Modern medical practice is not conceivable without laboratory diagnostics. Most of the information about a particular disease, its causative agent and other indications can be obtained only through laboratory blood tests. An important place is the study of the level of ROE. By this medical contraction is meant a erythrocyte sedimentation reaction.
In the medical literature, there is mainly another common designation – ESR (here, instead of the reaction, there is a more accurate value of “speed”). Using these indicators, you can determine how intensively inflammatory processes go. ESR is actively used by specialists to diagnose ailments of various nature and to recreate the complete clinical picture of the patient.
When a high level of ESR is confirmed by a blood test, then the likelihood of acute inflammation or chronic illness is high, but you need to understand that this analysis is not specific, fluctuations in rare cases are noticeable in healthy people. The determination of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate takes place as part of a general blood test.
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- Reasons for the increase
- Reasons for the decline
- Norms of ROE in an adult woman and a man
- ESR determination procedure
- ESR in a blood test
- Reasons for low ROE
- What is ROE? What is the norm by age for men and women
- Norm in women
- Norm in men
- Reasons for low ROE
- Preparation for the procedure and blood sampling
- Conducting research
- Panchenkov Method
- Westergren Method
- Panchenkov Method
- Westergren Method
- How is ESR determined?
- Diseases affecting ESR
- ESR rate in women by age, table and main reasons for the change in the indicator
- ESR above normal – what does it mean?
- What could mean a decrease in ESR?
- How to return ESR to normal
- If ESR is increased
Red blood cells are blood cells whose main function is to provide oxygen to the tissue structure. The secondary function of red bodies is the observance of acid-base balance, participation in the lipid process.
To determine the ESR, a special anticoagulant (a substance that prevents the coagulation process) is used. After there is a placement in a medical test tube (only vertically), no more than sixty minutes. This manipulation is performed so that erythrocyte sedimentation occurs.
Reference! The subsidence occurs due to the fact that the plasma has a lower mass than red blood cells. As a result, there is a separation into a couple of layers: there will be red blood cells at the bottom, and plasma at the top.
After the stratification process, an assessment is carried out. The assessment takes into account the height of the red blood cell layer (measurement takes place in mm / h). Depending on the state of the red bodies, the layer thickness will be determined.
If a person has an inflammatory process, then the level of fibrinogen (a certain protein that is produced during inflammation) and, accordingly, globulins (antibodies that perform a protective function when an inflammatory process occurs).
Under the influence of the pathological process, gluing of red blood cells occurs and as a result, the precipitate has a greater rate than normal. A blood test shows an increased ESR value.
From the first days of activation of pathology, a gradual increase in ESR occurs, which reaches its maximum on the fourteenth day of the course of the disease.
Note! A high indicator is diagnosed not only in the last days of the disease, but also at the stage of recovery. Therefore, it will be more rational to monitor the dynamics of changes in ESR.
To determine the level of ESR, use a special technique called the Panchenkov method. A 5% solution of sodium citrate is taken – it serves as the main anticoagulant. The analysis process involves mixing the anticoagulant and blood in a ratio of 1: 4. Over the course of sixty minutes, delamination occurs, the results of which are evaluated by 100 mm. timeline.
If we talk about foreign research methods, then the determination of ESR occurs using the Westergren method. Distinctive characteristics of this method from Panchenkov’s technique are only in scales and test tubes. Therefore, the test results can be different, especially when diagnosing an increase in ESR.
Westergren’s technique involves the use of venous blood and an anticoagulant in the form of a 3.8% sodium citrate solution. Measured ESR in millimeters per hour.
If the study will be carried out according to the Panchenkov method, it is recommended that the following requirements be followed:
- one day before blood donation, exclude any fried, salty and spicy foods from the diet;
- sleep at least seven hours before giving blood.
Attention! Panchenkov’s method involves taking blood from a finger.
When the general analysis is carried out according to the method of Westergren, the following preparatory actions are performed:
- twelve hours before blood donation, the patient should not eat any food;
- two days before the analysis it is forbidden to use spicy, fried, salty.
Attention! Blood sampling for research according to the Westergren method is made from a vein.
Norms on the fact of the study can vary significantly depending on the age of the patient, his gender.
Note! The norm indicators from the above table are based on the Panchenkov research method. To recalculate according to the Westergren method, you can use the correspondence table.
To have an understanding of what abnormalities prevent, the following points should be considered:
- High rate. Such results indicate that an acute infectious disease or chronic inflammation is observed in the body. In addition, the protective function of the immune system is impaired, internal hemorrhages in the organs are possible. However, an increase in ESR is not only a sign of chronic inflammation, but also a likely indicator of the formation of a malignant tumor. The norm remains an increase in ESR during pregnancy or after taking salicylates.
- A slight increase in level. If not more than 33 mm / h is diagnosed, then this is evidence of hypoproteinemia. During menstruation, a woman may also have overestimated ESR. When the ESR level is more than 60 mm / h, the situation is not favorable – these are oncological diseases, autoimmune diseases, sepsis, connective tissue damage, hyper- and hypothyroidism.
- Low level . When blood ESR is low, there is a risk that a person has jaundice, epilepsy, hemoglobinopathy, and hepatitis virus.
Reasons for the increase
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate increases due to the following pathological conditions:
- Inflammation of an acute nature, regardless of localization in the body.
- Anemia (a decrease in the quantitative indicators of red blood cells leads to rapid subsidence).
- Autoimmune ailments characterized by an increase in red blood cells.
- The consequences of taking drugs that have acetylsalicylic acid in their composition.
- Violations in the endocrine glands.
- Oncological ailments (the formation of a malignant tumor).
- The production of fibrinogen in large quantities.
It is important! The level of increase in ESR depends on indicators of plasma protein concentration.
Reasons for the decline
With an increase in the quantitative indicator of red blood cells, a decrease in the sedimentation rate occurs:
- An increase in the quantitative indicator of red blood cells.
- Sickle cell anemia.
- Liver diseases (hepatitis viruses, jaundice).
- High level of albumin.
When the sedimentation reaction increases slightly, and at the same time there are no changes in the blood formula (it is necessary to monitor the level of leukocytes), then you should not worry, since a slight inflammation (for example, a bad tooth) can provoke a deviation from the norm. But, when there is an alarming symptomatology, and analyzes confirm an increase or decrease in ESR, an urgent consultation of a specialist is necessary.
In the case when the indicators of ROE are overestimated, this may indicate not only pregnancy or internal inflammatory processes. Such deviations often indicate problems of the endocrine system, metabolic disorders, all kinds of lesions of connective tissues, including oncology. In addition, an increase in the ROE norm can be provoked by a commonplace cold or increased physical exertion.
