Scar on the heart after a heart attack what are the causes of symptoms and treatment photo

After a myocardial infarction, the heart muscles are damaged by the destructive process. Oxygen starvation and load on weakened connective tissue have an additional negative effect. As a result, a scar on the heart may begin to form.

In medicine, scar formation is characterized as a coarsened and atrophied part of muscle tissue. The scar becomes the cause of the defective functionality of the heart. The patient physically feels pathology in the form of constant discomfort and general malaise.

If myocardial infarction has multiple complications and is accompanied by concomitant diseases, the scarring process proceeds quickly, and the patient needs urgent treatment. With a large area of ​​the scar, surgery is possible. With gradual atrophy, treatment is carried out by conservative therapy, which includes taking medications.

With the timely diagnosis of pathology and the appointment by a specialist of the correct treatment, cardiosclerosis can be completely prevented.

The formation of areas of connective tissue among normally functioning muscle fibers of the myocardium in medicine is called cardiosclerosis. Less common is an unfavorable outcome of myocardial infarction – the occurrence of aneurysm. Cardiosclerosis of the site that succumbed to necrosis eventually takes the form of a scar on the heart.

The problem area may spontaneously decrease due to:

  • contractions (compaction) of fibrous tissue with the convergence of healthy sections of the heart muscle;
  • compensatory hypertrophy (increase) of normally functioning fibers.

A newly formed scar may be:

Scars in the heart are areas of connective tissue that, as a result of various causes, appear among muscle fibers.

Depending on the size of the connective tissue site, scars are divided into large focal, focal and diffuse.

In professional medical literature, the word “scar” is not used in relation to such a process in this body, but this process is called cardiosclerosis.

The greatest danger is large focal cicatricial changes in the myocardium. The cause of this damage to the heart muscle is usually myocardial infarction. In some cases, patients suffer a heart attack “on their feet”; the scar revealed during the ECG is a complete surprise for them.

During a heart attack, a section of the heart muscle as a result of vascular thrombosis or as a result of a sharp narrowing of the vessels stops receiving blood in the required amount. Muscle cells die without proper nutrition and connective tissue forms in their place. Connective tissue cells do not have the ability to contract and the area of ​​cardiosclerosis remains motionless during contractions.

Sites of medium-sized cardiosclerosis usually also form after myocardial infarction, the cause may be myocarditis or atherosclerotic vascular damage. During the inflammatory process in the heart muscle, some of the cells also die, especially if myocarditis is not treated in accordance with the requirements.

Small areas of connective tissue scattered throughout the heart muscle are called diffuse cardiosclerosis.

The main reason for this condition is atherosclerotic vascular damage. With this variant of scars, mainly small vessels are affected, the compensatory blood supply to the heart through other small vessels quickly turns on, and the area of ​​dead myocardial cells remains small. In other words, small patches of cardiosclerosis are a microinfarction.

For the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Elena Malysheva recommends a new method based on Monastic Tea.

It consists of 8 useful medicinal plants that are extremely effective in the treatment and prevention of arrhythmia, heart failure, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and many other diseases. In this case, only natural components are used, no chemistry and hormones!

Cardiosclerosis is a disease in humans that characterizes the presence of scars on the heart. Often, such manifestations are diagnosed unexpectedly, but in the absence of proper and timely treatment can lead to valvular insufficiency.

A characteristic sign of scarring on the heart is shortness of breath, fatigue and discomfort in the chest area.

Scars on the heart, in medical terminology, are diagnosed as cardiosclerosis – a phenomenon that occurs as a result of dystrophic changes in the structure of connective tissue. Under the influence of adverse factors, atrophy of certain tissue areas occurs. Such a condition provokes an aggravation of the normal functioning of a vital organ.

Translated from the Greek language, cardiosclerosis means – “hard heart”. Connective tissue grows at the sites of destruction of myocardial fibers. As a result, hypertrophic substitution occurs. Fiber suffers. Changes can affect the valves, provoking the development of valvular insufficiency.

Cardiosclerosis is preceded by the following diseases:

  • coronary vascular atherosclerosis;
  • ischemic disease;
  • myocarditis of various etiologies;
  • myocardial dystrophy;
  • rheumatism;
  • embolism and vascular thrombosis;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • diabetes;
  • amyloidosis;
  • hemosiderosis;
  • anemia.

The scarring of the heart is affected by a person’s lifestyle. Severe physical exertion, stressful situations and the presence of bad habits can trigger a pathological process. Scars may remain after surgery. The causes of violations are quite diverse – the heart muscle is an organ that ensures the full operation of all systems.

A person with a similar pathology feels a rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, frequent bouts of fatigue, jumps in blood pressure. The main symptom of cardiosclerosis is dull chest pain, especially after exercise.

A scar is called connective tissue that fills the space that formed at the site of damage to part of the myocardium. This process occurs as a result of inflammatory diseases or after a heart attack. Similar damage to the heart muscle is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in the vessels.

If oxygen does not enter the tissues of the heart, and the cells begin to die, then a scar will form at this point. A problem may also occur when:

  • cardiac form of rheumatism. Pathology is characterized by inflammation of the myocardium and heart membranes. The disease develops as a result of infections caused by infection with streptococcus. In this case, the epicardium is affected, subsequently it is scarred and compacted. This allows you to maintain normal heart function;
  • coronary heart disease. It leads to death in 90%. It develops as a result of scarring or may be its cause, causing a heart attack;
  • myocardial infarction. If a person survived the attack and underwent a course of treatment, then gradually the wound formed due to necrosis is scarred. This disease is most often the cause of an increase in the amount of connective tissue in the heart.

Scars appear not only with pathologies of the heart and blood vessels.

If a person eats improperly, is constantly exposed to stress, suffers from disorders of the endocrine system, then he has every chance of developing cardiosclerosis.

Replacement of muscle fibers and deformation of the valves occur under the influence of:

  • diabetes mellitus;
  • anemia;
  • amyloidosis;
  • overweight;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • excessive physical exertion, due to which the heart wears out faster;
  • hemosiderosis.

Rarely, pathology is detected in newborns, which is associated with congenital heart defects.

It happens that people suffer a heart attack imperceptibly for themselves. If the symptoms are mild, then the attack is confused with tachycardia or angina pectoris.

Some with a suffocating cough go to the therapist, who prescribes a comprehensive examination. Studies in the form of ultrasound or electrocardiography, detect cardiosclerosis.

The disease requires treatment, which is carried out after finding out the root cause of the disorders.

How chickenpox begins: how does the initial stage in children

Chickenpox is so called because it can be carried by the wind, that is, by airborne droplets. Let’s see how chickenpox manifests itself in children. Someone sneezes next to you contagious, you already forget about this minor episode in your life. And after 1-3 weeks, the temperature suddenly rises. This is the initial stage of chickenpox in children.

“Acyclovir” with chickenpox in children

In order to remove such a symptom of chickenpox as itching, you can ask the pediatrician to prescribe an antihistamine in a safe dosage. When rashes pass to the eyes, you can use the special Acyclovir eye gel for chickenpox in children, which effectively fights against the herpes virus.

Many parents are absolutely sure that the treatment of chickenpox in children is the lubrication of vesicles with green. Even now, walking along the street in this way, you can easily identify a child who has had chickenpox – according to the characteristic “spots” of greenery. In fact, zelenka does not treat the symptoms of chickenpox, but performs only a disinfecting function, protects against the penetration of bacterial infection into the wound.

This is especially important for the child. It is convenient for doctors to determine by these spots whether the child is contagious. That is, zelenka is not a treatment for chickenpox in children, but serves to fix new rashes. It is very convenient, first of all, for doctors. In addition, zelenka somewhat reduces itching. In addition to brilliant green, rashes can simply be lubricated with a weak solution of manganese. This option is more suitable for an adult who does not want to go covered in greens. In no case should you lubricate alcohol.

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Causes of Heart Scars

Scarring of heart tissue is not an independent process. Cardiosclerosis is a consequence of diseases such as ischemia, myocarditis, cardiodystrophy, or atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Each disease has its own causes and manifestations.

According to causal factors, three types of cardiosclerosis are divided:

  1. Myocardial – scarring occurs on the site of the myocardium affected by muscle dystrophy. The cause is often an infection, allergy, rheumatic heart disease, or senile changes. It can manifest as shortness of breath, pain in the chest, weakness, tachycardia and arrhythmia.
  2. Atherosclerotic – observed as a consequence of blockage of the coronary vessels. With this type of disease, the patient has symptoms of hypoxia, angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and arrhythmias.
  3. Post-infarction – a scar appears after myocardial infarction. This type is considered the most dangerous, since the process progresses quickly and causes many concomitant deviations. It can manifest as shortness of breath, arrhythmia, swelling of the legs, swelling of veins and constant chest pain.

With damage to the heart muscle, the following factors are associated with a negative effect:

  • excessive physical exertion;
  • chronic deficiency of minerals and vitamins;
  • lack of iron in the body;
  • obesity, thyroid disease, or diabetes;
  • amyloidosis, alcoholism and intoxication.

What is a scar? In most cases, it arises as a result of an experienced heart attack and is characterized by a high content of fibrous elements. The entry of a thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque into the lumen of the coronary vessels leads to a sharp violation of the blood supply to the heart, and as a result, to other organs.

Ischemia with scar formation occurs against the background of:

  • coronary thrombosis associated with blood hypercoagulation;
  • bouts of unstable angina with spasm of the coronary arteries;
  • embolism (the appearance of external particles in the lumen of the vessel);
  • the elderly, when the wear of muscle fibers occurs;
  • the appearance of atherosclerotic plaques in the bloodstream and subsequent blockage of the coronary vessels.

The causes of cardiosclerosis following a heart attack include such diseases of the circulatory system:

  • myocarditis (diffuse inflammation of the heart muscle);
  • connective tissue diseases (e.g. rheumatism);
  • frequent attacks of angina pectoris (accompanied by impaired blood flow and the appearance of persistent ischemia);
  • acute and chronic heart failure.

The following conditions act as risk factors:

  • viral and bacterial infections (pneumonia, septic endocarditis, syphilis);
  • endocrine system diseases (diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, obesity);
  • anemia (low hemoglobin or red blood cells in the blood leads to a violation of the trophism of various organs);
  • heavy physical labor, playing sports without a break;
  • hemosiderosis (accumulation of iron in muscle fibers);
  • amyloidosis (the formation of a pathological protein in the muscle fibers – amyloid).

Heart in scars is observed in patients as a secondary disease.

In medicine, several types of cardiosclerosis are distinguished, which are classified for the reasons for its manifestation:

  • Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis can occur as a result of the fact that the coronary vessels are clogged, can no longer supply the myocardium with oxygen and other necessary substances. Through insufficient blood supply in the body, oxygen starvation (hypoxia) begins, metabolic processes are disrupted, atrophy appears, and the process of dying can even begin in the myocardial fibers. The main symptoms of this type of cardiosclerosis, in addition to scars on the heart, are ischemia, angina pectoris (acute pain in the chest area), arrhythmia (disturbed rhythm of contraction of the heart muscle). A scarred heart can cause heart disease, aortic stenosis, and bradycardia.
  • Myocarditis cardiosclerosis. Scars occur at the sites of damage to the heart muscle by myocarditis – zonal inflammatory processes of the myocardium. In most cases, myocardial cardiosclerosis, like myocarditis, has an infectious origin, but can occur as a result of an allergic attack, rheumatic heart disease, and age-related changes in the body. This type of disease is accompanied by apathy, shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia (accelerated heartbeat), arrhythmia. At the initial stages, myocardial cardiosclerosis does not have clear symptoms, which becomes a serious obstacle to establishing a diagnosis and prescribing the right treatment.
  • Postinfarction cardiosclerosis is considered the most dangerous type of this disease and requires quite serious treatment. Based on the name of the disease, we can conclude that it manifests itself after a heart attack (necrosis of myocardial tissue due to poor circulation). Areas affected by necrosis are covered with scars, the disease proceeds in a complicated form, which is accompanied by arrhythmia, angina pectoris, acute ventricular failure, swelling, and swelling of the veins in the neck.

Scars on the heart have a different degree of localization, so there are two types of cardiosclerosis: small focal and large focal.

Scarring is the outcome of tissue regeneration after any damage. As a result of adverse effects on the heart, an inflammatory process develops, to which the body reacts with the onset of fibrosis or cardiosclerosis.

  • diffuse lesions, with spread over the entire surface;
  • focal (or local), with the delimitation of scarring sites;
  • diffuse focal (scattered) – a mixed form with the allocation of small foci scattered on the surface, sometimes forming vast areas by merging.

The result of violations of the muscle structure is a pathological decrease in compliance of the heart, which interferes with the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system. Fibrosis can affect not only the myocardial layer, but also the cusps of the mitral valve and pericardial tissue – the pericardial sac. Less commonly involved is the endocardium, the inner thin layer. Statistically fibrous changes in the left ventricle prevail over lesions of the remaining areas of the heart.

Most often, the pathological process accompanies coronary heart disease with the development of atherosclerosis, myocardial dystrophy, inflammatory diseases of the heart muscle of various etiologies. Scarring can also be a residual after surgery.

The most serious consequences in the form of valve insufficiency, hypoxia, aortic stenosis are caused by fibrosis of the left ventricle, which is important in the functioning of the circulatory system. At the same time, involvement in the process of the interventricular septum less often has a serious effect on cardiovascular activity.

