure.
Typically, women with serious problems with blood pressure begin with menopause when the level of estrogen in the body is at a minimum.
This hormone does not allow cholesterol to accumulate in the vessels and clog them. When its quantity is not enough, the vessels begin to suffer greatly and heart pressure fluctuates.
|1||20||116 / 65-72|
|2||30||120 by 75 (117-118 / 78 allowed)|
|3||40||126-127 on 80|
|4||50||137 on 80|
|5||60||144 on 85|
|6||After 70||159 on 85|
As you can see, with age, the upper limit of normal pressure only increases, which ultimately leads to the development of hypertension.
For men at different ages, changes in blood pressure are also characteristic. They are usually much higher than women.
In order for the representatives of the stronger sex to increase normal pressure, he does not have to be ill with something.
Often the main cause of hypertension is the age of the man. This does not mean that the symptoms of hypertension can be ignored. Urgently see a doctor.
|1||20||123 to 76 (maybe even 122/77)|
|2||30||+126 124 79|
|3||40||129 on 81-82|
|4||50 years||134/84 or 135 on 85 (acceptable and 136/76)|
|5||60||142 on 85-86-87|
|6||After 70||142 to 80 (143/83 allowed)|
It is very difficult to establish blood pressure standards because in each country, doctors select their indicators. Still, something is the same, but there are differences.
It is worth remembering that the blood pressure index determined at rest is normal. Based on WHO data, the following indicators were selected.
|Systolic, mm. Hg. Art.||Diastolic, mm. Hg. Art.|
|20||117||74||Up to 20 years of blood pressure: Upper blood pressure = 1,7 * age 83 Lower blood pressure = 1,6 * age 42|
|25||119||74.5||From 20 to 80 years of blood pressure: Upper blood pressure = 0,4 * age 109 Lower blood pressure = 0,3 * age 67|
Such changes are most often caused by the aging of the human body, because along with this, all processes in the body are disrupted.
Pay attention to your heart rate depending on age
An indicator of pressure in a pregnant woman is considered an indicator from 110 to 70 to 120 to 80. The first trimester of pregnancy, even with normal pressure, can be accompanied by severe weakness, dizziness, or loss of consciousness. This period is characterized by a certain decrease in blood pressure, which experts do not consider pathology.
To alleviate the condition of the drug are not used. Doctors advise just more often and more to be in the fresh air and not to be in stuffy rooms.
Already from 4 months the situation is changing and the pressure begins to rise. Along with this, the condition of the woman is wonderful. In her body, the blood volume increases by 2,5 liters. and he works more actively for two.
But, when the level of heart pressure rises and leads to negative symptoms, you should consult a doctor. High blood pressure negatively affects not only the woman, but also the fetus.
How to measure blood pressure
Normal blood pressure is a parameter that varies depending on a person’s activity. For example, with physical exertion, emotional stress, blood pressure rises, with a sharp rise can fall. Therefore, to obtain reliable parameters, blood pressure should be measured in the morning without getting out of bed. In this case, the tonometer should be located at the level of the patient’s heart. The arm with the cuff should lie horizontally at the same level.
Such a phenomenon as “white coat hypertension” is known, when the patient, regardless of treatment, stubbornly gives an increase in blood pressure in the presence of a doctor. Also, blood pressure can be slightly increased by running up the stairs or straining the muscles of the legs and hips while measuring. To have a more detailed idea of the level of blood pressure of a given person, the doctor may recommend keeping a diary where the pressure is recorded at different times of the day.
Modern views on blood pressure indicators
A little later, on the basis of numerous studies, other blood pressure standards in adults were derived. The table used in our time is compiled by WHO in 1999. On the basis of this, the limits of systolic pressure are in the range from 110 to 130 mm Hg. Art., diastolic – 65-80 mm. These numbers relate primarily to patients younger than 40 years.
Today, there is no consensus among doctors about which indicators are considered the norm, and which are pathologies. During the examination, they are guided by what pressure is normal, “comfortable” for a particular patient, and record this information with his own words. In the future, in the diagnosis and treatment based on this indicator. Figures below 110 / 60 and above 140 / 90 will still be considered signs of pathological changes.
Working pressure – what is it?
This expression can be heard in everyday life. The concept of “working” pressure means such indicators at which a person feels comfortable, despite the fact that one of them or both – systolic and diastolic – is significantly increased or decreased. In general, such an attitude towards oneself reflects only the desire to ignore the existing problem.