As for the reduction of these indicators, they are often observed with epilepsy, various forms of nervous disorders, increased viscosity and acidity of the blood, as well as the presence in it of an excessive amount of albumin. It is also worth noting that a decrease in ROE indicators accompanies diseases such as hepatitis, cholecystitis and anemia.
ROE tests are usually taken in the morning on an empty stomach. At the same time, on the eve of a visit to the clinic, it is forbidden to drink alcohol, coffee and fatty foods, as well as play sports. In addition, it is not recommended to be nervous and take sedative drugs, antidepressants and sleeping pills during the day before the blood test, which can very negatively affect the accuracy and objectivity of laboratory tests.
Each person at least once faced with the passing of certain analyzes, through which specialists can accurately determine the cause of any disturbance in the human body. For this reason, such manipulations have become simply indispensable.
In this article, we will examine directly one analysis, namely, ROE. Which for many years has been enjoying not only popularity, but the fact that not a single person’s treatment goes without it is for sure. Here you can familiarize yourself with the very definition of this manipulation, its norm, about various failures, the reasons for the violation, etc. So, let’s get started.
Norms of ROE in an adult woman and a man
In some cases, deciphering the results of the analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate shows both increased and decreased values, which is considered a less dangerous deviation. What does a low level of ESR mean, you can find out from the list:
- Chronic epilepsy Pathology affects the norm of red blood cells in the blood, lowering the ESR level in a woman’s body both by a few millimeters (deviation by no more than 3 – 5 mm), and by a more serious indicator (from 5 to 20 mm). However, the decrease in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in most cases depends on whether the patient has an acute or non-acute disease. Less commonly, this value also depends on immunity.
- Violation of the shape and structure of red blood cells. Such changes in the woman’s body are cons >
Long-term use of drugs as a cause of low ESR
A girl can find out the indicator of her ESR thanks to a blood test, which is performed at least once a year as a prophylaxis. In particular, neglecting prevention is not recommended for women who are pregnant or older than 60, since for them any pathology can turn into serious consequences.
The determination of ESR in medicine all over the world is mandatory when conducting a laboratory blood test. This indicator is important in the diagnosis of many diseases, assessing the severity of their course and the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment. Because ESR norm varies in women by age, the table of average indicators will help to identify deviations.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also sometimes referred to as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ROE), reflects the ratio of fractions of blood plasma proteins. Red blood cells are red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body. They are the heaviest plasma elements, and under the influence of gravitational force in a selected blood sample placed in a test tube, red blood cells in the form of a dense brown fraction are deposited from below, at the bottom. The rate at which these blood particles settle mainly depends on the degree of their aggregation, i.e. the ability to stick together.
The considered physiological indicator is often examined during a general blood test. Depending on the applied research methodology, a blood sample can be taken:
- from a vein – with the Westergren method;
- from a finger – when performing the analysis according to the Panchenkov method.
To get the most reliable result, it is advisable to adhere to the following rules:
- Do not eat 6-12 hours before blood sampling;
- refuse fatty, hard to digest food and alcohol the day before the study;
- exclude taking medications the day before the analysis (if necessary, consult a doctor).
Determination of ESR according to Westergren is a generally recognized method in world medical practice, characterized by high sensitivity, accuracy and speed of implementation. The selected biomaterial for analysis is mixed in a certain proportion with the anticoagulant substance with sodium citrate in a special test tube with a scale graduated in 200 mm.
The use of the Panchenkov method for calculating ESR in the blood is considered somewhat outdated, but traditionally continues to be implemented in many laboratories in our country. The selected blood is mixed with an anticoagulant with sodium citrate and placed in a special capillary, graduated by 100 divisions. After an hour, the separated upper plasma layer is measured. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate will be the result obtained with the unit of measurement “mm”.
It was found that the rate of ESR in the blood varies depending on some factors:
- the gender of the person;
- health problems;
- indiv >
Often, when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is analyzed, the norm in women exceeds the normal values observed in men. This indicator fluctuates slightly during the day, its different values are noted on an empty stomach and after a meal. In the female body, the ESR norm varies most with a different hormonal background, which changes with age and with certain physiological processes (menstruation, pregnancy, menopause).
To determine the exact norm of ESR in women with normal health conditions, mass surveys were conducted, on the basis of which average indicators were obtained. ESR – the norm in women by age, the table reflects the following periods of life:
So what does an increased ROE in the blood indicate? If a laboratory test confirmed an increase in ROE, then, depending on the value, it may indicate the following pathological changes in the body:
- acute or chronic infection;
- immune diseases;
- heart attack of internal organs;
- malignant tumors;
- reaction to taking certain medications;
- menstrual bleeding.
Reduced ROE in a blood test may indicate leukemia, poor blood coagulation, hepatitis, etc. Vegetarians may have a low ESR because their body does not receive animal proteins. Deviation from the norm occurs as a reaction to ongoing pathological processes in the body. From the listed reasons, it is clear that a change in the composition of the blood fluid can occur due to various reasons.
Even with a common acute respiratory infection, viruses that enter the body increase ROHE. Therefore, in the treatment they act not on the blood itself, but on the cause that caused the change in its composition. If the doctor considers it appropriate, he will prescribe a counter or additional biochemical analysis to identify the true cause of the overestimated figures.
- Panchenkov’s method. Since the blood coagulates quickly, it is mixed with an anticoagulant so that this feature does not interfere with the analysis. After that, the biological material is placed in a special tube and a time of 1 hour is detected. It is during this period that red blood cells have time to settle. After that, thanks to special columns, you can calculate the height of the liquid separated part of the blood. It is then measured in millimeters per hour.
- Westergren method. The difference between the methods is to measure on a more accurate scale.
ROE helps determine the inflammatory focus that is present in the body.
The norm of ROE, according to many experts, depends on gender and age.
Category of adults who have not reached 50 years:
- Women from 0 to 20;
- Men from 0 to 15.
Category of adults who have crossed the limit of 50:
- Women from 0 to 30;
- Men from 0 to 20.
All measurements take place in mm / hour.
The female norm is greater than the male norm. This happens due to physiological processes inherent only to the woman’s body.
- The period after childbirth.
In many diagnostic cases, an increase in ROHE in the blood may indicate the presence of the following diseases:
- Inflammation and infectious diseases.
- The diseases that cause inflammation, tissue death are:
- Diseases with the formation of pus;
- Malignant neoplasms;
- Myocardial infarction;
- Cerebral infarction;
- Pulmonary infarction;
- Bowel diseases.