As a result of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta and its main branches, a narrowing of the lumen of the vessels occurs, leading to a decrease in blood flow. The progression of the disease leads to plaque coating with a fibrous cap (diffuse form), an increase in their size and necrosis of the fibrotic tissue undergoing fibrous changes. Under the action of specific enzymes under certain conditions, cap rupture is possible, leading to the formation of a blood clot.

Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis can cause scarring of the heart valves and sinus node, lead to the development of other, more serious cardiac diseases.

With myocardial infarction, as a result of acute violation of coronary blood flow, ischemic necrosis of the heart muscle occurs. The degree of myocardial damage depends on the duration of the cessation of arterial blood flow. With a large zone of necrosis, the pericardial region is captured with the development of fibrosis, the formation of adhesions and the subsequent loss of elasticity of the pericardial sac.

The formation of dense scar tissue accompanies the healing of pericardial inflammation. The disease is accompanied by sclerotic heart damage, compression of the heart cavities and diastolic ventricular dysfunction.

This inflammatory disease of the heart muscle of infectious, toxic or allergic genesis can occur against the background of other pathologies (lupus erythematosus, infectious endocarditis, etc.) or develop independently. Sometimes myocarditis is accompanied by pericarditis. Fibrous lesion is clearly pronounced in the chronic active form of the disease, often accompanied by the development of restrictive cardiomyopathy. At the initial stage, myocarditis can be asymptomatic, which interferes with the timely diagnosis.

This is an acquired collagen vascular disease from the group of vasculitis with the development of the inflammatory process in the heart tissues, joints and the central nervous system.

  • fibrosis with mitral stenosis. Due to the inflammation that occurs when the rheumatic process is affected, the edges of the mitral valve cusps are thickened and sometimes tissue calcification. The result may be a transformation of the valve structure into a fixed funnel-shaped opening.
  • fibrosis with aortic stenosis. Congenital abnormalities of the aortic valve over time transform a small obstruction into significant damage to the valves due to the development of fibrosis and rigidity, as well as calcium deposition. In the end, a significant narrowing of the hole occurs, the risk of developing serious cardiovascular complications increases. In the case of rheumatic lesions, the normal tricuspid (and in the case of a congenital anomaly, bicuspid) valve structure becomes monolithic with a small central opening.
  • Diabetes mellitus, obesity, pathology of the thyroid gland, as well as other endocrine diseases resulting from metabolic disorders, lead to oxygen starvation of the myocardium and can provoke IHD.
  • Excessive exercise. Before sports training, you need to do a warm-up, and not train longer than an hour a day – not so much is needed to protect the heart muscle from premature wear.
  • Anemia.
  • Hemosiderosis (accumulation of iron in muscle tissue due to impaired iron metabolism).
  • Amyloidosis (accumulation in the muscle heart fibers of amyloid).
  • Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis can occur as a result of the fact that the coronary vessels are clogged, can no longer supply the myocardium with oxygen and other necessary substances. Through insufficient blood supply in the body, oxygen starvation (hypoxia) begins, metabolic processes are disrupted, atrophy appears, and the process of dying can even begin in the myocardial fibers. The main symptoms of this type of cardiosclerosis, in addition to scars on the heart, are ischemia, angina pectoris (acute pain in the chest area), arrhythmia (disturbed rhythm of contraction of the heart muscle). A scarred heart can cause heart disease, aortic stenosis, and bradycardia.
  • Myocarditis cardiosclerosis. Scars occur at the sites of damage to the heart muscle by myocarditis – zonal inflammatory processes of the myocardium. In most cases, myocardial cardiosclerosis, like myocarditis, has an infectious origin, but can occur as a result of an allergic attack, rheumatic heart disease, and age-related changes in the body. This type of disease is accompanied by apathy, shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia (accelerated heartbeat), arrhythmia. At the initial stages, myocardial cardiosclerosis does not have clear symptoms, which becomes a serious obstacle to establishing a diagnosis and prescribing the right treatment.
  • Postinfarction cardiosclerosis is considered the most dangerous type of this disease and requires quite serious treatment. Based on the name of the disease, we can conclude that it manifests itself after a heart attack (necrosis of myocardial tissue due to poor circulation). Areas affected by necrosis are covered with scars, the disease proceeds in a complicated form, which is accompanied by arrhythmia, angina pectoris, acute ventricular failure, swelling, and swelling of the veins in the neck.

Classification of Congenital Heart Disease: Blue and White Types

In medicine, there are various classifications of damage to the heart muscle, which are combined under the general name “cardiosclerosis”. One of these classifications is the division according to the prevalence of the pathological process into:

  • focal cardiosclerosis;
  • diffuse cardiosclerosis.

The focal form of the disease is characterized by the appearance of separately located scars in the myocardium, which can be both small (small focal cardiosclerosis) and significant in area (large focal cardiosclerosis). Usually, this form of damage occurs due to myocardial infarction or myocarditis.

After an extensive myocardial infarction previously suffered by the patient, large-focal cardiosclerosis often occurs, which is characterized by the formation of massive fields of proliferation of connective tissue. As a result of this, one of the walls of the heart can be completely replaced by a scar, and then they say that a chronic aneurysm of the heart is formed.

Small focal cardiosclerosis is characterized by small foci of coarse fibrous connective tissue, most often in the form of thin whitish layers, evenly distributed in the thickness of the myocardium. This form of the disease is a consequence of a lack of oxygen (hypoxia) in the cells of the heart muscle, as a result of which they decrease in size, atrophy and undergo various structural changes (dystrophy).

With the diffuse form of cardiosclerosis, the occurrence of connective tissue occurs evenly throughout the myocardium. A similar change characterizes the presence of a chronic form of coronary heart disease (coronary heart disease).

In addition to the above classification of types of cardiosclerosis, there is also an etiological classification, that is, built on the principle of determining the previous causative factor.

The classification of congenital heart defects is based on the principle of changes in blood movement. Given the effect of the defect on the blood flow in the lungs, there are:

  • anomalies characterized by overflow of pulmonary blood flow;
  • defects in which the blood flow in the lungs is impoverished;
  • defects that do not change blood circulation in the lungs;
  • combined congenital malformations.

The first group is formed by congenital malformations of the heart, which have one distinguishing feature: the discharge of blood from arteries into the venous bed due to the unnatural communication of a large circle of blood flow with a small one. In turn, they are divided into two types: leading and not leading to the development of cyanosis.

The defects that make up the second group are based on the narrowing of the pulmonary artery. Often they are combined with a pathological discharge of blood from the right ventricle of the heart into a large circle of blood circulation and are also divided into those leading and not leading to blueness.

The third group of defects is distinguished by the fact that with them, blood flow in a large circle drastically depletes. In this case, cyanosis is completely absent.

Combined malformations are distinguished from the rest by the presence of disturbances in the anatomical relationship to honey with cardiac chambers and main vessels.

There is another classification, according to which defects are divided into the following types:

  • blue type;
  • white type;
  • defects with obstruction of the ejection of blood from the ventricles.

In this classification, it is the name that reflects the main features that distinguish these states from others. So blue congenital heart defects got their name because of the cyanosis developing in them (this is the scientific name for blue skin) due to a mixture of venous blood with arterial.

The white or pale type is characterized by the appearance of blanching of the skin due to left-right discharge of blood without mixing it. Those. insufficient supply of arterial blood to the tissue develops.

Simple omphalitis or, in other words, a “wet navel” is the most common type of omphalitis. With good care, the umbilical wound completely heals by the 10-14th day of the baby’s life, and if microbes enter the wound and the inflammation begins, this process can be very delayed. At the same time, either transparent or yellowish discharge is allocated from the baby’s navel, often with streaks of blood.

Sometimes a slight redness of the umbilical ring itself joins these symptoms. From time to time, the umbilical wound becomes crusty, but this does not mean that the inflammation has ended. Under the crust, liquid gradually accumulates, in which microbes and bacteria still multiply. The general condition of the “wet navel” in the crumbs most often does not suffer. Sometimes there may be a slight increase in temperature.

Phlegmonous form of omphalitis is the second most severe form of this childhood disease. As a rule, the disease begins with a “wet navel”, but gradually pus begins to stand out from the umbilical wound instead of the transparent contents. On examination, a bulging navel is noticeable, its strong redness and swelling.

Phlegmonous omphalitis is very scary for its complications. Many young mothers simply do not understand and do not see the whole true picture of the disease, since the manifestations of the disease are minimal and very weakly expressed. But phlegmonous omphalitis can be complicated in very short time by such serious problems as:

  • Phlegmon of the abdominal wall;
  • Peritonitis;
  • Abscess of the liver;
  • Sepsis.

Necrotic or gangrenous omphalitis is a fairly rare form of the disease. As a rule, this disease occurs only in children with low body weight at birth and with low immunity.

With necrotic omphalitis, superficial inflammation very quickly passes to the inner layers of the navel and reaches the umbilical vessels. The skin of the navel and its fiber turn blue and necrotic, that is, they are rejected. Necrosis can affect the deeper layers of the skin and the anterior abdominal wall. The general condition of the child with this form of omphalitis remains severe.

Prevention of the development of congenital heart disease in the fetus

Diagnosis of congenital heart defects should be carried out solely on the basis of a comprehensive examination.

1) Echocardiography (or echocardiography).

In this case, this is the main diagnostic method. Thanks to him, it becomes possible to see the morphological signs of the anomaly, and also to determine in what functional state the organ is. It is during echocardiography that the location of large vessels, defects in the anatomy of the valves of the heart and its partitions are visualized, and in addition, the ability of the heart muscle to contract is evaluated.

2) Doppler echocardiographic examination (Doppler echocardiography).

This study is also a means of choice in the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, because it helps in each individual chamber of this organ to determine the direction and speed of blood flow, which allows to register valve insufficiency, and also to measure the volume of regurgitation (this is the term for the movement of blood in the opposite direction) .

3) Electrocardiography (abbreviated ECG).

This method helps to determine the increase in the size of various cardiac departments, as well as to identify the deviation of the electrical axis of the heart from normal. Also, with the help of an ECG, the presence of conduction and rhythm disturbances is confirmed, which, together with other examination data, makes it possible to judge the severity of the condition.

4) Phonocardiography (FCG).

Using this method, it is possible to more thoroughly and thoroughly evaluate the nature, duration and location of heart sounds and sounds.

5) Panoramic x-ray of the chest.

X-rays of the chest organs are a good complement to the diagnosis due to the fact that they allow you to assess the condition of the small circle of blood flow, indicate the features of the location of the heart, determine its shape and size. In addition, due to this method, it is possible to identify changes in the lungs, pleura and spine.

Prevention of congenital heart defects primarily involves careful pregnancy planning.

If you know that someone in the family had any kind of heart defect, you need to remember the likelihood of developing it in subsequent generations. Information on this must be brought to the attention of the doctor who is observing pregnancy.

In order to timely diagnose a congenital heart disease in the fetus, it is recommended to undergo ultrasound during pregnancy.

Naturally, the highest attention from doctors requires conducting pregnancy in women suffering from congenital heart abnormalities.

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What is the danger of rubella in children up to a year?

The causative agent of scarlet fever belongs to the group of hemolytic streptococci, a distinctive feature is the A-shaped structure of the DNA molecule, which allows you to quickly spread throughout the body. More than 50 strains of this pathogen are known; all of them are extremely dangerous both for cells of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and for the immune system.

This microbial group is capable of causing acute purulent processes of the upper respiratory tract, lymphatic system, paranasal sinuses and middle ear. Therefore, complications often arise in the form of otitis media, middle pharyngeal abscess, frontal sinusitis and sinusitis. Regional lymphadenitis persists for a long time (submandibular and cervical groups of lymph nodes become inflamed).

The causative agent of scarlet fever perfectly adapts to adverse environmental conditions. It can be stored for a long time in a frozen state, when heated for a long time it does not lose its adaptive properties, it can retain its virulence in dried form. Disinfectants, boiling and ultraviolet rays are harmful to him.

The main danger to the human body is the production of two types of specific toxins by streptococcus. The first of them has the ability to destroy blood cells, mucous membranes and epithelium. The second toxin is a powerful allergen that can change the patient’s immunological status, causing autoimmune processes that are subsequently difficult to correct.

It is also worth understanding how scarlet fever is transmitted from the patient to a healthy person. The main route of infection is airborne and contact. The causative agent is released into the environment with sputum, mucus. Infectiousness reaches a maximum in the very first hours after the appearance of typical symptoms. Foodborne infections are common in kindergartens. Contact household way is possible in case of non-observance of the rules of personal hygiene and isolation of a sick child.

Children between the ages of 2 and 10 are most susceptible to infection. In the first 12 months of life, there is innate immunity to this pathogen, so infections are extremely rare.

The incubation period of scarlet fever is from 12 hours to 7 days. During this period, streptococcus spreads through the lymphatic and circulatory system, active reproduction and the beginning of the production of specific toxins.

The main causes of scarlet fever lie in the absence of specific immunity and weakening of the body due to frequent and long-lasting colds. Compliance with personal hygiene rules and the prevention of the spread of infection in preschool groups also play a role.

Scarlet fever in children can occur suddenly, against the background of visible general well-being. Symptoms of scarlet fever develop gradually, starting with inflammatory reactions at the site of entry of the infection. Symptoms of scarlet fever in children before a rash on the skin can resemble the clinical picture of tonsillitis or tonsillitis.