Cardiologists have no concept of “working” patient pressure. Indicators above 140 / 90 in middle-aged people are classified as hypertension. Justification can be the fact that with age on the walls of blood vessels are accumulated accumulations of cholesterol, narrowing their lumen. Clinically there is no serious deterioration, but the risk of developing the pathology increases significantly.
The norm of blood pressure in children
- Cardiologist of the highest category Svetlana Vladislavova
- Update Date: June 2019
Blood pressure (BP) in each person is unstable and can vary under the influence of various factors.
Moreover, in the same person, blood pressure changes during the day – in the morning it is lower, and in the evening it rises. In children, the pressure is low, in the elderly it is elevated.
To understand exactly what Blood pressure indicates the health of the cardiovascular system, you should familiarize yourself with the table “human pressure normal age”.
Pressure and pulse are inconsistent quantities that change throughout life and under the influence of certain factors. The norms of pressure and heart rate by age in the table allow you to determine possible deviations and timely diagnose the problem.
Blood pressure describes the amount of blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels. When measuring blood pressure, two figures are taken into account – the value at the time of heart stress (systole), and the indicator at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle (diastole).
The rate of pressure and pulse depends, first of all, on age. Nevertheless, the pressure may vary against the background:
- hormonal changes;
- atmospheric pressure fluctuations;
- general condition of the body;
- psychoemotional state.
The change in blood pressure during life is due to the growing up of a person, and after that the aging of the body. In children, the vessels are very soft and elastic, which is why the pressure is significantly reduced. In older people, the vessels become stiff, lose their flexibility, which translates into an increase in blood pressure.
Indicators 120 to 80 are not ideal for everyone.
In addition, when taking into account blood pressure and norms by age, you should pay attention to the well-being of a person.
If, with slight deviations from the values given in the table of pressure norms, the patient feels well, and any unpleasant sensations are completely absent, then there is no reason for concern.
This is due to the fact that the average norm is taken as an absolute norm (120 by 80) for an adult.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure and functioning of the cardiovascular system in a particular patient, a deviation from the norm by 10-15 mm Hg can be observed, which does not indicate pathology, but is an individual feature.
The table describes the rate of blood pressure in adults as 120 to 80. However, this is not entirely true, since the value is approximate.
An adult is considered to be a person aged 20 to 50 years. This is a fairly large age range, so the tables of the norm of blood pressure simply do not cover all the changes that occur in the body during this period.
So, at the age of up to 35 years, a person’s pressure corresponds to the norm according to age and is approximately 120 to 80. After 35-40 years, a gradual increase in blood pressure occurs, which is an absolutely normal and natural process. In this age range, the norm Blood pressure in an adult can increase to 130 by 90 mmHg.
A heartbeat and pulse higher than 80 beats per minute or lower than 60 at rest in the afternoon indicate a malfunction of the heart, and are not an option for the normal person of middle age.
Norm indicators – an average value, often in a healthy person Blood pressure is higher or lower
Any table of pressure standards by age indicates acceptable values for women and men. The norm of pressure in women is approximately 5-7 mm Hg. lower than normal in men. This is due to the characteristics of the hormonal background, because of which women are less likely to suffer from hypertension at an older age than men.
The pressure in women changes against the background of a change in the hormonal background:
- during menstruation;
- during pregnancy;
- with the onset of menopause.
On the first day of menstruation, blood pressure is lower by an average of 10 mm Hg than usual. This is accompanied by a breakdown and drowsiness and is due to two factors – a decrease in hormone levels and large blood loss. A few days before menstruation, blood pressure rises slightly due to increased levels of testosterone in women.
During pregnancy, changes in blood pressure depend on the trimester. In the first trimester, many are faced with toxicosis, which is accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure.
A normal pregnancy in the second trimester is characterized by normal and stable blood pressure.
Fluctuations and jumps Blood pressure develops during the period of adaptation of the body to the cessation of hormone production during menopause. In this case, the pressure increases and decreases. In most cases, blood pressure normalizes after the hormonal background returns to normal.
With age, the heart rate also changes.
The norm of pressure in older people over 65 is about 140 mmHg. This is due to a change in the walls of blood vessels and arteries. With age, they lose elasticity, become stiff and can not quickly respond to changes in blood pressure. An increase in blood pressure is aggravated by the presence of chronic age-related diseases, including:
- arteriosclerosis of blood vessels;
- cardiac ischemia;
- kidney disease.