- Vasculitis and connective tissue diseases:
- Lupus erythematosus;
- Arthritis is rheumatoid;
- Diseases that are associated with the metabolism and hormonal system:
- Diseases that appear due to a decrease in red blood cells in serum are:
- Blood loss
- With liver diseases on the background of nephrotic syndrome.
- Menstruation, pregnancy and the postpartum period.
- Increase cholesterol.
- Operations and any surgical procedures.
- Taking medication.
- Poisoning associated with lead or arsenic.
But it is worth knowing that at different times of the same period or under conditions of different pathologies, ROE undergoes changes in different parameters:
- If ROE rises sharply to indicators from 60 to 80, then the cause of this will be the tumor.
- If there is a tuberculosis disease, then at the beginning of the disease changes are difficult to notice, but if you try to cure it or complications appear, then you can observe high rates, which will grow at a high speed.
- If the patient suffers from an acute infection, then his ROE indicators will begin to change in the direction of increased changes, only after a few days.
- The red blood cell test is useless during the first exacerbations of appendicitis, the indicators do not change in the first days.
- If the patient is in the stage of active rheumatism, then a steady increase in ROE is the norm. It is worthwhile to show concern if the numbers begin to fall sharply, this can signal heart failure.
- When the infection process passes, then the first to return to their standards are white blood cells, and only then with a certain delay, red blood cells.
ESR determination procedure
In Russia, they use the well-known Panchenkov method.
The essence of the method: if you mix blood with sodium citrate, then it does not coagulate, but is divided into two layers. The lower layer is formed by red blood cells, the upper is transparent plasma. The erythrocyte sedimentation process is associated with the chemical and physical properties of the blood.
There are three stages in the formation of sediment:
- in the first ten minutes, vertical clusters of cells are formed, which are called “coin columns”;
- then it takes forty minutes to defend;
- red blood cells stick together and tighten for another ten minutes.
So the whole reaction requires a maximum of 60 minutes.
These capillaries collect blood to determine ESR
For research, they take a drop of blood from a finger, blow it into a special recess on the plate, where a 5% solution of sodium citrate is previously introduced. After mixing, diluted blood is collected in thin glass graduated capillary tubes to the upper mark and set in a special tripod strictly vertically.
Despite the simplicity of the methodology, there are instructions that must be followed when performing the test:
- take blood only on an empty stomach;
- apply a sufficiently deep injection of the pulp of the finger so that the blood does not have to be squeezed out (red blood cells are destroyed under pressure);
- use fresh reagent, dry washed capillaries;
- fill the capillary with blood without air bubbles;
- observe the correct ratio between sodium citrate solution and blood (1: 4) with stirring;
- conduct ESR determination at an ambient temperature of 18-22 degrees.
Any irregularities in the analysis can lead to false results. Look for the causes of the erroneous result should be in violation of the technique, inexperience of the laboratory assistant.
ESR in a blood test
To determine the ROE does not need special techniques and equipment. The indicator is examined in the framework of a general blood test, for which a capillary blood is taken from the finger according to the usual procedure for all. The determination of ROE is one of the easiest stages of clinical analysis, since it does not require any manipulation of blood at all after collection.
The reaction rate, erythrocyte sedimentation rate is indicated by the abbreviation ROE or ESR. It is not decisive in the diagnosis, but determines the presence of a possible disease. Depending on the correlation between the ROE indicator and the indicators of the results of other analyzes, certain deviations can be suspected and only specific studies of organs, tissues, and body cells will help to establish an accurate diagnosis.
A blood test for the erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ROE) is one of the most productive methods for detecting the initial stage of cancer, various infectious diseases, rheumatism, that is, it helps to identify the problem before the onset of symptoms
The technique involves blood sampling. There are 2 ways to determine the subsidence rate.
- Panchenkov method. For analysis, blood is drawn from the finger, applied to the glass. To prevent folding, an anticoagulant is added. Laboratory material is placed in a capillary, which has 100 divisions. After 60 minutes, a clear liquid settles. the value of the mark on which the sediment is located means speed. The maximum is 100mm / h.
- Westergren method. It gives more accurate results, since the capillary scale consists of 200 divisions, venous blood is used. The maximum sedimentation rate is 200 mm / h.
In order to pass the analysis, preliminary preparation is necessary. Our habits, eating habits affect the chemical composition of the blood, so it should be brought closer to the most natural state. A few days before the test, refuse spicy salty, spicy food. Give preference to boiled, steam dishes, reduce fat intake. Do not drink alcohol.
If the body is subjected to constant exercise, relax the training regimen. When using drugs, the need for an x-ray, you need to tell the doctor. You may have to abandon the procedures, taking medication.
As a rule, blood is donated in the morning. Set aside breakfast, and you can drink some water. For several hours there should be no smoking. If you hand over the analysis in a private laboratory, use the services of the same. To reduce the error, analyze several times.
Then you can follow the dynamics of change.
Stratification of two fractions – red blood cells and plasma occurs due to the higher density of red blood cells – they settle. Red blood cells are negatively charged particles. In the absence of pathologies in the body, they fall alone, since there is a repulsion of cells from each other. If pathology occurs, the red blood cells stop repelling, form “coin columns”, thus increasing their mass, sedimentation proceeds faster.
The number of red blood cells, their size, shape, too, are reflected in the indicators of ROHE. Changes can occur not only due to pathological disorders, but due to physiological. They are natural, not accompanied by disease. For example, in women on certain days of the month or during pregnancy in the first trimester, the indicator varies depending on age, gender.
Deciphering the results of a blood test is done solely by the doctor, he compares specific indicators. It analyzes the relationship, the relationship between different types of analyzes, for example, results on tumor markers and a general blood test. The average person does not have this information without a medical education, he can only superficially judge the clinical picture.
With an increase in ROE to 70-80 mm / h in men and 80-100 mm / h in women, an examination is necessary to refute such diagnoses as malignant tumors in the bone marrow, lungs, lymph nodes, reproductive system, and mammary gland.
To identify the location of the tumor, a tumor marker is assigned, a protein specific for cancer cells.
- PSA marker – conducted for men helps identify prostate cancer;
- ACE – shows a tumor of the liver;
- CA125 – cancer cells in the ovaries;
- CEA – oncology of the excretory tract and cervix;
- CA 19-9 pancreatic cancer;
- CA 15-3 neoplasm in the mammary gland.
After 45 years, all males should be tested for PSA, and women should be CEA.