Signs of scarlet fever include sore throat, a sharp increase in body temperature to extremely high numbers, an increase, tightening and tenderness of the submandibular lymph nodes. The child becomes lethargic, capricious, refuses to eat, complains of severe headache and aching in large muscles.

Spontaneous pain in the heart may occur. Signs of scarlet fever in children include the rapid onset of a small, pointed red rash. Usually it occurs 12-24 hours after an increase in body temperature. Therefore, confusing the first signs of scarlet fever with other inflammatory diseases is quite difficult.

The pictures shown clearly show how scarlet fever looks in children, but you should pay attention to other components of the triad of symptoms – hyperthermia and an increase in regional lymph nodes.

When examining the patient, bright hyperemia of the pharynx is visible with pronounced swelling of the tonsils on both sides and the presence of petechiae, spread throughout the upper palate. After 12 hours, a lacunar purulent form of bilateral sore throat develops, which can quickly go into the necrotic phase with rejection of a large amount of pus.

Of particular note is the specific rash that appears totally throughout the body in the first 48 hours from the time of the disease. The highest concentration of pinpoint rash elements is achieved in the elbow bends, in the groin and inner thighs, from the sides of the chest and along the white line of the abdomen.

Upon examination, the doctor should pay attention to the condition of the skin of the face. With scarlet fever in children, a triangle stands out around the mouth and below the nose. Usually it has a waxy white color and is not affected by a petechial rash.

The skin rash lasts 4-5 days, then its color changes, and gradually it disappears. Peeling that may cause itching may persist. Visible to comb. All the symptoms of scarlet fever reach their peak on the 3rd day of illness, then a gradual reverse development begins: the body temperature decreases, the lymph nodes sore, the number of point elements of the rash decreases.

Repeated scarlet fever in children is relatively rare. Can there be re-infection, in many respects it depends on the developed immunity. In some cases, with improperly prescribed treatment, carriage of streptococcus may form. Against the background of this phenomenon, exacerbation of symptoms may periodically occur.

Diagnosis of scarlet fever in children is primarily based on visual examination of the patient and a comparison of the symptoms of the clinical picture. In difficult cases, a serological test can be performed, hanging mucus from the oropharynx. A mandatory measure is a swab from the throat to exclude the addition of diphtheria infection. This is especially true for children under 5 years old.

A general blood test is also performed, in which moderate leukocytosis and an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate are noted. A neutrophilic shift of the formula to the left due to an increase in allergic alertness of the body can be observed.

Scarlet fever disease often causes heart complications, so during the recovery period it is advisable to conduct an ECG study, which allows the development of valve defects at an early stage. Also, changes in the electrocardiogram may indicate the presence of rheumatic myocarditis.

A thorough differential diagnosis is required to rule out cases of measles, rubella and prickly heat. In measles, cough with sputum production and severe sinusitis from the initial stage of the disease are typical. With rubella, an increase and soreness of the cervical lymph nodes is noted. Sweating can be characterized by the absence of an increase in body temperature and a rapid tendency to open the skin vesicles with subsequent suppuration.

Among the possible complications of scarlet fever in children, rheumatism and the development of heart valve defects are most often noted. But recently, in connection with the use of modern groups of antibiotics, complications develop very rarely and only in cases where there is no adequate and timely therapy.

The consequences of scarlet fever in the form of changes in the immunological and allergic status can occur after several months and even years. The toxin secreted by the pathogen provokes the development of genome deformation, which is responsible for the response of an allergic and autoimmune reaction to the introduction of a foreign protein.

An allergy can be triggered by any trigger that most often affects the child’s body. Other manifestations of autoimmune disorders may be hidden behind the destruction of cartilage and connective tissue, chronic pancreatitis and thyroiditis. Glomerulonephritis and toxic hepatitis develop less frequently.

In the short term, purulent otitis media of the middle ear, ethmoiditis, frontal sinusitis, and other forms of sinusitis may develop. Pneumonia and bronchitis are relatively rare complications. Often there is purulent tonsillitis with the development of a pharyngeal abscess. Myocarditis occurs in approximately 5% of sick children. Rheumatoid polyarthritis can develop for 2 to 3 months.

Before treating scarlet fever in children, a thorough differential diagnosis is performed. This is necessary because adequate therapy will require the appointment of various groups of antibacterial and antimicrobial agents. With rubella and measles, these medicines are not used.

The following describes how to treat scarlet fever at home, since hospitalization may be required only for severe infections and signs of formidable complications. Most often, therapy is carried out at home with isolation of the patient from other household members.

A strict bed rest is prescribed for a minimum of 7 days. Drink plenty of water. Drinking regimen is enhanced up to 3 liters of fluid per day. It is mandatory to take antihistamines: Suprastin 200 mg 2 times a day, Diazolin, Ketotifen, Pipolfen and a number of other drugs. Widely used vitamins of groups C, A, E.

The treatment of scarlet fever with antibiotics is indicated – the drugs are prescribed as soon as possible, immediately after the identification of a typical triad of symptoms. Preference is given to a drug with a wide spectrum of action. It can be “Amoxicillin” at 250 mg 3 times a day (dokha is calculated based on the weight and age of the baby).

Also used are Azitral, Azithromycin, Erythromycin, Sumamed, Ciprofloxacin, Ampiox, Tsifran and Cephalexin. If necessary, the effect of antibiotics for the treatment of scarlet fever is enhanced by antimicrobial agents. This can be Biseptol-240, 1 tablet 3 times a day, Metronidazole, Trichopol 125 mg 3 times a day. (Dosages are given for children, calculated for the age of the child up to 10 years).

Cytomegalovirus in pregnant women

More often newborns become infected; patients who receive blood transfusions and transplant organs; promiscuous people; people with weakened immunity (they can get sick even with antibodies in the blood).

The greatest danger is cytomegalovirus in pregnant women. In the first trimester, the virus is detected in urine in 2-3% of pregnant women, in the second trimester 7% are infected, in the third trimester – 12%, and by the time of delivery, cytomegalovirus is found in 35% of women. In most mothers, children are born with antibodies to cytomegalovirus infection.

Signs of dysentery

At the time of infection, the virus enters the mucous membranes of the pharynx, larynx and tonsils. The ciliary epithelium of the nasal passages is not susceptible to this type of microorganism, so breathing through the nose often saves from this type of infection. After introduction, the infectious agent is introduced into the bloodstream through the capillary wall.

Then there is disseminated reproduction and distribution throughout all organs and systems without exception. After some time, the infection begins to appear in the form of compaction, enlargement and soreness of the lymph nodes of the inguinal, axillary and submandibular groups. Then these signs pass, and the main localization of lymphadenopathy is shifted to the region of the occipital lymph nodes.

This is due to the fact that in this place the lymphoid tissue has the least resistance to the introduction of the virus. Typical rubella symptoms in children appear after the end of the incubation period. The so-called prodrome is distinguished, during which bruising, pain in the large muscles and joints, headache, sore throat, mild nasal congestion are felt.

Further rubella symptoms in children appear according to a specific algorithm:

  • immediately after the protrusion of the occipital and cervical lymph nodes, the body temperature rises to 38 degrees Celsius;
  • there is a dry paroxysmal cough;
  • nasal passages are blocked by massive swelling of the mucous membrane, there is no mucus discharge;
  • after 2 days, small point rashes of red, dried color appear on various parts of the body.

Typical initial localization of the rash is the area around the ears, the front wall of the neck, cheeks and nasolabial triangle. Then, within 1 – 2 days, the rash quickly spreads over the upper shoulder girdle, going down to the back, stomach, to the groin area and further to the hips. After 3 days, the rash begins to turn pale and disappears from almost the entire body.

The most persistent foci are the buttocks and inner thigh, extensor planes of the forearms. Rashes never appear on the palms and skin of the feet. The rash period lasts from 3 to 7 days. Then comes the period of convalescence, in which the baby’s condition quickly improves, and appetite and physical activity are restored.

As a rule, with serous meningitis, there is only one symptom – an unusually severe headache. Sometimes before vomiting, which practically does not bring relief. However, at the same time, the temperature does not rise above 37,4 ° C, there is no intoxication and the patient can calmly tilt his head. Sick children complain of weakness, lethargy and fatigue. These are signs of serous meningitis in children and adults.

Are viruses harmful to the brain, like bacteria? Not. In fact, the symptoms of serous meningitis are not caused by viruses at all. They very rarely penetrate directly into the brain.

Why does a headache occur? So the body reacts to the fact that too many “extraneous” cells, which should not be there, penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, border violators are not microorganisms at all, but cells of their own immunity, which, due to the rapid multiplication of viruses, become able to penetrate beyond the barrier. Fortunately, they can not do any harm to the brain or serous membranes. Therefore, one cannot die from serous meningitis.

With serous meningitis, you can not even go to the doctor? In mild cases, adult patients do just that – they take time off from work and simply “lie down” for several days. Firstly, life-threatening infection can be masked under serous meningitis, secondly, the patient can infect others, and thirdly, children suffer meningitis heavily.

Behind the blood-brain barrier is a real paradise for pathogenic microbes: nutrients, plenty and no one who could defend – neither antibodies, nor defensive cells. Once behind the BBB, bacteria grow and multiply, as in an incubator. Therefore, signs of meningitis begin to appear quite quickly after infection.

The disease develops rapidly – in just a few hours.

What signs of meningitis should I look for? Bacteria, getting beyond the BBB, take away all nutrients from the membranes of the brain, secrete toxins that affect surrounding tissues and paralyze cells. If the infection is not stopped during the time, necrosis occurs: the membranes of the brain die off and pus forms.

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There are characteristic signs of leptospirosis, according to which the disease differs from hepatitis. Unlike hepatitis with leptospirosis, there is no pre-icteric period, and the temperature rises simultaneously with the appearance of jaundice.

Even with hepatitis, there are no muscle pains, while with leptospirosis they are very strong.

It is necessary to call a doctor at the first sign of diphtheria. The fact is that it is almost impossible to predict in what form diphtheria will flow. For example, in case of a toxic patient, the body temperature jumps to 40 ° C, severe weakness, sore throat and abdomen, aches in muscles and joints appear. The disease develops very quickly, and you can not do without urgent medical help.

There are also hypertoxic forms of diphtheria with severe intoxication. They appear even faster, quickly give signs of diphtheria and can lead to unconsciousness, collapse, convulsions, heart failure, internal bleeding. If you do not turn to specialists in time, a fatal outcome is possible on the 2-3rd day of the disease.

Under what conditions do severe conditions develop? It depends on the state of immunity of the patient, as well as the presence of concomitant diseases. If the patient’s body is weakened, then the possibility of a severe form increases.

In rare cases, dysentery occurs in gastroenteric forms similar to salmonellosis. Then the patient has specific signs of dysentery, such as nausea, watery stools, pain throughout the abdomen. If you do not consult a doctor on time, in severe cases a dangerous toxic shock can develop.

How is a patient examined with suspected dysentery? At first, the infectious disease specialist finds out if the patient or his relatives were ill with something similar before. He asks when and how the first symptoms of malaise appeared, what the patient ate and drank in the last days, whether he follows the rules of hygiene, where the stomach hurts, the nature of the stool.

After collecting an anamnesis, the doctor examines the patient: conducts palpation of the abdomen, looks at the condition of the skin, measures pressure and body temperature.

If nausea and vomiting are present, the patient is washed with a stomach. Then examine urine, feces, wash water and blood.

A sigmoidoscopy helps in the diagnosis: a tube is inserted into the colon with a probe at the end and its walls are examined. With dysentery, marked redness, swelling, smoothness of the vascular pattern of the mucosa are noticeable. In severe cases, ulcers can be observed.

The following periods of pertussis in children are distinguished:

  • catarrhal, which disguises itself as a typical SARS with concomitant runny nose, sore throat, dry cough and fever;
  • convulsive with spasms of muscle tissue clinically manifests itself in typical coughing attacks with a previous aura in the form of anxiety and lack of air;
  • the recovery period, in which symptoms subside and seizures are becoming less frequent, can last up to 2 months.

The first signs of pertussis appear after the end of the incubation period, which can last from 3 days to 2 weeks.

The initial signs of pertussis in children are disguised as a typical catarrhal disease:

  • body temperature rises, severe chills, sweating;
  • the child complains of headaches and muscle pain, weakness;
  • swelling of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages occurs, accompanied by nasal congestion and the release of transparent mucus;
  • the cough joins quickly enough, has a dry character and does not stop with the usual means.

On examination, pronounced hyperemia of the pharynx, pallor of the skin, rapid pulse and breathing are visible. Vesicular or hard breathing is heard in the lungs. The catarrhal period lasts an average of 7 to 10 days. In the newborn period, a fulminant course of the disease is observed, the spastic period occurs after 48 – 72 hours.

Symptoms of pertussis in children in the convulsive period are pronounced and leave no doubt in the diagnosis of infection. Several times a day there are attacks of dry unproductive cough.

  • preliminary strong feeling of the presence of a foreign object in the throat with difficulty breathing;
  • a sequential series of coughing tremors in the form of exhalations;
  • prolonged reprise on inspiration with a whistling unpleasant sound;
  • following coughing exhalation;
  • discharge of thick mucous secretion (streaks of blood may be observed).

Sometimes the attack ends with vomiting due to a sharp spasm of the glottis and trachea. A series of coughing seizures lead to a characteristic change in the appearance of the patient. Puffiness of the face, hemorrhage under the eyes and in the corners of the mouth appears. The tongue can be covered with dense white sores. Hemorrhages and hyperemia are visible in the throat.