In this case, an increase in blood pressure over 140 does not always indicate a hypertensive disease, since the norm of blood pressure by age allows an increase in blood pressure after 65 years.
There is a separate table of pressure standards in humans by age, covering the period from birth to 12 years. In infants, blood pressure is always in the range of 80 to 40 or 90 to 50, but an increase to 100 to 60 is allowed.
As the child grows older, pressure increases. In the first months, the increase is very rapid and by the first year of life, blood pressure is in the range of 100 to 60.
By adolescence, in most children, blood pressure is set slightly lower than in adults, usually in the range 107-110 to 65-70 mm Hg. Moreover, in girls and boys the pressure is the same up to 6 years.
During puberty due to instability of the hormonal background, fluctuations in blood pressure are noted, both to a smaller and a larger side. This is also due to the peculiarities of the nervous system of a growing organism.
Due to the rapid growth during this period, the vegetative part of the nervous system, which is responsible for ensuring the vital functions of the body, cannot always properly control the vascular tone, therefore, autonomic dysfunction of adolescents can develop.
This is accompanied by periods of low and high blood pressure, which replace each other.
It is wrong to compare the pressure in adolescents with adult standards, since unstable hormonal levels affect the blood pressure of the child. At the same time, it can be either lowered, lower than 100 to 60, or increased to 130 by 90. In most cases, adolescent pressure surges are not treated, since this indicator returns to normal by about 16-17 years.
The norm of blood pressure in children
Another important indicator of the health of the cardiovascular system is pulse pressure. It is calculated as the difference between the upper and lower blood pressure.
The norm of pulse pressure for adolescents and children is about 30. For middle-aged people, the norm is 40 mmHg, in old age the permissible value increases to 50.
In this case, fluctuations in pulse pressure are in the range of 30-40 mm Hg. are considered a variant of the norm for a person of any age.
Deviations of blood pressure
Blood pressure in a person by age also depends on a number of factors that the table of pressure standards does not take into account.
For example, during a stressful situation, pressure always rises, regardless of a person’s age.
Blood pressure normalizes without the use of medications after a few hours, so this condition is not considered pathological. Increasing pressure after intense sports training is an option.
There are two pathological deviations of pressure from normal for adults – hypertension and hypotension. Hypertension is diagnosed at a pressure of more than 140 per 100, hypotension – at rates below 100 to 60. In the first case, the cause is age-related changes in the arteries and blood vessels, atherosclerosis, or diabetes mellitus. Hypotension develops against the background of endocrine disorders and vegetovascular dysfunction.
Hypertension is at risk of developing heart failure, coronary heart disease. A strong increase in pressure to critical values can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
With hypotension, vascular tone decreases, blood circulation and oxygen transport to vital organs deteriorate. This can cause hypoxia and, in especially severe cases, leads to hemorrhage in the brain or coma.
A cardiologist is involved in the treatment of deviations of blood pressure from the norm. To normalize the pressure, drug and non-drug methods of treatment are used.
As long as blood pressure is within normal limits, few people are interested. Of particular interest in a person’s blood pressure index normally wakes up at the moment when the body malfunctions. With severe deviations of this indicator, various manifestations of malaise and symptoms of the disease occur.
The average normal adult blood pressure does not depend on age. An ideal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Art., acceptable indicators are in the range of 100-140 / 60-90 mm RT. Art.
accordingly, but not always 140 to 90 can be considered the norm. There are variations in the norm depending on many factors.
If a person feels well at a blood pressure of 100/60, and at 120 to 80 he is already ill, then despite the seemingly ideal blood pressure, he needs help.
The norms of blood pressure change in each person throughout his life. From birth, the child’s indicators 60/40 mm RT. Art., with age they change. Each period of life has its own indicators.
|20 years||123 on 76||116 on 72|
|30 years||126 on 79||120 on 75|
|40 years||129 on 81||127 on 80|
|50 years||135 on 83||135 on 84|
|60-65 years||135 on 85||135 on 85|
|Older than 65||135 on 89||135 on 89|
Opinions of foreign scientists
In the countries of the post-Soviet space, on the one hand, and in America and Canada, on the other, different approaches have been adopted to determine the blood pressure norm in adults. The table shows how the patient’s condition is classified according to its indicators.
Blood pressure at the level of 130 / 90 can be considered as prehypertension, that is, a condition bordering on pathology. The level of systolic 110-125 mm Hg. St., And diastolic – less than 80, is called in the West “state of rest of the heart.” In our country, 130 / 90 pressure will be considered the norm for physically developed men who have been active in sports, or people older than 40 for years.