The level of ROHE value is not constant, depending on the presence of the disease or physiological changes in the body. Increased rates may indicate the presence of many diseases:
- blood diseases;
- heart attack, stroke;
- metabolic disease;
- cancer diseases;
- infectious diseases;
- inflammatory processes.
In addition to pathological reasons, physiological processes that affect the reaction of the loss of red blood cells can be distinguished. A slight deviation from the norm is observed with allergic reactions, specific nutrition – diet, starvation.
In women, changes can take place against the background of pregnancy, or the individual characteristics of the body. In medicine, such factors are called false positive.
Prior to analysis, all of these factors must be either eliminated or agreed upon and taken into account by the doctor when making a diagnosis and appointing additional examinations.
The doctor should remember the residual elevated ROE and not prescribe additional examinations, treatment.
A decrease in ROE will occur when a course of treatment for the disease that caused this reaction of the body is completed. Of course, a doctor prescribes treatment, and self-diagnosis and self-medication can only aggravate the situation. If the inflammatory process has become the cause of a poor analysis, then antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs will help. Find the ones that are right for you with your doctor.
Along with the prescribed treatment, you can use folk remedies – garlic, decoctions of various herbs that have antimicrobial properties, wild cranberries and lingonberries, garlic, citrus fruits, black currants.
If the increase is due to pregnancy, then no measures are needed to reduce. This is a natural process that normalizes gradually.
Reasons for low ROE
A reduced speed is no less a serious signal for testing for the presence of dangerous diseases than an increased one. Such a pathology is less common than an increased level of speed, but it can not be neglected. It can be caused by the following reasons:
- lack of vitamins and minerals;
- long course of aspirin, potassium chloride;
- development of spherocytosis;
The first two reasons are most often found in women.
Opponents of traditional medicine, those who want to reduce the use of chemicals, can agree with the doctor on taking folk remedies to normalize ROE. Elevated ESR is a symptom of a disease, so a decrease in the level of speed does not eliminate the disease itself. But if you still have such a task, take advantage of the experience of our grandmothers /
The main most effective means will be honey beets and lemon, garlic.
Peel and cook two medium-sized beets in three liters of water for about two hours. Take the broth before meals in the morning for 1/2 cup. The broth can be replaced with fresh beets with the addition of honey. if there is no juicer, finely grate the vegetable.
Lemon juice with garlic is also an effective remedy. Clean two large heads, wipe finely. Squeeze the juice from the lemons. Combine the ingredients, put in the refrigerator. Take after meals 2 times a day.
You can use herbs, such as infusion of leaves of coltsfoot. Boil a couple tablespoons of dry leaves in 250 ml of water over low heat. After cover, let it infuse and cool to room temperature. Take 100-200 ml twice daily 30 minutes before meals.
Add dry sea buckthorn berries to tea. For a day you need to drink about a glass of such a drink. Linden blossom, chamomile, calendula can be brewed with boiling water, wrap and insist, when the product has cooled down, drink 0,5 cups after eating.
But the best way to stay healthy is to observe the regimen of the day and nutrition, spend more time in the fresh air, move actively, do not forget about regular medical examinations.
When food is not balanced or a person is on a diet, fasting high ESR levels indicate a lack of vitamins in the body. Which ones – the doctor will tell. The main task to normalize the balance will be the use of vitamin complexes, products containing missing substances.
If we talk about an increase in ESR against the background of diseases, then it is necessary to adhere to the basics of proper nutrition – exclude salty spicy fried foods. From drinks lemonade, alcohol are contraindicated.
Replace them with fruit teas, non-alcoholic mulled wine, fruit drinks, and fruit drinks. Use a double boiler more often. Products prepared in this way retain their nutritional properties.
For a variety of tastes, prepare homemade sauces based on yogurt, kefir, sour cream.
Meat products should consist of turkey, veal or beef, the meat of these animals is environmentally friendly. Replace potatoes with rice, buckwheat, oatmeal, and legumes. They are rich in essential vegetable protein.
What is ROE? What is the norm by age for men and women
The rate of ESR in the blood (and where else can she be?) Primarily depends on gender and age, however, it does not differ in a special variety:
- In children up to a month (newborns healthy babies) ESR is 1 or 2 mm / hour, other values are rare. Most likely, this is due to high hematocrit, low protein concentration, in particular, its globulin fraction, hypercholesterolemia, acidosis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in infants up to six months begins to differ sharply – 12-17 mm / hour.
- In older children, ESR is somewhat equalized and amounts to 1-8 mm / h, corresponding approximately to the norm of ESR of an adult male.
- In men, ESR should not exceed 1-10 mm / hour.
- The norm for women is 2-15 mm / hour, its wider range of values is due to the influence of androgen hormones. In addition, at different periods of life, ESR in a female has the property to change, for example, during pregnancy from the beginning of 2 trimesters (4 months), it begins to grow steadily and reaches a maximum at birth (up to 55 mm / h, which is considered absolutely normal). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate returns to its previous indicators after childbirth somewhere in about three weeks. Probably, an increased ESR in this case is explained by an increase in plasma volume during pregnancy, an increase in the content of globulins, cholesterol, and a decrease in the level of Ca2 (calcium).
- Hungry diets, limiting fluid intake, are likely to lead to the breakdown of tissue proteins, and, consequently, an increase in blood fibrinogen, globulin fractions and, accordingly, ESR. However, it should be noted that eating will also accelerate ESR physiologically (up to 25 mm / hour), therefore it is better to go for analysis on an empty stomach so that you do not need to worry and donate blood again.
- Some drugs (high molecular weight dextrans, contraceptives) can accelerate the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
- Intense physical activity, which increases all metabolic processes in the body, is likely to increase ESR.
|Age (months, years)||Red blood cell sedimentation rate (mm / h)|
|Newborns (up to a month of life)||0 – 2|
|Toddlers up to 6 months old||12 – 17|
|Kids and teens||2 – 8|
|Women up to 60 years||2 – 12|
|During pregnancy (2 half)||40 – 50|
|Women over 60||to 20|
|Men up to 60||1 – 8|
|Men after 60||to 15|
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is accelerated, first of all, due to an increase in the level of fibrinogen and globulins, that is, the protein shift in the body is considered the main reason for the increase, which, however, may indicate the development of inflammatory processes, destructive changes in connective tissue, the formation of necrosis, the onset of malignant neoplasm immune disorders.
Deviations of ROE from the norm does not always mean the presence of an acute inflammatory or infectious process in the body, as it can occur due to physiological changes.