Symptoms of congenital heart disease syndromes

This disease is notable for the fact that it often develops asymptomatically. This is especially true of the focal form and moderate degree of diffuse cardiosclerosis. Doctors usually associate the diagnosis of “cardiosclerosis” with heart rhythm disturbance or pain. Sometimes arrhythmias of varying degrees are the first signs of a developing sclerosis process.

Symptoms of cardiosclerosis in its post-infarction and atherosclerotic forms are approximately the same. It:

  1. Palpitations, pain in the heart;
  2. Difficulty breathing (shortness of breath);
  3. Pulmonary edema (acute form of left ventricular failure);
  4. Heart rhythm is recorded intermittently (atrial fibrillation, blockade, etc.).
  5. Signs of congestive heart failure (swelling of the extremities, fluid accumulation in the abdominal, pleural cavities, enlarged liver, etc.).

Arterial hypertension may also accompany both forms of the disease.

All the main symptoms of this disease develop in an increase, since cardiosclerosis itself has a tendency to progress as muscle tissue is replaced by scars.

Angina pectoris is manifested by acute, pressing, often burning, constricting pains behind the sternum (less often in the atrial region), which “give” under the left shoulder blade, to the left hand (it often also causes numbness), to the neck, throat and even to the jaw .

Such symptoms of angina can very often be accompanied by a feeling of fear, lack of air, the face usually turns pale, cold sweat appears on the forehead, and the limbs become colder.

When diagnosed with congenital heart disease, the symptoms are determined by the following criteria:

  • type of anomaly;
  • the nature of blood movement disorders;
  • the period of development of circulatory decompensation.

Nevertheless, regardless of the type of defect, 3 phases are noted in their course. Literally from the first minutes of life there is an adaptation phase in which the child adapts to the altered blood flow.

Phase number two is relative compensation in which the general condition improves. The third phase – terminal (final) – develops when all protective reserves are exhausted and is characterized by non-treatable blood flow disorders.

In children with blue defects, skin blueness is noted, affecting also the mucous membranes. This cyanosis increases even with the smallest tension: for example, when a baby is sucking or crying.

The main sign of pale defects is blanching of the skin with cooling of the extremities.

Congenital heart defects in newborns, as a rule, are manifested by anxiety, babies refuse to breast, and when fed quickly get tired, they also have a faster pulse, arrhythmia, shortness of breath and sweating, neck vessels swell, their pulsation becomes clearly visible. In case of chronic blood flow disorders, there is a lag in physical development, weight gain and height.

Characteristic are cardiac murmurs, which are usually heard right away in the field of birth. In the following days, manifestations of heart failure appear (in the form of edema, enlargement of the heart and liver in size, etc.).

Usually, doctors combine all the manifestations of defects in 4 groups – these are the so-called syndromes of congenital heart defects:

  • heart syndrome;
  • heart failure syndrome;
  • chronic oxygen starvation syndrome;
  • respiratory distress syndrome.

Complications that can arise as a result of developed cardiac abnormalities are very diverse. This is a defeat of the heart of a bacterial nature, and the formation of blood clots in the vessels of the brain, and congestive pneumonia, and even a heart attack can develop.

Bronchitis and pneumonia as complications after the flu are manifested by cough, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite. Other features of the symptoms of complications after influenza – fever with pneumonia is usually higher than with bronchitis. With obstructive bronchitis in the lungs, dry wheezing occurs, sometimes the patient hears them himself.

Angina is an inflammation of the palatine mivdalins. The causative agents are microbes: streptococcus, staphylococcus. Signs of a sore throat after a complication of influenza: fever, worsening of health, a sharp sore throat, worse when swallowing. Submandibular and cervical lymph nodes often increase. The more pronounced the inflammatory process, the worse the condition of the patient.

If the right treatment is not started in the very first days of the disease, then tonsillitis can go into an even more serious complication – a paratonsillar abscess. There is an ailment due to illiterate antibiotic treatment (especially in those cases when the patient himself appoints them), the very pronounced aggressiveness of the microbes, and a decrease in immunity.

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. The most common inflammation of the maxillary sinus is sinusitis. Less common is inflammation of the frontal sinus (frontal sinusitis), sphenoid (sphenoiditis) or ethmoid (ethmoiditis). Sometimes all sinuses can become inflamed, then the ailment is called pansinusitis.

If you have a runny nose for a long time after the transferred flu, you need to contact an otolaryngologist, because more effective treatment is required. The frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses are located close to the brain, which means there is a risk of developing meningitis or brain abscess.

Article read 10 times (a).

Suppose a person has a kidney transplant from a person who has a CMV infection. The incubation period of the disease lasts about 8-12 weeks. Sometimes it lengthens up to 2 years after organ transplantation. After this, symptoms of cytomegalovirus occur.

The disease is acute and severe, with intoxication, fever, weakness, pain in muscles and joints. But it is difficult to confuse cytomegalovirus with another infection, since the patient has an enlarged spleen, all lymph nodes, and jaundice appears.

Symptoms of meningitis are outlined above. There is a very simple way to detect meningitis when a person is conscious – if there is a huge influx of patients during a flu epidemic in the clinic and there is simply no time for a thorough examination, ask the patient to tilt his head and press his chin to his chest.

The incubation period takes from 4 days to 2 weeks. The disease begins acutely: the patient develops severe intoxication, chills, body temperature rises to 39 – 40 ° C, abdominal pains, muscle aches (especially calf), weakness, weakness, insomnia, intense thirst. These are symptoms of leptospirosis in humans.

In mild forms of the disease, the patient has a fever for 2-3 days, accompanied by intoxication. Organs do not suffer.

In the case of a moderate form of leptospirosis, the patient’s liver and spleen increase, jaundice and pain in the right side appear, the skin becomes dry, itching occurs, and vomiting opens. These are adverse symptoms of leptospirosis.

A rash may also appear on the body. Many patients have signs of kidney damage.

In severe forms of the disease, complications of the central nervous system, myocarditis, colon ulcers, and internal bleeding may develop. Convulsions, disturbances of consciousness, up to a coma are possible.

Chronic yersiniosis is really manifested by periods of subfebrile condition (fever up to 37-37,2 ° C), asthenia (weakness), arthralgia (inflammation in the joints), myalgia (muscle pain). Symptoms of yersiniosis can occur, such as abdominal cramps, dyspeptic symptoms (nausea, vomiting, bitterness in the mouth).

Treatment includes antibiotics, anti-inflammatory desensitizing (anti-allergenic) drugs.

These patients will suffer an ailment in a mild form: with a slight malaise, sore throat and runny nose. True, this condition can last more than a month. In addition, during this period, patients become infectious.

Diphtheria bacillus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, eyes, genitals, damaged skin, wounds and scratches. Diphtheria disease: only a doctor prescribes symptoms and treatment for it.

Microbes can target various parts of the body as a target. Most often, diphtheria of the pharynx, larynx, and nose is found. Thus, symptoms of diphtheria disease are manifested.

Sometimes the disease “descends” into the trachea and bronchi, then they talk about the development of diphtheria croup. Bacteria can also affect the skin, eyes, and genitals.

Once in the body, microbes begin to multiply rapidly and secrete toxins. Because of this, inflammation occurs, a grayish-white film forms on the mucous membranes.

Symptoms of diphtheria appear suddenly. At the same time, a white-gray coating appears on the tonsils. With skin diphtheria, this plaque occurs on the surface of wounds or scratches. This form of the disease was common in the 1980-1990s, now it is much less common.

Classical diphtheria is very similar in symptoms to a sore throat, so how not to mix it up and make the correct diagnosis? With diphtheria, raids on the tonsils with a spatula are not removed. And if they are nevertheless scraped off, bleeding wounds will remain on the surface of the mucosa. With angina, plaque comes off easily. In addition, when the patient is infected with corynebacteria, he develops characteristic neck edema due to enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes. With angina, this does not happen.

Symptoms of dysentery can be different, but basically it is a disorder of stool and vomiting. On palpation, a spasmodic (tense and often painful) sigmoid colon is felt. The stool is liquid, sparse, with an admixture of blood. A characteristic sign of dysentery is a false urge to use the toilet. They appear due to the fact that bacteria irritate specific receptors in the colon.

Shigella themselves cannot get into the blood, but they produce toxins that are carried by the blood stream to all organs. Because of this, with dysentery, joints and head sometimes begin to hurt, concomitant chronic diseases are aggravated, primarily ailments of the gastrointestinal tract.

Diagnosis of diphtheria

When diagnosing, it is customary to use standard methods: electrocardiography, echocardiography, fluoroscopy. The best result is shown by coronarography – the study of coronary vessels using a fluoroscope. The heart is a muscle, and accordingly it is absolutely transparent to x-rays.

To study the coronary vessels, a dye is launched into the blood, which allows the equipment to display a picture with the real state of the heart muscle. “X-ray paint” is introduced by a catheter along the femoral artery, and after staining with the paint of the coronary vessels, the specialist gets the opportunity to thoroughly study the coronary system in any angle.

To make a diagnosis, a number of diagnostic studies are necessary, as well as an assessment of the patient’s symptoms.

  • weakness, shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia, arrhythmia – with myocarditis;
  • attacks of angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and subsequently difficulty breathing, swelling, increased heart rate, ascites – with atherosclerosis and the consequences of myocardial infarction;
  • decreased performance, headache, increased heart rate, enlarged liver, symptoms of heart failure and poor health – with acute rheumatic fever and pericardial fibrosis;
  • acrocyanosis – cyanosis of the skin of the fingers, feet, the appearance of a characteristic nasolabial triangle.

Diagnosis of disorders includes standard methods to determine the location of the lesion.

  1. Electrocardiography (ECG).
  2. Ultrasound examination of the heart (echocardiography).
  3. Laboratory blood tests to determine cholesterol, lipoproteins, eosinophils, markers of necrosis, etc.
  4. X-ray examination.
  5. Computed and magnetic resonance imaging (CT and MRI) – in the event of a discrepancy between the symptoms of the disease, physical examination data and the results of an electrocardiographic study.
  6. Visualization of the focus of the radionuclide method.
  7. Coronarography – determining the state of the coronary vessels by introducing a contrast agent during fluoroscopy.

After clarification of the clinical picture, a decision is made on the need for drug treatment. Depending on the identified cause of scarring, this may be a correction of the initially revealed pathology or observation and therapeutic support of the body with the residual effects of a previous cardiac disease.

Symptoms of fibrosis, localization of pathological changes and prognosis depend on the causes of scarring. An important role is also played by the patient’s age and the presence of concomitant diseases.

The initial diagnosis of rubella is based on an anamnesis, epidemiological status in the village, the availability of information about outbreaks or episodic infections in a particular preschool institution. A quarantine regime is immediately established in the kindergarten or nursery.

Upon examination, the doctor can see the presence of petechial rashes in the upper palate, in the larynx and pharynx. The enlarged occipital and cervical lymph nodes are palpated. In the period when there are no rashes, diagnosis can be carried out by laboratory means. For this, blood is taken from a vein. Based on the obtained biological material, a serological analysis is carried out, during which the titer of rubella virus antibodies is determined.

Additionally, when diagnosing rubella, a general blood and urine test, an ECG are performed to exclude possible complications. Radiography of the lungs is prescribed for suspected pneumonia as a complication of this infection.

Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis C is widely used. Blood is usually analyzed to detect hepatitis. You can, of course, take a study of liver tissue, but this procedure is more complicated and requires a puncture biopsy of the liver, and this is an operation, although performed on an outpatient basis.

Two blood tests are used. The main one is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which can be used to determine both the presence of the virus, its quantity, and the genotype. But this is not enough to determine the degree of virus activity and the duration of the process, which is sometimes necessary for treatment recommendations. PCR diagnosis of hepatitis C is the most reliable, but not complete.

Therefore, the second method of diagnosing viral hepatitis C is used – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which allows you to determine the presence of so-called markers of hepatitis B and C.

To diagnose serous meningitis, blood is taken for examination, as well as cerebrospinal fluid using lumbar puncture. When the viral nature of the disease is determined, treatment is immediately prescribed. It may take several weeks to determine which type of virus has overcome the patient. But this information is important only for epidemiologists. For the patient, this does not matter, since with viral meningitis, treatment is always the same.

Diagnosis of meningitis is usually not particularly difficult for an experienced doctor. If the patient is conscious, take tests. But it happens that a person is brought in in such a state when it is no longer up to samples: first you need to restore the heartbeat, breathing, and get out of shock. This is done by a special resuscitation team.

Diagnosis of leptospirosis is complex. First, they collect an anamnesis: they ask what the patient ate, where he bathed, whether he was in contact with animals. They take blood and urine for analysis.

Bacterial blood culture helps to identify the pathogen, however, this is too long a method. Therefore, the blood is examined for the presence of antibodies to leptospira. These tests for leptospirosis can differentiate the diagnosis.

Diagnosis of yersiniosis is based on the determination of the causative agent of the disease and antibodies to yersinia.

The key to the success of the treatment of chronic yersiniosis is to contact a competent doctor. Based on the results of tests and a personal examination, only an infectious disease specialist can determine whether these symptoms are manifestations of the disease.

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Diagnosis of diphtheria by a laboratory method. A little plaque is scraped off the tonsils of the patient and given to the laboratory for bacterial culture (microbial colonies are grown on nutrient media).