In Western Europe, the approach to the state of the cardiovascular system is similar, but in the scientific literature you can find some data similar to the post-Soviet norms. There is a peculiar look at the norms of blood pressure in adults: the table contains the terms unusual for us – “low normal”, “normal” and “high normal”. For the standard adopted indicator 120/80.
In healthy pregnant women, blood pressure does not change until the sixth month of pregnancy. Blood pressure is normal in non-pregnant women.
Further, under the influence of hormones, some increases can be observed, not exceeding 10 mm from the norm. In pathological pregnancy, gestosis can occur with jumps in blood pressure, damage to the kidneys and brain (preeclampsia), or even the development of seizures (eclampsia). Pregnancy with arterial hypertension can worsen the course of the disease and provoke hypertensive crises or a persistent increase in blood pressure. In this case, the correction of drug therapy, observation by a therapist or treatment in a hospital is indicated.
The older a person becomes, the more serious changes his blood vessels and heart muscle undergo. Stress, unhealthy diet, hereditary predisposition – all this affects the state of health. People with diagnosed pathology are recommended to measure pressure daily. It is better if the indicators will be recorded in a special table. There you can also enter the data after measuring the pulse.
With age, the blood pressure in adults gradually changes. The table and pulse together give objective information about changes in the state of the vessels. If the numbers at some point exceeded the usual rate for the patient, this is not a reason for panic – an increase of 10 mm Hg. Art. considered acceptable after exercise, in a state of fatigue, after a long working day. But a steady, long-term deviation is a sign of a developing pathology.
Human pressure: normal age, table of blood pressure and pulse
Due to changes in blood vessels, which occur due to a decrease in the tone of the arteries and cholesterol deposits on the walls, as well as changes in myocardial function, the age-related arterial pressure in adults is adjusted (table).
For women 40, the average is 127 / 80, for men it is slightly higher – 129 / 81. This is explained by the fact that the representatives of the stronger sex, as a rule, can withstand greater physical exertion, and their body weight is greater than that of women, which contributes to an increase in pressure.
In medicine, it is considered to be 120/80 mm RT. Art. the so-called absolute norm. At 130/85 mmHg Art. – pressure is slightly increased. Normally elevated blood pressure is considered pressure 139/89, and pathology – 140/90.
Normal human pressure is a pretty abstract concept. It can only be obtained if a person is in a state of emotional rest and physical relaxation. Our body independently controls the level of blood pressure, changing it on average by 20 mmHg. Art. one way or the other.
Depending on gender and age, the concept of norm changes. For example, for people aged 16–20 years, slightly lower pressure is 100/70 mm Hg. Art. – is considered a physiological norm.
Changes in blood pressure are affected by internal and external factors. Normal values depend on gender and age. Therefore, it is important to know your age norm and control it.
- Norms Blood pressure by age in men and women:
- Online rate calculator Blood pressure by age.
At a young age, the indicators of pressure in women are slightly lower, from age these values are equalized and do not depend on gender.
The higher the blood pressure, the more people are at risk of hypertension and the development of cardiovascular diseases, as well as brain nutrition disorders.
Exceeding the pressure indicators indicated in the table requires clarifying the causes and correcting vascular activity.
In healthy women, blood pressure indicators in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy do not change and are fully consistent with the age norm.
In the later stages, a physiological increase is possible. Blood pressure is not higher than 10% of the norm due to ongoing changes in the body and increased stress.
An increase in blood pressure of more than 10% requires correction.
Detection of hypertension in a pregnant woman is a direct indication for hospitalizing a woman in a hospital in order to restore normal blood pressure and monitor her condition.
Hell in children
Blood pressure normally varies depending on the tone of the vascular network and the motor activity of the child. From birth, blood pressure does not exceed 60/40 mm Hg. Art. With an increase in the tone of the vascular wall, these indicators change and are restored by the age of 15 as in adults.
What does blood pressure depend on?
Blood pressure indicators directly depend on the following factors:
- Myocardial contractility (this indicator is individual).
- From the density of blood. A thick, viscous mass moves harder through the vessels and blood clots form more often. Liquid blood moves faster and does not increase blood pressure.
- The elasticity of the vascular wall. The less vessels are stretched, the higher the pressure. With age, the elasticity of the vascular wall changes in a smaller direction. This indicator is most important in determining the cause of hypertension.