From what the erythrocyte sedimentation rate increases and decreases, and what diseases can be diagnosed using this analysis, you will learn in this article.
ROE is one of the indicators in the general blood test that helps to detect diseases of an inflammatory, infectious and autoimmune nature. Determines the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The analysis is non-specific, therefore deviations from the norm are possible even in healthy people.
During the treatment of certain diseases, it allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy.
Your doctor may direct you to take this test:
- For diagnostics and preventive examinations.
- When identifying inflammatory, infectious and autoimmune diseases.
- Assessment of the quality of treatment.
- To identify oncological processes in the body.
The material for analysis is blood from a vein and from a finger.
The most accurate result is given by the Westergren testing method, when blood is taken from a vein and a more accurate scale is used to evaluate the result.
An analysis of ROE alone will not be able to identify a specific disease, but together with other studies, it provides tremendous help in making an accurate diagnosis.
Norm in women
The analysis is non-specific, and values found in 95% of people are normal. For an accurate diagnosis, it is used in conjunction with other indicators.
According to sources of foreign literature, ROE is normal if it has indicators from 0-20 mm / hour. However, for an accurate assessment of health, the doctor needs to know the woman’s age and the changes that occur in her body. If in children under 13 years old the norm is a swarm indicator – 7-10, then during puberty it rises to 18 mm / hour.
In women, ROE should not exceed 15 mm / hour.
Norm in men
Normal Roy indicators in men are slightly different from those that are detected in women, although the study is conducted in a similar way. With such an analysis, the age of the man and the presence of chronic diseases play an important role.
Ideally, when deciphering the analyzes, the swarm should be in the range of 1-10 mm / hour. With age, the norm increases slightly, so after 60 years it is up to 15 mm / hour. Unfortunately, during the analysis, normal ROHE indicators are too rare due to the presence of various chronic diseases and inflammatory processes in the body.
An increased ROE is not always the presence of any pathologies in the body. If the indicators are increased, it is necessary to exclude the physiological causes of this phenomenon.
- Elderly age.
- Postpartum period.
- State of stress.
- Reception of estrogen, glucocorticoids.
About 5% of the world’s inhabitants have deviations from the norm of the ROHE index from birth. However, they do not have any chronic diseases or other pathologies that can contribute to this process. Why analysis shows high numbers has not yet been established.
In other cases, it is important to contact your doctor, who will prescribe a number of additional studies for an accurate diagnosis.
An increased ROE is observed with:
- Inflammatory processes in the body.
- Serious lead or arsenic poisoning.
- After operations and other surgical interventions.
- With elevated cholesterol.
- Diseases of the liver.
- Helminthic infestation.
- Significant blood loss.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Massive injuries and injuries.
- Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
- Kidney disease.
In most cases, ROE is elevated in inflammatory and infectious pathologies. After competent antibacterial therapy, the indicator quickly returns to normal.
In serious diseases such as diabetes mellitus, anemia and hemolysis of ROE is increased over a long period, and is accompanied by a number of other unpleasant symptoms in the form of:
- The breakdown.
- Reduced or, conversely, weight gain.
High ROE is observed in diseases such as:
- Lupus erythematosus.
Pathologies associated with connective tissue and vasculitis are accompanied by prolonged inflammatory processes. Analysis can be of high value over a long period. In this case, timely and competent treatment of the underlying disease is required.
Increased rates are observed with pathologies that cause tissue death. These include:
- A heart attack.
- Diseases with the formation of pus.
- Intestinal pathology.
If the indicator is sharply increased to values from 60 to 80, then the presence of tumors can be suspected. At the initial stage of tuberculosis in an adult, the indicators can be slightly increased, but if untreated, they increase to 90. For various infections, ROE does not increase immediately, but after a few days.
A similar situation is observed with inflammation of the appendix. In a child, ROE is most often elevated in inflammatory and infectious diseases.
An important role is played by the weight of the woman – with low body weight, the indicator can not exceed 30, and with excess weight during pregnancy it can reach 70.
With a decrease in ESR, several components of the correct erythrocyte sedimentation are out of order
Reasons for low ROE
It is necessary to show concern not only at high, but also too low rates.
Most often this is observed with:
- Muscle dystrophy.
- The presence of nervous disorders.
- Circulatory failure.
- Heart failure.
- Reception of steroid hormones.
- Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
ROE below 2 mm / h may indicate the presence of serious diseases. If it is slightly lowered, then it is necessary to change the diet and add iron and protein to it. Very often this situation is observed in women who have dramatically lost weight and adhered to strict diets.
Reducing the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is extremely rare.
Not always an increased swarm means that a person is sick and an inflammatory process occurs in his body. In order to conduct an accurate decoding of the analysis and understand why the ROE indicator is increased – you need to visit a specialist. Only with the help of additional analyzes and studies can you make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment.
The ability of red blood cells to settle without the participation of the blood coagulation system depends on two factors:
- The structure and number of red blood cells;
- The composition of the plasma.
Healthy red blood cells have a negative charge on their surface. This allows them to freely circulate in the channel, starting from each other. When immune cells and mechanisms are activated in the body, this leads to an increase in the amount of immunoglobulins and fibrinogen in the plasma. On the one hand, they increase the density and ductility of the plasma, on the other hand, they change the surface charge of red blood cells.
Preparation for the procedure and blood sampling
Indications for the determination of ESR – control over the appearance and intensity of the inflammatory process in various diseases and their prevention. Deviations from the norm indicate the need for a biochemical blood test to clarify the level of certain proteins. Based on a single ESR test, it is not possible to make a specific diagnosis.
The analysis takes from 5 to 10 minutes. Before you donate blood for the determination of ESR, you can not eat food for 4 hours. This completes the preparation for blood donation.
Capillary blood sampling sequence:
The third or fourth finger of the left hand is wiped with alcohol.
A shallow incision (2-3 mm) is made on the fingertip with a special tool.
Remove the drop of blood that comes out with a sterile cloth.
A biomaterial is taken.
Disinfect the puncture site.
They put a cotton wool moistened with ether to the fingertip and ask them to press their finger to the palm of the hand to stop the bleeding as soon as possible.
Venous blood sampling sequence:
The patient’s forearm is pulled with a rubber band.
The puncture site is disinfected with alcohol, a needle is inserted into the vein of the elbow.
Collect the required amount of blood in a test tube.
Remove the needle from the vein.
The puncture site is disinfected with cotton wool and alcohol.
The arm is bent at the elbow until the bleeding stops.
Blood taken for analysis is examined for ESR.