What do doctors do if the diagnosis of diphtheria is confirmed? The patient is immediately sent to the hospital. When a doctor makes a diagnosis of angina, he is obliged to conduct the so-called differential diagnosis to make sure that he does not confuse the disease with diphtheria. These two diseases are very similar. That’s just the treatment they have is completely different, so you can not make mistakes in the diagnosis.

The initial diagnosis is based on the clinical picture. In the composition of peripheral blood changes are not significant. Leukocytosis and changes in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be observed. The number of lymphocytes increases. In the spasmodic period, a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels can be detected.

To clarify the diagnosis, bacteriological culture of sputum or a smear from the throat is performed. For a quicker final diagnosis, a serological blood test can be performed for specific antibodies. Agglutination reaction is being studied. At an early stage, an intradermal test method helps to identify pathology.

PCR analysis for hepatitis C

As mentioned above, infection can be detected by analysis of PCR for hepatitis C. Can a positive test for hepatitis C be erroneous?

Screening for hepatitis C in full is carried out by two methods. ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) determines different groups of antibodies to antigens of the virus (the so-called serological markers).

The hepatitis C virus itself (its genotype and quantity) is detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction).

If both of these tests are positive, then the diagnosis of hepatitis is beyond doubt. At the same time, liver function indicators (biochemical blood parameters) may not deviate from the norm.

Sometimes the result of a screening examination for hepatitis C can be false positive, when only one serological marker is determined during the initial examination. Such a result may be, for example, in patients with autoimmune diseases of the connective tissue or in women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Article read 9 times (a).

Despite the presence of ultra-modern computer tomographs, the presence of bacteria can only be determined by examining the cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, with meningitis, a special procedure is carried out, the so-called lumbar puncture, when a special needle is inserted into the patient’s back and cerebrospinal fluid (spinal fluid) is taken for examination.

This is the only 100% accurate procedure and analysis for meningitis, which allows you to quickly detect the presence of purulent meningitis (unlike viruses, bacteria are immediately visible under a microscope) and even determine the type of microorganism that caused it (using classical (inoculation) and express methods (agglutination, hybridization)).

How safe is lumbar puncture? Lumbar puncture is performed under local anesthesia, the patient does not feel anything. A puncture is made in the lumbar region. At the puncture site there is neither a spinal cord, nor structures on which the spinal column rests. Therefore, you can not be afraid that the needle will damage something. There are also no complications after a puncture.

What happens after an infection is detected? It is very important to begin intensive treatment at the first suspicion of purulent meningitis, even before receiving the results of the analysis. The patient is immediately placed in a hospital and intensive antibiotic treatment is carried out. Also prescribed are drugs that remove excess fluid from the serous membranes and reduce intracranial pressure, neurometabolites that improve brain metabolism, as well as vitamins (if the patient has no allergies).

The patient is released home not earlier than after a month (and sometimes even later – depending on the condition). Then the patient should lie at home for another 2 weeks. And only then, gradually recovering will be able to return to the usual rhythm of life. After recovery, the patient should be regularly observed by doctors for another 2 years, undergo rehabilitation treatment. He is prohibited from physical activity and sports.

How is serous meningitis transmitted?

Rubella virus is a highly resistant microorganism that has a double membrane and its own ribonucleic acid molecule. This allows you to survive for a long time in the external environment even under the most adverse conditions. When introduced into the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, the rubella virus integrates its RNA molecule, which is protected from the effects of lymphocytes and macrophages by the villous layer. Therefore, without prior vaccination in the child’s body, there are no specific means of immune defense against this type of infection.

A specific feature of the toga virus family is that hemagglutinin, a substance that facilitates the rapid absorption of the viral molecule into human blood cells, is produced on the outer surface of their membrane. As the concentration of viruses increases, the production of a substance such as neuraminidase, which contributes to damage to the nervous tissue, gradually begins.

Rubella infection is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets. The degree of contact in the absence of specific immunity is an indicator of more than 90%. The spread of rubella infection occurs mainly in confined spaces in which a large number of people accumulate.

These are kindergartens, schools, boarding schools. There are known cases of nosocomial infections in pediatric hospitals where children with an erroneous primary diagnosis of lymphadenitis are placed. Isolation of the virus occurs when coughing, sneezing, talking and just breathing. When it enters the external environment, the microorganism retains its aggressive properties for 5 to 8 hours, depending on dryness and air temperature. Instant deactivation occurs when quartzizing or in direct sunlight.

Consider how cytomegalovirus is transmitted. The source of infection is sick people. You can get infected through a variety of secrets: blood, saliva, urine, tears, feces, sperm, vaginal contents, breast milk. You can catch the virus by airborne droplets.

It is impossible to unequivocally answer the question of how are infected with cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus is called a “youthful” infection, as it is transmitted sexually, also it is called a “kissed” virus. But it’s much more accurate to call it the “mother and child” illness, because when a mother kisses a child, they infect each other. Once ill, the patient remains a carrier of the virus for life.

According to some researchers, already 80% of the population is infected with cytomegalovirus, and antibodies have formed in their blood. It turns out that only 20% of people on Earth are not protected from this infection. Cytomegalovirus infection usually goes unnoticed.

It used to be that viral meningitis is transmitted exclusively by water. However, over the past two years, we have increasingly begun to encounter “family” cases when one member of the family first gets sick and the rest gets infected from it. This is the so-called contact transmission route, which was previously a rarity for serous meningitis. Now you know how serous meningitis is transmitted.

Why have virus infections changed? The fact is that the infection constantly mutates, adapts to the environment. Obviously, a new type of virus has appeared. Fortunately, it is not transmitted by airborne droplets, so you can’t get infected by communication. But if people use common things: mugs, towels – the risk of picking up the disease is very high. In general, viruses that cause serous meningitis are easily transmitted through dirty hands, dishes, unwashed vegetables and fruits, and poor-quality food.

Parents often scare children, they say, if you don’t put on a hat in the cold, you will certainly get meningitis. Is it so? If there is no pathogen in the body, then there is no place for the disease. Therefore, such a statement is a fallacy. However, I still don’t advise to go without a hat in the winter – this way you can significantly weaken your immunity and disarm the body in front of many different infections.

All of this is not true regarding viral infection. How is viral etiology meningitis transmitted? By airborne droplets.

Farm lambs and goats supply people with valuable food and hair, but at the same time they spread a dangerous disease – leptospirosis. What is this ailment and how does it proceed.

What infection is responsible for the development of leptospirosis? Leptospira bacteria cause this ailment. They have the form of a spiral and move, rotating along the axis. These microbes are very fond of heat and moisture – in the water they can live up to 3 months. Interestingly, leptospira is widely distributed throughout the world, and Russia is no exception.

Leptospirosis disease is a natural focal infection, that is, it is not transmitted from person to person. The source of infection is various animals: rodents (mice, rats), marmots, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, pigs, birds, dogs. They excrete bacteria along with urine.

You can become infected with leptospirosis by eating rodent-infected foods, as well as by bathing in dirty water. Bacteria enter the body through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes, genitals, or if the skin has wounds and injuries.

There is a risk of catching the infection when slaughtering and butchering the meat of an infected animal, working with the ground into which the pathogens got. Now you know how leptospirosis is transmitted.

Are breeders sick most often? The risk group can include rural residents, milkmaids, shepherds, veterinarians, people working in swampy meadows.

How do bacteria in the body behave? First, they penetrate the lymph nodes, from there with a lymph flow are distributed throughout the body and settle in various organs (liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, central nervous system). There leptospira actively multiply and release dangerous toxins that poison the body, destroy red blood cells, destroy the walls of blood vessels and disrupt blood coagulation.

Sources of diphtheria are sick people. Coughing or sneezing, he throws into the environment a huge number of pathogens that settle on various objects.

Most often, infection with diphtheria occurs by airborne droplets. Also, the bacterium can be picked up by contact. For example, when a mother gives a sick child a spoon of honey, and then with the same spoon stirs coffee in her cup. And some parents can even lick the nipple (supposedly washed) before giving it to the baby. Food-borne transmission is also possible, but extremely rare.

You can get infected only by swallowing bacteria. For example, after drinking unboiled water or milk, eating unwashed fruits or vegetables, using someone else’s dishes or a toothbrush. It is enough to hold on to the handrail in the bus, do not wash your hands after that, and start lunch. After this, dysentery infection may occur.

The main source of infection is a sick person. The most infectious are patients lying in a hospital with a severe and moderate course of dysentery.

The only ways to get dysentery are enteral. The pathogen enters the body only through the mouth. What time of the year does dysentery most “prefer”? Summer-autumn period. The bacterium itself is resistant to cold, but at this time summer residents collect crops in their gardens and eat fruits directly from the garden.

In addition, in the summer heat, people have to drink more. Many take water from wells, wells, springs and the so-called holy sources. I want to emphasize that in the holy sources Shigella feels no worse than in any other. Also, people often become infected by swallowing water while swimming in lakes and ponds.

Who can be at risk? Preschoolers – they wash their hands less often, and drag in their mouth whatever they get. And elderly people and patients with weakened immunity or concomitant diseases are often sick.

What happens in the body when shigella enter it? The bacteria themselves are practically motionless – they move along the gastrointestinal tract with food. Some pathogens die in the aggressive environment of the stomach and small intestine, the rest safely reach the large intestine and take root there. Microbes begin to multiply rapidly and secrete toxins.

Dysentery treatment

Scars on the heart are detected during an ECG or ultrasound scan of the heart. When diagnosing an abnormal state of the heart muscles, the specialist prescribes a set of therapeutic measures aimed at treating the underlying disease and preventing the increase in the area of ​​scar tissue.

  • taking medications;
  • maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

People suffering from an ailment are shown an annual examination and periodic monitoring by a specialist to monitor heart function.

With the formation of heart scars, the patient is prescribed drugs that improve heart function, restore blood circulation and accelerate metabolic processes. Medicines are selected individually, depending on the available clinical picture.

The main method of therapy is stem cell treatment. It is recommended to use stem cells at the first signs of scarring after a heart attack. Such treatment is a method developed by modern medicine. The use of stem cells is aimed at the natural restoration of affected tissues and blood vessels.

Stem cell treatment allows to achieve due to natural processes:

  • strengthening the vascular walls;
  • dissolution of atherosclerotic plaques;
  • prevent necrosis and tissue atrophy.
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Features of food

Of great importance for successful therapy is proper nutrition. The patient needs to limit himself in the use of animal fats and foods containing cholesterol. Nutrition should be aimed at replenishing the body with missing minerals and vitamins.

The transformation of dead muscle elements into cells of connective tissue that occurred after a heart attack is non-reversible. With appropriate support for the functioning of healthy cells, maximum cardiac performance can be achieved by reducing the load on the myocardium.

Prevention of the adverse effects of cardiosclerosis includes:

  • a special diet containing a minimum amount of cholesterol and fatty foods;
  • if necessary – taking drugs from the group of statins that lower cholesterol in the body;
  • moderate physical activity in order to avoid the spread of connective tissue formation;
  • the use of cardioprotectors to reduce the load on the myocardium and protect the heart from further damage.

Depending on the nature of the complications, certain medications are prescribed:

  • anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (“Aspirin”) – prevent re-thrombosis;
  • cardioselective beta adrenoblockers (“Atenolol”) – reduce blood pressure in hypertension;
  • metabolites (ATP) – activate metabolism, improve blood flow and the condition of coronary vessels;
  • diuretics (“Furosemide”) – are an effective complement to the treatment of heart failure.

Despite the lack of the ability of connective tissue to transform back into muscle tissue, cardiology today is actively exploring stem cell treatment. Stem cells have been shown to be highly effective in the first week after myocardial infarction. They not only replace the affected areas of the heart muscle, but also are able to restore the tone and elasticity of the coronary vessels.

Cardiac tissue repair occurs in several stages:

  • stem cells introduced to the patient at the time when a scar forms, accumulate in the problem place, replacing fibrous fibers;
  • stem cell treatment involves the synthesis of muscle tissue precursors – cardiomyoblasts, due to which there is a restoration of the contractility of the heart;
  • coronary vessels under the influence of embryonic cells become stronger, more elastic, their spasm and atherosclerotic lesion are eliminated.

The scarring process is very slow, and ischemia reduces this speed. Heart attacks have the property of repeating themselves, which provokes the emergence of new foci of deformation of the tissues of the heart muscle. Scientists have repeatedly stated that scarring can be considered a favorable phenomenon, because it prevents a pathological decrease in heart activity. Scar tissue becomes a kind of protection of the heart, which is aimed at maintaining the wall, which prevents tearing.

To treat heart scars, it is necessary to determine the primary disease, the cause of the development of cardiosclerosis, and eliminate its symptoms. If the disease provoked irreversible processes in the structure of the heart muscle, it is necessary to take measures to slow the growth of connective tissue. Thus, experts gain control over the scarring process.

Treatment is carried out under the supervision of the attending physician in a hospital. In cases of bloating and dystrophy of the vascular walls, the doctor must prescribe an operation. If surgical treatment was not prescribed on time, the patient may begin internal hemorrhage.

Many patients do not trust the traditional methods of treating cardiosclerosis and tend to folk remedies. One of the proven recipes of traditional medicine among all kinds of heart treatments in scars is called tincture of celandine.