- Stressful situations and hormonal changes. Women are more susceptible to the negative effects of hormonal changes and stress than men.
If you change blood pressure, you need to contact a cardiologist, where a study of the heart and blood vessels will be performed and the cause of the failure will be determined.
In addition to normal blood pressure in humans, there is such a thing as working pressure. Working blood pressure may not fit into the normal range, but reflects indicators at which a person feels good and does not lose working capacity.
This may be low blood pressure in hypotensive patients to 90 per 60 mm RT. Art. or exceed the acceptable norm for hypertensive patients.
So, for example, an elderly person, a hypertonic with experience, may feel better at 150/90 or 150/80 than with normal values on the tonometer.
Lowering the pressure to normal in such people leads to a deterioration in well-being and the manifestation of symptoms of cerebral ischemia.
With a working pressure of 90/60 increase to 120/80 mm RT. Art. causes symptoms of a hypertensive crisis. This condition also requires correction of pressure and lowering it to normal for a person indicators. Therefore, it is so important to be aware of your working pressure.
To determine it, you should measure your blood pressure using a tonometer for several days, normally it remains approximately the same. If violations are detected, longer monitoring of blood pressure and the allocation of values at which health is worsening is required.
In addition to age, the norm of blood pressure in adults depends on weight and height. The greater the body weight of a person, the more difficult it is for the heart to cope with the volume of blood and push it through the vessels, which is reflected in the increase in blood pressure. With primary hypertension without complications, it is enough to normalize the weight, and blood pressure indicators return to normal.
In addition to weight, lifestyle is important in shaping vascular resistance. The more active the person’s life, the more muscles that contribute to normal blood circulation are included in the work.
Also, substances entering the body can cause vasospasm or contribute to their expansion.
What is pulse pressure?
To a stable increase in performance can lead to:
- essential hypertension;
- symptomatic hypertension depends on the disease causing it;
- VVD (vascular network insufficiency, when external factors are stronger than internal regulation);
- kidney and urinary system disease;
- blood diseases (anemia);
- endocrine system disease (thyroid disease is particularly affected);
- heart failure due to various pathologies of the valves, heart muscle or large vessels.
Stable hypotension can also be a symptom of various pathological processes of the body:
- with prolonged starvation, low body weight;
- against the background of myocardial infarction (there is a sharp decrease in blood pressure);
- impaired functioning of the adrenal cortex;
- pathology of the pituitary gland;
Important. If a violation of the usual indicators of blood pressure is detected or the determination of hypertension, hypotension in themselves and relatives should immediately make an appointment with a doctor. Research and determination of the cause of the disease at an early stage allows you to completely cure the disease and prevent the development of serious complications.
How to measure blood pressure
To measure blood pressure, there is a special device – a tonometer. At home, it is advisable to choose an automatic device, since even a child can measure such a device. Manual measurement is also available to everyone, but requires some skill.
Algorithm for measuring blood pressure:
- to take indicators should be in a state of complete physical and mental rest;
- smoking 30 minutes before the measurement, no later (it should be remembered that smoking negatively affects the state of blood vessels);
- food also loads the cardiovascular network and may be reflected in incorrect indicators;
- sit comfortably, relax, put on the cuff on the forearm so that the lower edge is above the elbow fold on 2 fingers of an adult;
- the hand is located at the level of the heart, for this it is placed on the table or back of the chair;
- during measurement it is impossible to talk and move;
- indicators should be removed from both hands, the difference in indicators should not exceed 10 mm RT. Art.
With a difference in hand pressure, the highest value is selected for the correct indicator. The initial measurement is carried out three times with an interval of 5-10 minutes on the arm, where blood pressure is higher.
Taking indicators from the tonometer, the doctor focuses on the normal pressure of a person, regardless of his age. In the home measurement of blood pressure indicators, a person should also be guided by established norms.
Deviation from average values may be the initial sign of a disease requiring treatment.
High blood pressure negatively affects the condition of internal organs and systems, causes the development of pathological processes in the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys and other target organs.
Any deviation from the norm should not go unnoticed. The treatment is carried out by a doctor, self-medication is unacceptable here.
What does it mean to measure blood pressure and how to decipher the tonometer? The pressure norm is 120/80 (one hundred twenty by eighty), where 120 is the systolic (upper) and 80 is the diastolic (lower) value of the measured parameters.