The determination of the erythrocyte sedimentation reactivity is currently one of the easiest stages of a general blood test, since this procedure generally does not require any manipulation of the blood after its collection. Blood is simply left for 60 minutes in a glass capillary. After this time, laboratory assistants look at the boundary between the separation of blood into a dark and light layer. The indicator of the received erythrocyte sedimentation reactivity is determined by the height of the light layer of blood in millimeters.
Blood is divided into the liquid part (plasma) and blood cells (red blood cells). The essence of the study is that the laboratory assistant observes how red blood cells settle to the bottom of the tube. There are two available and not very expensive research methods.
The biomaterial is taken from the finger and placed in a special Panchenkov capillary with an anticoagulant (5% sodium citrate solution). Mixing is based on 4/1. For an hour, the device remains at rest, after which there is a study using a scale of one hundred millimeters. This option is considered somewhat crude, but more common.
This method is used in Russia and abroad. The material is taken from a vein, placed in a test tube, diluted with the same anticoagulant, but already a 3,8% solution. The laboratory assistant observes the subsidence of the bodies, records the data according to the two hundred millimeter scale. This option is considered more accurate, but it is recommended less often, since not all laboratories have capillaries for research.
Differences between the two methods in percent sodium citrate, as well as in the measurement scale. In the presence of two hundred divisions, the sensitivity is considered higher.
The acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation reactivity indicates the following pathological conditions:
- chronic and acute otitis media, sinusitis and tonsillitis;
- tracheitis, bronchitis and pleuropneumonia;
- carious and destructive changes in teeth;
- myocarditis (an inflammatory process in the heart muscle);
- inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, appendicitis);
- inflammation of the joints and bones (osteomyelitis, specific and reactive arthritis);
- inflammatory diseases of the genitals (adnexitis, endometritis, orchitis);
- diseases of the inflammatory nature of the organs of the excretory system (cystitis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, paranephritis);
- viral infections (hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, herpes, rubella, measles, etc.);
- worm infestation;
- tuberculosis of any localization;
- genital infections;
- bacterial infections (whooping cough, scarlet fever, borreliosis, etc.);
- purulent-inflammatory changes in soft tissues and skin (abscesses of internal organs, phlegmon, abscess, erysipelas, carbuncle);
- shock conditions;
- myocardial infarction;
- burns, tissue destruction, massive injuries;
- malignant neoplasms and their metastasis;
- myeloproliferative diseases of the blood system (leukopenia, lymphoma, leukemia, lymphogranulomatosis, lymphocytic leukemia);
- intoxication of endogenous and exogenous origin (internal and external);
- autoimmune lesions of body tissues (bronchial asthma, allergic dermatoses, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, vasculitis, psoriasis, atopy).
Reducing the reactivity of erythrocyte sedimentation may be evidence of:
- changes in the shape of red blood cells;
- lowering blood pH;
- thick blood;
- a huge number of bile pigments;
- intoxication of the body.
Thus, ROE in the general blood test makes it possible for the doctor to identify the patient’s disease at an early stage, which is very important for high-quality therapy. 2015-03-25
Calculations of the erythrocyte sedimentation reaction is practically one of the simplest stages of the general analysis, since this procedure does not need any additional blood manipulations.
Laboratory study of ROE
Red blood cells have a peculiarity – under certain conditions they “stick together” together, forming cell complexes. Since their mass is much greater than the mass of individual red blood cells, they settle to the bottom of the tube faster. With the inflammatory process taking place in the body, the rate of association of red blood cells increases, or, conversely, decreases. Accordingly, ESR is increasing or decreasing.
The accuracy of the blood test depends on the following factors:
Proper preparation for the analysis;
Qualifications of the laboratory assistant conducting the study;
The quality of the reagents used.
If all the requirements are met, you can be sure of the objectivity of the research result.
For research on this method, capillary blood taken from the patient’s finger is used. ESR is analyzed using a Panchenkov capillary, which is a thin glass tube with 100 divisions deposited on it.
Blood is mixed with an anticoagulant on a special glass in a ratio of 1: 4. After this, the biomaterial does not coagulate, it is placed in a capillary. After an hour, the height of the column of blood plasma is measured, separated from the red blood cells. The unit is millimeter per hour (mm / hour).
Research on this method is an international standard for measuring ESR. For its use, a more accurate scale of 200 divisions, graduated in millimeters, is used.
Venous blood is mixed in vitro with an anticoagulant, ESR is measured after an hour. The units are the same – mm / hour.
The erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ROE) is the most popular laboratory test for identifying inflammatory processes in the body and pathological changes. The test is also known as ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A blood test for ROE is given from a vein or finger. It depends on the method that the particular laboratory uses.
There are 2 research methods: the first is the Panchenkov method, which was used in Soviet times. He is very accurate. And the second – according to Westergren, it is more modern. The essence of the research is the same, only the norms of indicators may differ slightly. When taking an analysis according to the Panchenkov method, blood is donated from a finger, and in the second method, from a vein.
It is required to consider what the essence of the reaction is. Red blood cells stick together, forming indivisible particles. Becoming heavy, they begin to sink to the bottom. And the more red blood cells join each other, the faster subsidence will occur. It is this reaction that is observed in the laboratory.
How is ESR determined?
The tube in which the biomaterial with the anticoagulant is located is placed in a vertical position. After some time, the blood will be divided into fractions – red blood cells will appear below, transparent plasma with a yellowish tint above.
ESR depends on the density of the plasma, its viscosity and the radius of red blood cells. The calculation formula is quite complicated.
The procedure for determining ESR according to Panchenkov:
Blood from a finger or vein is placed in a “capillary” (a special tube made of glass).
Then it is placed on a glass slide, then sent back to the “capillary”.
The tube is placed in a Panchenkov tripod.
After an hour, the result is fixed – the size of the column of plasma following the red blood cells (mm / hour).
The method of such a study of ESR is accepted in Russia and in the countries of the former Soviet Union.
Diseases affecting ESR
Acceleration of ROE, as a norm, can be perceived in such situations:
- During pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- Against the background of taking hormonal contraceptives;
- Diet or fasting;
- Obesity and high cholesterol;
- The period after vaccination or recovery from previous infectious diseases;
- Temperature conditions in the conditions where the study was conducted over 27 ° C;
- Intake of vitamins;
- In children and the elderly.
Slow ROE are capable of:
- An increase in the number of red blood cells or other cellular components of the blood (polycythemia, erythremia);
- Hereditary changes in red blood cells in the form of small size and irregular shape;
- Prem nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Severe heart failure;
- Temperature conditions in the conditions where the study was conducted less than 22 ° C.