Since it is impossible to reverse the process of converting healthy tissue into scar tissue, the treatment is aimed at stopping the symptoms of the underlying disease, preventing further pathological changes and preventing complications in the form of:

  • the appearance of aneurysms, mainly in the posterior wall or region of the left ventricle;
  • the development of acute heart failure;
  • relapse of the underlying disease;
  • thromboembolism;
  • sudden death.

In the treatment, both drug therapy and surgical methods are used. An exception is severe diseases with a poor prognosis, such as endomyocardial fibrosis, an effective therapy of which has not been developed.

  • beta-blockers, diuretics, anticoagulants – with angina pectoris;
  • antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, antiviral agents, immunomodulators – with myocarditis;
  • antioxidants;
  • cardiac glycosides;
  • antihypertensives;
  • statins to lower blood cholesterol;
  • if necessary – thrombolytics and antiplatelet drugs;
  • vitamin complexes.

Within a week after the appearance of fresh scars from myocardial infarction, stem cell treatment is possible. Thanks to the regeneration process, in this case it is possible to almost completely remove scar tissue due to the displacement of its cells by primary myocardial cells.

  • in the installation of a pacemaker;
  • in the procedure of shunting or stenting;
  • in heart transplantation – to young and middle-aged patients;
  • in an emergency operation to suture the aneurysm, fraught with the development of internal hemorrhage.

As additional methods that provide a supportive and restorative effect, the use of traditional medicine is acceptable.

It is important to remember that the selection of medicines in each case is selected individually and exclusively by the attending physician. Self-medication can significantly worsen the condition and lead to irreversible, serious consequences.

Medicine today has achieved positive results in the treatment of the described ailment. So, a scar on the heart after a heart attack can be treated with stem cells. Here, it should be clarified that the scar removal is more effective in the case of the timely initiation of stem cell treatment – a week after a heart attack.

The ability to replace vascular tissue and heart muscle with stem cells allows you to quickly and effectively cure cardiosclerosis. Stem cells that were introduced to the patient after a heart attack collect on the damaged surface of the heart and act as replacement constituent cells of the connective tissue.

Post-infarction therapy

After a heart attack and scar formation, the normal ability to contract heart muscle is lost. There is a lack of previous intensity of the vital organ.

The task of doctors now is to improve the efficiency of the remaining healthy areas. An important role here is played by the prevention of a second attack or heart attack.

For the presented work, specialists prescribe the use of such drugs as the patient:

  • thrombolytics;
  • anticoagulants;
  • beta-blockers;
  • analgesics – with a patient complaint about the periodic occurrence of pain.

In special cases, when there is a loss of previous functions, the patient is prescribed surgical intervention in the form of shunting or stenting.

The last surgical procedure involves the installation of an additional auxiliary device, which is involved in the restoration of the vessel and the resumption of normal blood supply. This is especially necessary in case of impaired blood supply in a certain area – this can provoke a second heart attack or heart attack.

Before a specialist determines the nature of post-infarction therapy and the need for surgical intervention, the patient undergoes a full examination. The specialist subsequently carefully and fully weighs all the positive and negative aspects of each possible procedure.

Contraindications to thrombolysis with myocardial infarction are listed here.

The consequences of ischemic cerebral infarction are described by specialists in this article.

Timely treatment and strict implementation of all the recommendations of a specialist allows you to quickly return to your previous activities.

The scar with myocardial infarction is treated comprehensively. First, drugs are prescribed that allow you to restore the heart, improve blood circulation, speed up metabolism. Medicines are selected individually.

When scarring after a heart attack begins, it is difficult to say for sure. This is a long process that can be stopped with timely diagnosis.

In severe cases, you can not do without surgical intervention. At the same time, a pacemaker or a cardioverter-defibrillator is installed to support normal cardiac conduction and rhythm. When cardiosclerosis can also hold:

  1. Transplantation of a living heart. The operation is expensive and is performed up to 65 years in the absence of serious diseases of the internal organs. A heart transplant is associated with a high risk that the donor’s heart will not survive.
  2. Bypass surgery. The lumen of the narrowed coronary arteries is expanded with shunts. The procedure is carried out with atherosclerosis.
  3. Removal of aneurysm. It is most often formed in the region of the left ventricle, its posterior wall. During treatment, a protruded portion of the heart muscle is excised.

The scar after surgical treatment remains, but compared with fibrosis, it does not pose a health hazard.

In the treatment of pathology, medicine has achieved great success. So, today, stem cells are used to eliminate post-infarction scars. You can successfully solve the problem if you apply this technique a week after a heart attack.

Stem cells contribute to the replacement of damaged cells and successfully relieve cardiosclerotic changes.

Thanks to the introduction of stem cells, the scar can be replaced by primary cells of the heart muscle called cardiomyoblasts. This partially or completely restores the contractility of the heart.

Timely stem cell therapy will allow:

  • restore vascular tissue in a natural way;
  • to clear vessels from deposits and expand their lumen;
  • increase vascular elasticity;
  • improve blood flow to all organs and tissues.

This technique allows you to develop a network of collateral vessels. They will increase the fullness of the heart with blood and eliminate the signs of a heart attack. New strong and healthy vessels will saturate the heart with components necessary for normal functioning.

To restore myocardial function, the patient must also eat properly, mainly plant foods, give up bad habits, consume all medications prescribed by the doctor and be regularly examined. This will avoid the deterioration of the situation and the development of complications.

The information posted on the site is for guidance only and is not a guide to action. Consult a doctor.

How to treat scarlet fever in children with antibiotics?

To treat skin during rashes, you can use “Diamond Green”, powders, antihistamines, which relieve itching and prevent the attachment of a secondary microbial infection due to scratching.

The second drug is from the ribavirin group. It can be both domestic medicines (ribavirin, veroribavirin), and imported (rebetol, trivorine).

Only an infectious disease specialist is involved in the appointment of such antiviral drugs and the choice of their combination. Much depends on the virus itself, since it has different genotypes and characteristics, on the age of the patient, on how long he was infected, whether there are severe concomitant diseases that need to be considered when developing antiviral therapy tactics.

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Do soothing self-massage of the head, feet and hands.

Pamper yourself before going to bed with an infusion of soothing herbs, aromatic oils or a foot bath (in the absence of high blood pressure).

All of the above procedures will create favorable conditions for healing sleep.

Remember: in every organism there is a huge pharmacy that gives healing, you only need to know how to use it.

We set the command to destroy or restore ourselves with our own emotions, words, actions. Therefore, every morning and throughout the day, often repeat: “I am healthy! I’m happy! I’m great!”

Antiviral drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza. These remedies are designed to help the immune system resist infection. Consider drugs for the prevention of influenza.

Among modern antiviral drugs, Tamiflu, Relenza, Arbidol, Anaferon, Kagocel, Rimantadine, Agri, Fluferon, Interferon, Oscillococcinum have proven themselves well. These drugs differ from each other in composition, mode of action and dosage.

For example, Tamiflu has proven efficacy against swine flu. For the prevention of viral infections, 75 mg is used for 4-6 weeks.

Relenza is an inhaler, which is not suitable for allergy sufferers, asthmatics and children prone to frequent laryngitis and pharyngitis. In addition, with inhalation, it is important to take a breath correctly, so for young children it is better not to use this tool.

These drugs can be used to prevent SARS.

To prevent flu, you need to choose even more carefully.

The most common domestic drug, arbidol, unfortunately, does not have scientifically proven studies, although it is considered an effective antiviral drug in Russians. It is also noted that the benefits of arbidol increase if used simultaneously with kagocel.

Kagocel stimulates the production of a person’s own interferon in the body, thus contributing to the fight against the virus. However, in children under 6 years of age, the drug is not used, as it can introduce an imbalance in the imperfect immune system of a small child.

Rimantadine must be strictly calculated by weight, and it directly protects against the influenza virus. But this remedy has a bad effect on the liver.

Anaferon, agri, oscillococcinum, aflubin are homeopathic preparations with a complex effect and help to increase the body’s defenses. They must be taken with caution, because individual intolerance is possible.

There are other drugs to prevent flu.

Oxolinic ointment is one of the first antiviral drugs that appeared on the Russian market. Now it is mainly used for prevention. The ointment must be laid in the nose 2 times a day.

Interferon, along with oxolin, is also a “veteran” of the Russian pharmaceutical market. Its indisputable advantage is its low price, but large-scale studies on its effectiveness have not been conducted.

Viferon (by candlelight) is used from the first hours of the disease, destructively acting on viruses and positively on immunity. It is used from infancy to old age.

Grippferon – recombinant, that is, synthetic interferon, is more reliable and safe. For prevention, it is instilled into the nose 2 times a day, for treatment – 5 times a day.

Grippferon is instilled into the nose and is used mainly for treatment. But the drug can also be used for prevention (not throughout the epidemic, but only during close contact with the patient – usually about 5 days). Grippferon can be instilled into everyone: both adults and children (over 1 year old).

It is also necessary to have antipyretics in the medicine cabinet: paracetamol (most preferred), aspirin (do not give to small children!), Nurofen, analgin.

Antibiotics for meningitis can only be used as directed by a doctor. Bacteria evolve rapidly and adapt to their surroundings. During antibiotic treatment, it is necessary to drink a full course to kill all the germs. If you interrupt the course (and many do it when they suddenly feel better), the bacteria not only survive, but also acquire resistance (immunity) to this medicine.

20 years ago, penicillin was one of the most effective drugs. Today, it has almost no effect. This is what uncontrolled antibiotics lead to! And at the same time, almost any of them can be freely bought at the pharmacy. Over the past 7 years, not a single new antibacterial drug has been created in the world, since these studies are very expensive.

Meningitis is now being treated with the latest effective 3rd generation antibiotics. If bacteria become resistant to them, a catastrophe will come – there will simply be nothing left to treat the sick, and medicine will return to the level of the 1920s, when meningitis could “mow” entire blocks. Already today, infectious disease specialists are faced with the fact that even the most modern drugs do not work, and the patient cannot be saved.

A bacteriophage is a virus that selectively infects pathogenic bacterial cells. The word “bacteriophage” comes from the words “bacterium” and “eater.” The peculiarity of bacteriophages is that they adapted to use bacterial cells for their reproduction. For this reason, the therapeutic effect exerted by bacteriophages is caused by the lysis (death) of pathogenic bacteria in the focus of inflammation.

Currently, the scope of application of bacteriophages is very wide. They are taken orally for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, they are buried in the nose or ears for purulent-inflammatory infections, they treat wounds for skin lesions, and so on.

In 1925, for the first time, 4 cases of the treatment of bubonic plague by bacteriophages were described. In the Soviet Union, bacteriophages have been studied for a long time and intensively. They were used mainly in the army, as well as for the treatment of patients with intestinal infections and purulent-septic wounds in some regions of the country.

But interest in bacteriophages faded when antibiotics appeared. Everyone thought that with their help many infectious diseases could be defeated. However, the “world romance” with antibiotics did not last long: now such stable forms of microorganisms are developing that antibiotics are powerless against. And the gaze of medical science again turned to the side of bacteriophages.

They have many advantages over antibiotics: microorganisms do not develop resistance so quickly, they do not change the immune system, and do not cause allergies and poisoning.

Before the appointment of a bacteriophage, special tests are not required. Bacteriologists identify pathogens and see if the bacteriophage is active against these microbes or not. The fact is that there are many bacteriophages, and they act on various bacteria individually.

Treatment with bacteriophages is prescribed by the doctor, after evaluating the patient’s condition. Today, these drugs are often included in a complex of therapeutic methods to combat a particular infection.

There are situations when the use of antibiotics is necessary, and in other cases they need to be abandoned.

Now 70% of all acute intestinal infections in children have a viral etiology (origin), so why load the body with antibiotics? The research results show that the sensitivity of, for example, dysenteric bacteria to bacteriophages is expressed by the figure of 97,4%, so you need to approach the choice of treatment wisely. The effectiveness of the use of bacteriophages depends on the infection, the type of pathogen and many other reasons.

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In the absence of a visible effect 48 hours after the administration of the drug, the treatment regimen is changed by adding 1 or two drugs from the allowed groups.

In the early stage of the disease, specific treatment with globulinin with antitussive properties is possible. The standard administration schedule is intramuscularly three times 1 time per day, 3 ml each.

An excellent tool is oxygen therapy using oxygen pads and masks. In parallel, it is necessary to use Reopoliglyukin, a solution of Glucose for intravenous administration. These measures contribute to the relief of pathological changes in the lung tissue and heart muscle.

Neuroleptic drugs for whooping cough are used exclusively in the spasmodic period of the disease. Most often, “Aminazine”, “Atropine”, “Propazine” are prescribed. They affect the frequency and depth of coughing attacks.

The most effective antitussive is Synecod syrup. Can also be used “Codelac Fito”, “Libexin”, “Ambroxol” and many others. Dosages are calculated based on the age and body weight of the child.

Complex vitamin therapy, the use of drugs that have an immunostimulating effect are shown. Glucocorticosteroids are used only in extreme cases. The drug “Prednisone” is strictly contraindicated, which can have an exciting effect on the respiratory center.

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Recipes of traditional medicine for angina pectoris

1. Pour 7 tablespoons (top) of wild rose and hawthorn berries 2 liters of boiling water, a saucepan covered with a lid, put on a heat-insulating stand, wrap heat and insist mixture for 1 hours. Then this infusion must be filtered, squeezed out the swollen berries and refrigerated. You should drink the infusion 3 glass 2 times a day with meals instead of tea for 3-XNUMX weeks.