If at rest the indicators are less than or exceed the standard, then this is the reason for a complete examination and identification of violations in the functioning of vital organs: heart, kidneys, endocrine organs.
When measuring blood pressure, two parameters are recorded:
- systolic indicator is formed when the heart muscle contracts;
- diastolic pressure is fixed between heart beats.
It should be understood that normal pressure and heart rate change upward with age. So, diastolic pressure increases to 60–65 years, in a more mature period it stabilizes or begins to decline.
The systolic indicator tends to increase continuously. To clarify the diagnosis, you need to measure blood pressure three times a day, and record the results in a diary.
A short-term increase in blood pressure after exercise is considered normal, so the main measurements are taken before and after a night’s rest, in the afternoon and in the evening in a state of relaxation.
Performance after 60 years
The levels of various hormones, especially steroids, also affect blood pressure. Their blood content is unstable, and over the years, during the restructuring of the body, an ever greater imbalance begins to be observed. This affects the heart rate and the fullness of blood vessels. The average norm of blood pressure in women 50 years old shifts upwards and becomes equal to 137/84, and in men of a similar age – 135/83. These are the numbers above which indicators at rest should not rise.
What other factors increase the norm of blood pressure in adults? The table (in women after 50 years old, the risk of developing hypertension is higher, since hormonal changes, the so-called menopause, begin to affect at this age), of course, they cannot all be indicated. The stresses they endured for the body are also important – pregnancy and childbirth (if they were).
The trend established in previous years, continues in the future. The rate of blood pressure in adults continues to increase (table). For women after 60, the mean is 144 / 85, for men, 142 / 85. The weaker floor is slightly ahead in terms of growth rates (due to all the same hormonal changes).
After 60 years, normal blood pressure physiologically exceeds the standard values of 140/90, but this is not the basis for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension. Practitioners are largely guided by the health status of elderly patients and their complaints. In addition to measuring blood pressure, a cardiogram is used to monitor the state of the cardiovascular system, on which pathologies are expressed much more clearly than in terms of pressure.
Causes of hypotension
In addition to increasing, many people at a young and older age have a decrease in pressure relative to the norms. If this is a stable indicator, then there is practically no reason for concern. Physiologically low blood pressure may occur in miniature girls or in young people with asthenic complexion. Performance is not affected.
If a decrease in pressure occurs suddenly and leads to a worsening of the condition, then this may indicate heart failure, vegetative-vascular dystonia, rhythm disturbances, and even open internal bleeding. With such symptoms, a full examination is urgently needed.
- Essential arterial hypertension (hypertension, see drugs with high blood pressure) gives persistent increases in pressure and hypertensive crises.
- Symptomatic hypertension (adrenal tumors, renal vascular disease) gives the clinic a similar hypertension.
- Vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by episodes of jumps in blood pressure, not exceeding 140 to 90, which are accompanied by autonomic symptoms.
- An isolated increase in lower pressure is inherent in renal pathologies (developmental abnormalities, glomerulonephritis, renal vascular atherosclerosis, or their stenosis). If the diastolic pressure exceeds 105 mmHg. for more than two years, the risk of cerebral catastrophes has increased by 10, and heart attack by five times.
- Systolic blood pressure rises more often in the elderly, people with thyroid pathologies, patients with anemia and heart defects.
- An increase in pulse pressure is a serious risk of heart attack or stroke.
With little hypotension, people live quite fully. When the upper blood pressure drops significantly, for example, in shock, the lower blood pressure is also very low. This leads to centralization of blood circulation, multiple organ failure and the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Thus, for a long and full life, a person should monitor his pressure and keep it within the physiological norm.
In addition to age, a systematic increase in pressure provokes metabolic disorders, kidney disease, bad habits, etc. Smoking provokes narrowing of small vessels, which in the long run causes a decrease in the lumen of large arteries and, as a result, hypertension. In case of impaired renal function, the hormone aldosterone is produced, which also leads to an increase in blood pressure.
How to monitor the performance?
It is best to have your own blood pressure monitor at home and master the technique of measuring blood pressure. This is a simple procedure, and everyone can learn it. The received data should be entered in the diary or table. In the same place, you can briefly make notes about your state of health, pulse rate, physical exertion.
Often, arterial hypertension does not manifest itself by external signs until something provokes a crisis – a sharp increase in blood pressure. This condition has many life-threatening consequences, for example, hemorrhagic stroke or heart attack. It is advisable to routinely measure pressure after 40-45 years. This will significantly reduce the risk of developing hypertension.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.