Healthy and healthy red blood cell cells have a negative discharge around their membrane. That is why they can move without obstacles in the blood stream, starting from such cells.
But if immune cells begin to actively form in the body, then the levels of fibrinogen in the blood and immunoglobulin also begin to grow. On the one hand, thanks to them, blood density increases, but if you look on the other hand, they can affect the charge of the erythrocyte membrane. As a result of such a reaction, huge and rather heavy conglomerates are formed, which are able to settle much faster under the influence of gravity.
The situation changes dramatically if blood clots occur. Red blood cells can not settle normally, as they are constantly in a balanced position. It is worth noting that the greater the density, the more difficult it will be for red blood cells to settle.
|A group of diseases that occur with an increase in ESR||Description|
|Infectious and inflammatory||Various inflammatory, suppurative processes of the upper and lower respiratory tract (including tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis), the urogenital area associated with the infection.|
Injuries, burns, suppuration of the wound surface.
|Immune||Systemic diseases of the connective tissue (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc.).|
Systemic vasculitis (periarteritis nodosa, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Takayasu’s disease, temporal arteritis, Burger’s disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemorrhagic vasculitis).
|Kidney Diseases||Nephrotic syndrome. Pyelonephritis.|
|Blood system diseases, including malignant||Anemia|
Heart attacks of the brain, lungs, etc.
|Malignant diseases||Cancer of the lung, breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary tract, etc.|
In some cases, the diagnosis of atypical forms of myocardial infarction – cardiac muscle necrosis due to impaired coronary blood flow – causes difficulties. Complex clinical and laboratory studies, including dynamic monitoring of changes in ESR, help the doctor to recognize the disease in time and prescribe the right treatment for the doctor.
ESR with a heart attack rises after a disaster: 1-2 days after a fever and the development of leukocytosis.
In other words, ESR begins to increase from the 3-4th day of illness. Acceleration peaks are expected about a week after a heart attack. ESR comes to normal gradually over the next few weeks.
ESR rate in women by age, table and main reasons for the change in the indicator
Increased ROHE in the blood is usually observed in inflammatory diseases caused by fungi or viruses. The thing is that when “opponents” enter the body, “defenders” immediately begin to appear – globulins (large protein particles). The stronger the inflammatory process, the more such antibodies, therefore, the ratio of proteins in plasma is greater.
That is why with tonsillitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, syphilis, etc. the reaction is always increased. Another reason for the increase in the indicator is the appearance of diseases that provoke an increase in red blood cells. It can be erythremia or erythrocythemia. In addition, an increase in the norm of the indicator can occur with such diseases:
- myocardial infarction;
- autoimmune ailments.
Also, an increase in ESR is possible with intoxications, frequent blood transfusions, with diseases of the endocrine system, during pregnancy and during menstruation, after taking certain medications (for example, after the Aspirin preparation).
There are situations when the ROE in the blood decreases. The rate is broken down in the case of:
- increase in blood viscosity;
- changes in the shape of red blood cells;
- lower blood pH levels;
- identify more bile pigments;
- use of certain drugs that reduce the rate (drugs made on the basis of mercury).
ESR in combination with other important blood test indicators helps the doctor quickly, if not to establish a diagnosis, then at least to suspect a particular disease, and then either prescribe an adequate treatment or send the patient for additional diagnostics.
In healthy newborns – 1-2 mm / hour. The reasons for deviations from normative indicators are acidosis, hypercholesterolemia, high hematocrit;
in children 1-6 months – 12-17 mm / hour;
in preschool children – 1-8 mm / hour (equal to the ESR of adult men);
In men – no more than 1-10 mm / hour;
In women – 2-15 mm / hour, these values vary depending on the level of androgen, from 4 months of pregnancy, ESR increases, reaching the birth to 55 mm / hour, after delivery for 3 weeks it returns to normal. The reason for the increase in ESR is an increased level of plasma volume in pregnant women, cholesterol, globulins.
An increase in indicators does not always indicate pathology, the reason for this may be:
The use of contraceptives, high molecular weight dextrans;
Starvation, the use of diets, a lack of fluid, leading to the breakdown of tissue proteins. A recent meal has a similar effect, so blood is taken on an empty stomach to determine ESR.
Increased metabolism caused by physical exertion.
Infants up to 6 months
Women up to 60 years
Women in the 2nd half of pregnancy
Women older than 60 years
Men up to 60 years
Men older than 60 years
Acceleration of ESR occurs due to an increase in the level of globulins and fibrinogen. A similar shift in protein content indicates necrosis, malignant tissue transformation, inflammation and destruction of connective tissue, and immune disorders. A continuous increase in ESR over 40 mm / h requires other hematological studies to determine the cause of the pathology.
Indicators found in 95% of healthy people are considered the norm in medicine. Since a blood test for ESR is a non-specific study, its indicators are used in diagnostics in conjunction with other analyzes.
Girls up to 13 years
Women of reproductive age
Women older than 50 years
Values for women fluctuate depending on changes in her body.
Indications for a blood test for ESR in women:
Pain in the neck, shoulders, headache,
Unreasonable weight loss.
ESR rate (mm / hour) in 1 half of pregnancy
ESR rate (mm / h) in the 2nd half of pregnancy
ESR in pregnant women depends directly on the level of hemoglobin.
Older than 2 weeks
In preschool children
The standard indicators of ROE have a fairly wide scope and depend on gender, age, the nature of nutrition and other factors that can naturally affect its size. The differentiated norm of ROE is given in the table.
|Adult men||Adult women||Elderly people||Newborns||Babies||Children up to 10 years old||Norm for teens|
|1-10 mm / h||2-15 mm / h||15-20 mm / h||3-4 mm / h||3-10 mm / h||4-12mm / h||2-15 mm / h||1-10 mm / h|
Deviations in ROE in blood tests can be represented by both its increase and decrease. In such cases, it is more correct to say that the ROE is accelerated or slowed down.
Important to remember! In most cases, one has to deal with situations in which the ROHE is increased. Such a phenomenon is a typical indicator of immune-inflammatory reactions in the body that alter the properties of red blood cells, making them partially defective!
ROE is an indicator whose increase does not occur immediately after the development of pathology in the body. Such a reaction can only be recorded after a few days. An increased ROE can be recorded for a long time after a cure for the disease, which is quite logical, since pathological red blood cells should be gradually replaced by normal ones.