2. With alternative treatment of angina pectoris, you can use the following recipe. You need to take 6 tablespoons with the top of the fruits of hawthorn and 6 tablespoons of motherwort, pour them 7 cups of boiling water (but do not boil!). After that, wrap the pot with this composition warmly and put it on for XNUMX hours.

3. Such a recipe has long been known: 2 parts of valerian root and motherwort herb, as well as 1 part of yarrow and anise fruits are taken; 1 tablespoon of this mixture is poured with boiling water, insisted for 1 hour, and then taken with pain in the heart for half a glass 3-4 times a day.

4. Traditional medicine for angina pector advises to use juice of fresh motherwort herb. This juice can be preserved for the winter, for which it is added to alcohol or vodka in a ratio of 1: 1. It should be taken 1 teaspoon 3 times a day for a month.

5. If angina attacks occur in the spring, then you can remove them using the following means: fresh flowers of the May lily of the valley should be filled with sugar and during the attack, making a pea from this mixture, put it under the tongue.

6. But with angina pectoris, accompanied by shortness of breath, it is good to take garlic with honey. You need to squeeze the juice of 10 lemons (for which it is easiest to pass them through a meat grinder) in an enameled dish, then add 5 chopped heads of garlic there and mix it all with 1 liter of honey, then put the pan in a cool place for 1 week.

7. Another effective folk recipe for angina pectoris: grate 1 teaspoon of fresh horseradish and add honey to it, while the total total amount of the mixture should not exceed 1 tablespoon. This mixture should be eaten on an empty stomach 1 hour before breakfast for 30 days.

National vaccination schedule for epidemiological indications for 2018 year with table

The vaccination schedule for epidemic indications begins its operation in the conditions of the threat of the epidemic of this or that disease. In the table below the national vaccination schedule is accompanied by special instructions to this effect. The national vaccination schedule for 2018 year in the table takes into account the bulk of contact infections transmitted, including from blood-sucking insects.

Categories of citizens subject to preventive vaccinations for epidemiological indications, and the procedure for their conduct

The timing of preventive vaccinations for epidemic indications

The population living in the territories enzootic for tularemia, as well as those who arrived in these territories, performing the following works: agricultural, irrigation, land reclamation, construction, other work on excavating and moving soil, harvesting, fishing, geological, surveying, expeditionary, deratization and pest control; logging, clearing and improvement of the forest, zones of rehabilitation and recreation of the population. Persons working with live cultures of tularemia

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

The population residing in the enzootic territories of the plague. Persons working with live cultures of the causative agent of the plague

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

In foci of a goat-sheep type, persons performing the following work: on the procurement, storage, processing of raw materials and livestock products obtained from farms where brucellosis cattle diseases are recorded; slaughter of cattle sick with brucellosis, harvesting and processing of meat and meat products received from it. Breeders, veterinarians, livestock specialists in farms enzootic for brucellosis. Persons working with live cultures of the pathogen of brucellosis

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Persons performing the following works: animal workers and other persons professionally engaged in pre-slaughter maintenance of livestock, as well as slaughtering, skinning and cutting carcasses; collection, storage, transportation and primary processing of raw materials of animal origin; agricultural, hydromeliorative, construction, for excavating and moving soil, harvesting, fishing, geological, prospecting, expeditionary on enzootic in the Siberian ancestral territories. Workers of laboratories working with material suspected of being infected with anthrax

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

For prophylactic purposes, immunized persons who have a high risk of rabies: laboratory workers who work with a street rabies virus; veterinary workers; huntsmen, hunters, foresters; Persons performing work on catching and keeping animals

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Persons performing the following works: for the procurement, storage, processing of raw materials and livestock products obtained from farms located on sites enzootic on leptospirosis; slaughter of livestock, patient with leptospirosis, preparation and processing of meat and meat products obtained from leptospirosis patients; on the capture and maintenance of neglected animals. Persons working with live cultures of the causative agent of leptospirosis

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against tick-borne viral encephalitis

The population living on enzootic territories in tick-borne encephalitis territory, as well as persons arriving on these territories, performing the following works: agricultural, irrigation and reclamation, construction, excavation and transfer of soil, harvesting, fishing, geological, prospecting, expedition, deratization and disinsection; logging, clearing and improvement of the forest, recreation and recreation areas of the population. Persons working with live cultures of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis. Persons visiting enzootic in tick-borne encephalitis territory for the purpose of recreation, tourism, work in the country and garden areas

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against the fever of Ku

Persons performing work on harvesting, storage, processing of raw materials and livestock products obtained from farms, where diseases are registered with fever of Koo cattle. Persons performing work on the procurement, storage and processing of agricultural products in the enzootic territories for the fever of Ku. Persons working with live cultures of causative agents of fever Ku

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against yellow fever

Persons traveling abroad in the areas of yellow fever enzootic. Persons working with live cultures of yellow fever

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Persons traveling to the dysfunctional country according to cholera. Citizens of the Russian Federation in case of complication of the sanitary and epidemiological situation in cholera in adjacent countries, as well as in the territory of the Russian Federation

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against typhoid fever

Persons engaged in the sphere of public amenities (workers serving sewerage networks, structures and equipment, as well as enterprises for sanitary cleaning of populated areas – collection, transportation and disposal of domestic waste). Persons working with live cultures of pathogens of typhoid fever. Population living in areas with chronic aquatic epidemics of typhoid fever. Persons leaving for hyperendemic by typhoid regions and countries. Contact persons in the centers of typhoid fever on epidemics. According to epidemic indications, vaccinations are carried out at the threat of an epidemic or an outbreak (natural disasters, major accidents at the water and sewerage network), as well as during the epidemic, with a massive immunization of the population in the threatened area

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against viral hepatitis A

Persons at risk of infection (doctors, nursing staff, public service workers employed at food industry enterprises, catering organizations, as well as servicing water and sewerage facilities, equipment and networks.) Persons traveling to disadvantaged regions and country where the outbreak morbidity is registered Contact in the foci of hepatitis A

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Workers of infectious hospitals and bacteriological laboratories. Persons engaged in public catering and public amenities. Children attending children’s institutions and going to health camps (according to indications). According to epidemic indications, vaccinations are carried out at the threat of an epidemic or an outbreak (natural disasters, major accidents at the water and sewerage network), as well as during the epidemic, with mass immunization of the population in the threatened area. Preventive vaccinations are preferably performed before the seasonal rise in the incidence of shigellosis

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against meningococcal infection

Children, adolescents, adults in the foci of meningococcal infection caused by meningococcal serogroup A or C. Vaccination is carried out in endemic regions, as well as in the case of an epidemic caused by meningococcal serogroup A or C

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Contact persons from foci of the disease, who have not been sick, not vaccinated and who do not have information about preventive measles vaccinations, who are once vaccinated without age restriction

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Against hepatitis B

Contact persons from foci of the disease, who have not been sick, not vaccinated and who do not have information about preventive vaccinations against hepatitis B

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Contact persons from the foci of the disease, who have not been sick, are not vaccinated and have no information about preventive vaccinations against diphtheria

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Contact persons from foci of the disease, who have not been sick, not vaccinated and who do not have information about preventive vaccinations against mumps

In accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Vaccinations are subject to contact persons in the outbreaks of poliomyelitis, including those caused by wild poliovirus (or suspected of the disease):

children from 3 months to 18 years

Children who have come from endemic (unfavorable) poliomyelitis countries (territories) from 3 months. up to 15 years

Once (in the presence of reliable data on previous vaccinations) or three times (in their absence)

Persons without a specific place of residence (if they were identified) from 3 months. up to 15 years

Once (in the presence of reliable data on previous vaccinations) or three times (in their absence)

Persons who came in contact with those who arrived from endemic (unsuccessful) poliomyelitis countries (territories), from 3 months of life without age restriction

Persons working with live poliovirus, with materials infected (potentially infected) with wild poliovirus without age limitation. Immunization against poliomyelitis for epidemic indications is carried out by an oral polio vaccine. Indications for the immunization of children with oral poliomyelitis vaccine for epidemic indications are the registration of a case of poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus, the isolation of wild poliovirus in bioassay materials from people or from environmental objects. In these cases, immunization is carried out in accordance with the decision of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the subject of the Russian Federation, which determines the age of children subject to immunization, the timing, order and frequency of its conduct

Once when hiring

Possible complications and consequences of scarlet fever in children

Rubella disease in most cases is not a serious infection, which leads to any catastrophic changes in the human body. In children, rubella can only cause complications if the immune system is severely weakened or during the illness secondary pathogenic microflora join.

The most common consequences of rubella include the development of angina with the addition of staphylococcus or streptococcus, pneumonia, bronchitis, meningitis and encephalitis.

Less common are arthritis of rheumatoid etiology, myocarditis, pyelonephritis and inflammation of the middle ear. In adults, this disease can lead to more serious consequences. Often, meningoencephalitis with a pronounced meningeal clinic develops. Another common complication in adults is thrombocytopenic purpura.

Complications of meningitis occur if the patient seeks medical help too late, and the infection has managed to damage not only the meninges, but also the structure of the brain. The worst complication of purulent meningitis is, of course, a fatal outcome. But even if the patient was saved, he may have paresis, paralysis, hearing impairment.

Are mental disorders possible? The fact that after meningitis is sure to become mentally retarded is not true. After treatment, patients graduate from 2 institutes. Most of our patients, who came to us in a very serious condition, graduated, found a good job. Mental disorder can occur extremely rarely and only if the patient seeks help too late.

Can I get meningitis again? After the patient has had purulent meningitis, he develops lifelong immunity. But only to one specific bacterium. Therefore, you can become infected with meningitis several times. However, this is a huge rarity. Only patients with traumatic brain injuries having post-traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (the flow of cerebrospinal fluid into the nasal passages through a crack at the base of the skull) are re-ill.

Diphtheria gives complications in the absence of adequate treatment. In severe cases or in the absence of competent medical care, the likelihood of complications on the heart is not excluded.

In the second week of untreated diphtheria, myocarditis develops. Also affected are the kidneys, adrenal glands, nervous and cardiovascular systems. If complications go to the brain, the prognosis is very poor and a fatal outcome is possible. Complications after diphtheria can be avoided if you consult a doctor in time.

Severe pertussis disease can lead to prolonged hypoxia, which manifests itself in a violation of the blood supply to the brain and myocardium. This can provoke severe consequences of whooping cough in the form of structural changes, including expansion of the ventricles and atria, impaired brain activity.

complications of pertussis occur against the background of the wrong tactics for treating the disease. It can be pneumonia, bronchiolitis, emphysema, pleurisy. Often a secondary asthmatic complex develops, in which there are regular attacks of suffocation, which are provoked by viral colds.

Almost all complications of pertussis are related to secondary infections. Against the background of weakened immunity and a decrease in the intensity of lymph movement in the lung tissue, stagnation begins. It is possible to attach staphylococcal, streptococcal, pneumococcus and Pseudomonas pathogenic microflora.

Risk group

Most often, people who have a lot of contact with birds become infected with ornithosis: residents of the countryside, owners of hen houses and poultry houses, farmers, veterinarians, livestock specialists, zoo workers, and hunters.

Ornithosis is an adult infection. Kids are not at risk and are rarely picked up. However, it is they who are characterized by a very rare way of transmission – alimentary. For example, a child caught a sick bird or poured food into a birdhouse, did not wash his hands after that and sat down to dinner. Thus, chlamydia psittaci enters the gastrointestinal tract. However, it is possible to get sick in this case only in 10% of cases.

The greatest risk of infection arises in the spring and autumn, when birds migrate and stop in cities in huge flocks during migration.

Outbreaks of the incidence of ornithosis are sometimes recorded, but it is difficult to name them epidemics. However, in recent years, people began to become infected with ornithosis more often. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the population begins to return from cities to the countryside and acquire farming. Or merchants began to bring more infected birds from other countries.

disease prevention

Cardiosclerosis belongs to the group of cardiovascular diseases, therefore prophylactic methods are standard: compliance with dietary rules, regular therapeutic exercises, spa treatment, etc.

Cardiosclerosis is considered a serious disease, but modern methods of treatment can eliminate scars on the heart, and correctly conducted treatment gives high chances for further recovery.

If the patient already has cicatricial changes in the heart, the first priority is the need for regular medical monitoring and the exclusion of increased heart load. Since the proliferation of connective tissue occurs rather slowly, in this case it is possible to prevent further deterioration by treatment that is started in time.

  • the prevention of infectious diseases;
  • the use of diet food that provides a rational balance of nutrients with a reduced content of fat and cholesterol;
  • regular exercise and walks in the fresh air;
  • maintaining balance in the psycho-emotional sphere;
  • the use of various methods to calm and relieve nervous excitement – the use of psychotherapeutic methods, the use of sedatives, phyto- and aromatherapy.

Benefits are also provided by spa treatment, massage, taking vitamin preparations and dietary supplements.

The best prevention of fibrotic changes and scarring of heart tissues is maintaining a healthy lifestyle, competent diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases and timely provision of necessary medical care.

Based on the principles of treatment of the disease, it is possible to identify the main ways to prevent cardiosclerosis. They consist primarily in monitoring the development of the underlying trigger disease, if the patient already has one, or measures to control the occurrence of this disease. Also, preventive measures include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, giving up bad habits, avoiding stress, active physical activity, proper nutrition and weight control.