An increase in the sedimentation rate occurs due to the bonding of red blood cells with an increase in the plasma content of certain proteins (fibrin, immunoglobulins). This occurs in the following pathological conditions:
- Infectious diseases caused by viruses and bacteria with increased levels of plasma antibodies and proteins of the acute phase of inflammation.
- An acute inflammatory process in the body of any localization.
- Hemorrhage, leading to a decrease in the number of red blood cells.
- Anemia due to a decrease in the number of red blood cells, which leads to their more rapid subsidence.
- Autoimmune pathology, accompanied by an increase in the level of immunoglobulins in the blood – rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis.
- Some medications are salicylic acid derivatives (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
- The pathology of the endocrine glands, accompanied by a change in their functional activity, is an increase in the secretion of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine).
- Oncological pathology – a malignant neoplasm of any localization leads to a significant change in the ratio of plasma proteins and an increase in ROE over 50 mm per hour.
- Hyperfibrinogenemia is an increased synthesis of fibrinogen (a protein involved in blood coagulation) by liver cells.
The increased ROE due to these causative factors has a different severity, depending on the concentration of proteins in the plasma.
In some cases, the norm of ESR in women varies with age under the influence of natural factors, and as a result of pathological conditions that occur in the body at an early stage of development, and during exacerbation. To determine the cause of the violation of the normal ESR parameters, the doctor should know: in which direction they deviated (increase or decrease).
Often, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation in women is observed in such pathological conditions:
- The defeat of the body by infectious diseases. When an infection enters the body, the immune system is activated. And this condition is characterized by an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is immediately noticeable in a blood test.
- The presence in the body of a woman of pathologies that affect the liver or organs of the biliary system. They are responsible for filtering the body, and any violation of them can cause elevated ESR (triggered by activation of the immune system). Often this condition is characteristic of women after 50 years, since at this age the organs do not work as well as before.
- The presence of diseases affecting the composition of the blood (anemia). Often, a blood ESR test shows good results under the influence of negative processes that affect the change in blood composition. However, with such a pathology, there is a chance of a decrease in the indicator, which should be taken into account when making a diagnosis.
- Banal colds. With pathologies such as bronchitis, influenza, pneumonia, etc., deciphering the results of a blood test for ESR in women can show minor deviations in the direction of an increased rate. For example: if a patient in a healthy body has an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 2 or 3, then an ESR of 5 or 7 for colds is absolutely normal increase, which means the fight of the immune system with the virus.
- The presence of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, the rate of ESR in women after 50 rises as a result of autoimmune pathologies that affect protective blood cells. In such diseases, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate index changes significantly (if in a healthy body the patient has an ESR of 2-3 mm / hour, then, when exposed to autoimmune pathologies, an ESR of 10-15 mm / hour is quite normal).
- Direct bone marrow damage. In case of bone marrow damage, the level of these cells changes both downward and upward. A similar shift reaches from 5 mm to 10 mm per hour at the initial stage of development of pathology, and more than 20 mm / h with exacerbation.
Disorders in the bone marrow as a cause of elevated ESR in women
There are many more factors, but still the main ones include:
- Reception of hormonal preparations and vitamins.
- Different diets.
- Obesity 2-4 stages.
- Vaccination. This is especially true after the vaccination period.
- Infectious diseases.
- Age. In children and the elderly, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is much faster than in other age groups.
ESR above normal – what does it mean?
The main reasons accelerating the erythrocyte sedimentation rate are a change in the composition of the blood and its physical and chemical parameters. For the implementation of the sedimentation of red blood cells, plasma proteins are responsible for agglomerates.
Reasons for the increase in ESR:
Infectious diseases that provoke inflammatory processes – syphilis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, rheumatism, blood poisoning. According to the results of ESR, they conclude that the stage of the inflammatory process, control the effectiveness of treatment. In bacterial infections, ESR is higher than in diseases caused by viruses.
Endocrine diseases – thyrotoxicosis, diabetes mellitus.
Myocardial inflammatory lesions, heart attack.
Pathology of the liver, intestines, pancreas, kidneys.
Intoxication with lead, arsenic.
Hematological pathologies – anemia, myeloma, lymphogranulomatosis.
Injuries, fractures, conditions after operations.
Side effects of drugs (morphine, dextran, methyldorf, vitamin B).
The dynamics of changes in ESR may vary depending on the stage of the disease:
In the initial stage of tuberculosis, the ESR level does not deviate from the norm, but increases with the development of the disease and with complications.
The development of myeloma, sarcoma, and other tumors increases ESR to 60-80 mm / hour.
In the first day of the development of acute appendicitis, ESR is within normal limits.
Acute infection increases ESR in the first 2-3 days of the development of the disease, but sometimes the indicators can differ for a long time from the norm (with croupous pneumonia).
Rheumatism in the active stage does not increase ESR, but their decrease may indicate heart failure (acidosis, erythremia).
When stopping the infection, the leukocyte content in the blood first decreases, then ROE returns to normal.
What could mean a decrease in ESR?
With reduced ESR, there is a decrease or absence of the ability of red blood cells to combine and form red blood cells.
Reasons leading to a decrease in ESR:
A change in the shape of red blood cells that does not allow them to fold into “coin columns” (spherocytosis, sickle shape).
Increased blood viscosity, which prevents the sedimentation of red blood cells, especially with severe red blood cells (increased red blood cell count).
Change in the acid-base balance of the blood in the direction of lowering the pH.
Diseases and conditions leading to a change in blood counts:
The release of bile acids is a consequence of obstructive jaundice;
High bilirubin level;
Insufficient fibrinogen level;
Chronic circulatory failure;
In men, ESR below the norm is almost impossible to notice. In addition, such an indicator is not of great importance for diagnosis. Symptoms of a decrease in ESR are hyperthermia, tachycardia, and fever. They may be precursors of an infectious disease or inflammatory process or signs of a change in hematological characteristics.
How to return ESR to normal
To normalize the performance of laboratory testing of ESR, you should find the reason for such changes. Most likely, you will have to undergo a course of treatment prescribed by a doctor, additional laboratory and instrumental studies. An accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment of the disease will help normalize ESR. Adults will need 2-4 weeks, children – up to one and a half months.
With iron deficiency anemia, the ESR reaction will return to normal with the use of a sufficient number of products containing iron and protein. If the cause of the deviation from the norm is a hobby for diets, fasting, or physiological conditions such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, menstruation, ESR will return to normal after normalization of health.
If ESR is increased
With an elevated ESR level, natural physiological causes should first be excluded: old age in women and men, menstruation, pregnancy, and the postpartum period in women.
If physiological reasons are absent, there are the following reasons for the increase in ESR:
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