As it becomes clear from the above, cardiosclerosis is not a sentence. This condition, which is sometimes difficult to diagnose, does not have pronounced symptoms. But it is at the same time a logical outcome in the event of other diseases of the cardiovascular system: atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, chronic ischemic heart disease, myocarditis.

The prognosis for the occurrence of any form of cardiosclerosis depends entirely on the severity of this disease – in the absence of burdens in the form of serious arrhythmias or circulatory disorders, its outcome will be more favorable.

But the occurrence of aneurysm of the heart muscle, a complete atrioventricular block or a severe form of tachycardia can be deadly for the patient. In these cases, it is possible to use such forms of treatment as surgical intervention and the introduction of a pacemaker to maintain the quality of human life.

In other cases, treatment can be carried out conservatively using anti-arrhythmias, diuretics, peripheral vasodilators to restore metabolic processes in the heart, improve blood circulation and compensate for damaged parts of the tissues. A complex of rehabilitation measures, such as walking, spa treatment, a strict diet, and cholesterol control, also improves the patient’s condition.

In order to minimize the risk of cardiosclerosis, you should adhere to the rules of a healthy lifestyle, abandon bad habits and not neglect healthy physical activity.

The prevalence of scarring in the heart muscle can be significant. In the most severe cases, the connective tissue completely replaces the heart muscle and deforms any of the heart valves.

Etiology and pathogenesis. The death of muscle fibers of the heart is caused by diseases that are different in etiology and pathogenesis. The most common are atherosclerotic and myocarditis cardiosclerosis. Atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis is based on atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Due to insufficient blood supply, myocardial infarction occurs with the subsequent formation of a large scar and often thinning of the heart wall and aneurysm or diffuse degenerative-necrotic processes in the myocardium with the development of small mesh scars.

With myocarditis cardiosclerosis, numerous small scars develop due to exudative or proliferative inflammation of the myocardium. With damage to the conduction system of the heart, rhythm disturbances, blockade appear. A decrease in the compensatory capacity of the heart can lead to circulatory failure.

Clinically, there are three options:

  1. ischemic cardiosclerosis develops in patients with chronic coronary insufficiency and repeated bouts of angina pectoris (and sometimes without them); thus there are numerous small foci of ischemia and necrosis of muscle fibers with a gradual replacement of connective tissue;
  2. postnecrotic cardiosclerosis – an extensive scar develops after a heart attack;
  3. mixed – develops with a combination of the first and second options.

Symptoms of the disease are due to coronary and heart failure (see). The heart enlarges mainly to the left due to more frequent damage to the left coronary artery and arterial hypertension. As a rule, it is possible to reveal clinical signs of aortic atherosclerosis (see). During auscultation, the muffling of the first tone is determined, often systolic murmur at the apex, and often rhythm disturbances (see.

Arrhythmias of the heart). With a weakening of the contractility of the heart, circulatory failure develops. Electrocardiographically there is a decrease in voltage, especially the T wave, sometimes the T wave becomes negative, depression of the S — T segment. On the VKG, a decrease in the amplitude of all waves and their deformation are noted.

After physical exertion and a nicotine test (smoked cigarette), the CG worsens; improvement is noted after taking nitroglycerin. Radiographically there is an increase in the heart, especially to the left, a decrease in myocardial tone, a rounding of the apex of the heart, and a weak pulsation. The course of the disease is progressive.

Myocarditis cardiosclerosis. The clinical picture is due to the symptoms (or medical history) of the underlying disease (rheumatism, diphtheria and other infections) that caused myocarditis. Objective data are close to those observed with atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis, but less pronounced and more stable (not prone to progression if there is no active inflammatory process in the myocardium).

Causes. Cardiosclerosis, as a rule, is the outcome of rheumatic lesions and myocarditis or atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries. Much less often, this disease develops as a result of dystrophy and myocardial hypertrophy, as well as heart injuries and other heart diseases.

Signs Quite characteristic symptoms of cardiosclerosis are stable cardiac arrhythmias, as well as cardiac conduction disturbance and chronic heart failure. Cardiosclerosis of atherosclerotic origin can cause aortic and mitral valve defects;

also with it, angina attacks can develop and chronic heart aneurysm can form. This cardiosclerosis in some cases can be the outcome of myocardial infarction. The pathology is caused by the underlying disease and is able to be chronically relapsing (with rheumatism) or progressing (with atherosclerosis).

Diagnostics. Diagnosis is based on electrocardiography and echocardiography.

The course and forecast. Since coronary artery atherosclerosis usually tends to progress, cardiosclerosis also gradually becomes more pronounced.

Treatment. The underlying disease is being treated. In the process of treatment, it is important to consider the reduced myocardial resistance to cardiac glycosides against the background of cardiosclerosis. Severe cardiac arrhythmias may be the basis for limiting physical activity and implantation of a pacemaker. It is also necessary to prevent diseases that can become a complication of cardiosclerosis.

Treatment of patients with cardiosclerosis is primarily aimed at eliminating or slowing the progression of the underlying disease: atherosclerosis, coronary insufficiency, myocarditis.

It is aimed at slowing the development of atherosclerosis, reducing angina attacks (nitrates), eliminating circulatory failure (ACE inhibitors, cardiac glycosides, diuretics), normalizing the rhythm of cardiac activity (antiarrhythmic drugs).

At home, it is necessary to provide a child with scarlet fever with a separate room with an active ventilation system. It is advisable to carry out wet cleaning in the morning and evening with the use of disinfectants. It is also advisable to provide quartz room 3 times a day. Individual dishes and hygiene products are allocated, which after use are soaked in 10% bleach solution for at least 30 minutes

Specific prevention of scarlet fever in children with the help of vaccination is not provided. In special cases, emergency prophylaxis with the introduction of gammaglobulins can be used. Typically, this technique is used in debilitated children who have been in contact with an infected person. This procedure is performed until the onset of specific symptoms.

The main emphasis in the prevention of scarlet fever in children is on compliance with the rules of the sanitary and epidemiological regime in the conditions of preschool institutions.

Compliance with personal hygiene is the basic basis for the active prevention of this infection. It is also important to pay maximum attention to strengthening the body’s defenses. To prevent the risk of influenza, vaccination options must be used. Hardening, the use of vitamin complexes is carried out. Of great importance is the zinc content in the diet.

Table: National vaccination schedule for 2018 year

You can get a diphtheria vaccine in any vaccination room. Diphtheria vaccination is part of the National Vaccination Schedule. Vaccination for children is carried out in three stages (at 3, 4,5 and 6 months). At 18 months, 6-7 and 14 years old, revaccinations are carried out. After this, children and adults should be vaccinated against diphtheria every 10 years. In an ill patient, immunity remains for life.

Oropharyngeal diphtheria (pharynx) is the most common form of the disease. With it, dense fibrinous films appear on the tonsils, which are very difficult to remove with a spatula. In places of scraping, the mucous membrane begins to bleed. Also, the oropharynx becomes inflamed in the patient, the temperature rises to 38,3-38,9 ° C, tachycardia and general weakness occur.

Laryngeal diphtheria is one of the most dangerous forms of the disease, as it can lead to complications. In patients, body temperature rises to 39,4-40 ° C, general weakness, severe cough, hoarseness and loss of voice appear. There is a “bull neck” due to an increase in tonsils. In rare cases, acute respiratory failure occurs, which can be fatal.

Diphtheria of the skin occurs in approximately 33% of all cases of the disease. Characteristic for people who do not follow the rules of personal hygiene. At the site of infection, inflammation of the skin occurs, a grayish coating, ulcers, non-healing wounds are formed.

Next is the calendar of the vaccination calendar-2018, in which all necessary information is presented in a convenient form. The vaccination schedule in the table is accompanied by explanations on the order of vaccination.

Categories and age of citizens subject to preventive vaccinations

The order of carrying out preventive vaccinations

Newborns in the first 24 hours of life

First vaccination against viral hepatitis B

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for newborns, including those at risk: born from mothers who carry HBsAg; patients with viral hepatitis B or who underwent viral hepatitis B in the third trimester of pregnancy; not having results of examination for markers of hepatitis B; drug addicts, in families in which there is a carrier of HBsAg or a patient with acute viral hepatitis B and chronic viral hepatitis (hereinafter – at-risk groups).

Newborns on 3 – 7 day of life

Vaccination against tuberculosis

It is carried out by newborn vaccines for the prevention of tuberculosis (for gentle primary immunization) in accordance with the instructions for their use. In the subjects of the Russian Federation with incidence rates exceeding 80 per 100 thousand people, as well as in the presence of newborn patients with tuberculosis – a vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis.

The second vaccination against viral hepatitis B

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group, including those at risk.

The third vaccination against viral hepatitis B

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children at risk.

First vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

Carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group

Children from 3 to 6 months

The first vaccination against hemophilia infection

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children belonging to risk groups: with immunodeficiency conditions or anatomical defects, leading to a sharply increased risk of Hib infection; with oncohematological diseases and / or long-term receiving immunosuppressive therapy; HIV-infected or born to HIV-infected mothers; located in closed preschool institutions (orphanages, orphanages, specialized boarding schools (for children with neuropsychiatric diseases, etc.), anti-tuberculosis sanitary-improving institutions). Note. Hemophilus influenza vaccination course for children aged 3 to 6 months. consists of 3 injections of 0,5 ml with an interval of 1-1,5 months. For children who have not received their first vaccination in 3 months, immunization is carried out according to the following scheme: for children aged 6 to 12 months. from 2 injections of 0,5 ml with an interval of 1 – 1,5 months. for children from 1 year to 5 years, a single injection of 0,5 ml

First vaccination against poliomyelitis

Carried out by vaccines for the prevention of poliomyelitis (inactivated) in accordance with instructions for their use

The second vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group who received the first vaccination at 3 months.

The second vaccination against hemophilia infection

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group who received the first vaccination at 3 months.

Second vaccination against poliomyelitis

Carried out by vaccines for the prevention of poliomyelitis (inactivated) in accordance with instructions for their use

Third vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group who received the first and second vaccination in 3 and 4,5 months. respectively

The third vaccination against viral hepatitis B

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group who are not at risk, who received the first and second vaccinations at 0 and 1 months. respectively

The third vaccination against hemophilia infection

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children who received the first and second vaccination in 3 and 4,5 months. respectively

Third vaccination against poliomyelitis

Children of this age group are given vaccines for poliomyelitis prevention (live) in accordance with the instructions for their use. Children who are in closed children’s pre-school establishments (children’s homes, orphanages, specialized boarding schools for children with psychoneurological diseases, etc.), tuberculosis sanitation facilities) are vaccinated three times with vaccines for poliomyelitis prevention (inactivated)

Vaccination against measles, rubella, mumps

Carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group

The fourth vaccination against viral hepatitis B

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children at risk

First revaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus

Carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group

First revaccination against poliomyelitis

Children of this age group are given vaccines for poliomyelitis prophylaxis (live) in accordance with the instructions for their use

Revaccination against haemophilus infection

Revaccinations are carried out only once for children vaccinated in the first year of life in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines

Second revaccination against poliomyelitis

Children of this age group are given vaccines for poliomyelitis prophylaxis (live) in accordance with the instructions for their use

Revaccination against measles, rubella, mumps

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children of this age group who received vaccination against measles, rubella, mumps

Second revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus

Carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of toxoids with a reduced content of antigens to children of this age group

Revaccination against tuberculosis

It is carried out by non-infected tuberculosis mycobacteria tuberculin-negative children of this age group with vaccines for the prevention of tuberculosis in accordance with the instructions for their use

Third revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus

Carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of toxoids with a reduced content of antigens to children of this age group

Third revaccination against poliomyelitis

Children of this age group are given vaccines for poliomyelitis prophylaxis (live) in accordance with the instructions for their use

Adults 18 years old

Revaccination against tuberculosis

Unprotected mycobacteria tuberculosis tuberculin-negative children of this age group with vaccines for the prevention of tuberculosis in accordance with the instructions for their use. In subjects of the Russian Federation with incidence rates of tuberculosis not exceeding 40 per 100 thousand of population, revaccination against tuberculosis in 14 years is performed by tuberculin-negative children who were not vaccinated at 7 years

Revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of toxoids with reduced antigen content for adults from 18 years every 10 years from the time of the last booster

Children from 1 year to 18 years, adults from 18 to 55 years, not vaccinated earlier

Vaccination against viral hepatitis B

Carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children and adults of age groups according to the scheme 0-1-6 (1 dose – at the time of vaccination, 2 dose – one month after the 1 vaccination, 3 dose – after 6 months from the beginning immunization)

Children from 1 year to 18 years, girls from 18 to 25 years

Immunization against rubella

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines for children from 1 year to 18 years, not sick, not vaccinated, vaccinated against rubella, and girls from 18 to 25 years who were not ill, not vaccinated before

Children with 6 months, students 1-11 classes; students of higher professional and secondary professional educational institutions; adults working for certain professions and positions (employees of medical and educational institutions, transport, communal sphere, etc.); older than 60 years

Vaccination against influenza

It is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines annually to these categories of citizens

Children aged 15-17 years and adults under 35 years

Immunization against measles

Immunization against measles for children aged 15-17 years and adults under the age of 35 years who were not vaccinated before, who does not have information about measles vaccines and who have not had measles before, is carried out in accordance with the instructions for the use of vaccines twice with an interval of at least 3 months between vaccinations. Persons vaccinated earlier once, are subject to a single immunization with an interval of at least 3 months between vaccinations

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.