Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke at home; speech restoration, term

Recovery function
Methods used
Recovery function
Methods used
Driving opportunities
1.
Massage. Perform all of his tricks should be a specialist. The implementation of the procedure depends on the general condition of the patient. At first, simple grinding and kneading of paralyzed limbs will come in handy.
2.
Exercise therapy. First, extension and flexion of the affected limbs are used, as well as smooth turns of the head to the sides. Next, a specially designed set of exercises is used. Special simulators are also useful.
Driving opportunities
1.
Massage. Perform all of his tricks should be a specialist. The implementation of the procedure depends on the general condition of the patient. At first, simple grinding and kneading of paralyzed limbs will come in handy.
2.
Exercise therapy. First, extension and flexion of the affected limbs are used, as well as smooth turns of the head to the sides. Next, a specially designed set of exercises is used. Special simulators are also useful.
Speech
To restore this function after an ischemic stroke, special exercises with a speech therapist are necessary. You need to perform these exercises yourself. With the patient it is necessary to talk as much as possible and call him to answer. First he must answer any simple words (monosyllables).
Speech
To restore this function after an ischemic stroke, special exercises with a speech therapist are necessary. You need to perform these exercises yourself. With the patient it is necessary to talk as much as possible and call him to answer. First he must answer any simple words (monosyllables).
Memory
To do this, you need to solve riddles, crosswords, learn poems, and short proverbs with the victim. Gradually, these exercises need to be complicated.
Memory
To do this, you need to solve riddles, crosswords, learn poems, and short proverbs with the victim. Gradually, these exercises need to be complicated.
Fine motor skills
In this case, regular sensory games for children up to a year will help to recover from an ischemic stroke. Designers, cubes, pyramids should be used. It is necessary to give the patient tasks for sorting buckwheat, sorting pasta.
Fine motor skills
In this case, regular sensory games for children up to a year will help to recover from an ischemic stroke. Designers, cubes, pyramids should be used. It is necessary to give the patient tasks for sorting buckwheat, sorting pasta.
Swallowing
To restore this function, you must simulate swallowing with an empty mouth; yawn, opening his mouth as wide as possible; gargling with water; coughing (breathing exercises are often used for this); inflating cheeks with air retention for a few seconds.
Swallowing
To restore this function, you must simulate swallowing with an empty mouth; yawn, opening his mouth as wide as possible; gargling with water; coughing (breathing exercises are often used for this); inflating cheeks with air retention for a few seconds.

Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke should take place under the constant supervision of attending physicians. The patient will need to make a lot of effort to get back on his feet. Moreover, he must be sure of a positive result.

In the first days after an ischemic stroke, the patient has a problem of swallowing, which doctors must deal with even in a hospital. Diet must be gentle. For feeding at the initial stages, use a teaspoon. It is better to drink from a special drinker.

After an ischemic stroke, human nutrition is subject to the following rules:

  1. Butter, as well as all animal fats should be replaced with vegetable (soy, olive, sunflower).
  2. The daily amount of meat and fish should be no more than 120 g, and the products must be well grinded so that there are no problems with swallowing.
  3. Kefir and cottage cheese should be included in the diet. Useful will be sour cream of low fat content. Fresh milk can cause bloating.
  4. If the patient loves seafood, then you can use them no more than 2 times a week.
  5. It is better not to give the patient white bread, sweets, as well as confectionery. Baking should be from dark flour or whole grains. You can use crispbread soaked in soup.
  6. At night, you can give the victim tea with honey.
  7. As the chewing function is restored, the patient can include fruits and vegetables in the diet. He is allowed to chop well-grated apples, carrots. The daily rate of these products is 400 g.
  8. You can drink the patient ordinary water, green tea, fresh juices.

If a person who has an ischemic stroke has excess weight, then you need to get rid of it. Diet helps in this case.

The patient, due to a stroke, turns out to be helpless, torn from life, bedridden. This has a serious impact on his psychological state, causing depression, lethargy, indifference, loss of vital interests.

Rehabilitation centers after ischemic stroke have developed programs for the social adaptation of patients and the restoration of lost connections.

The rehabilitation complex includes measures of social and psychological assistance:

  1. Individual lessons with a psychotherapist help restore faith in yourself, find strength for exercise, increase self-esteem.
  2. Training in autogenous exercises. Brain training on limb control, restoration of body functions.
  3. Group exercises with the same patients who have suffered an ischemic stroke allow you to break out of your own situation and see how you can cope with the disease.
  4. Family activities mobilize everyone together to find ways to help the patient, support each other during the recovery period.

Social rehabilitation helps the patient not to lose touch with the world, not to be left alone with the disease. This is especially important for single patients. The help and care of relatives, neighbors, friends will not allow the patient to remain alone with problems.

Requirements for the regime and conditions of the victim

With ischemic stroke, effective rehabilitation at home involves strict adherence to the patient’s daily regimen, nutrition, recovery procedures, as well as the organization of a space convenient for a person.

Naturally, someone must always be present with the patient: relatives, nurse. During the observance of bed rest, the victim needs to organize competent hygiene measures that will prevent the occurrence of pressure sores, proper and optimal nutrition, and sleep. With a person you need to constantly maintain contact, especially if his speech is impaired.

Both during the bed period and after it, the patient will have to perform massage, passive and active physical exercises. In this case, the patient should have a positive attitude and faith in their abilities. You need to talk with him, read to him. It is important to protect it from negative information.

The room in which the victim is located needs to be aired several times a day, and every 2,5 hours it is necessary to change his body position. At this time, you can do massage and passive exercise. Bed linen should be clean, dry and ironed.

Pressure should be measured 3 times a day. In the apartment it is necessary to adapt everything to the needs of the patient: handrails for movement, self-service in the bathroom and toilet room. Dangerous objects and those things that may interfere with movement must be removed from the premises.

Essential Drugs

Rehabilitation after ischemic lesions does not go away without the use of drugs. The following drugs are usually prescribed to the patient:

  1. Improving blood circulation in the brain: Cavinton, Pentoxifylline.
  2. Nootropic substances: Piracetam, Noofen.
  3. Combined drugs: “Fezam.”
  4. Soothing medicines: “Glycine”.
  5. Muscle relaxants that relieve muscle cramps: Sirdalud.

Most of the drugs presented to the patient should be taken throughout the rehabilitation period. Some of them are appointed for life. This avoids new attacks of ischemic stroke. It is strictly forbidden to independently change the dosage of drugs or stop the course of therapy.

Types of rehabilitation after ischemic stroke

Constant motor load is necessary for the patient. Depending on his condition, complexes have been developed that help muscles not to lose elasticity and tone in any position.

In this state, assistants help the patient perform movements with his legs, arms, and turn in bed. It is necessary:

  1. Regularly change the position of the body, turning the patient on his side and fixing for a while.
  2. Breathing exercises.
  3. Fix the eyes on objects when changing the position of the head.
  4. To bend-unbend limbs – first in large joints, then in small ones.
  5. Mental movements – imagine how exercises are done and what muscles work.
  6. Rotate the feet, brushes.

In the future, the patient himself must do these exercises:

  • squeeze hands and feet, rotate;
  • move your toes and hands;
  • bend your knees;
  • raise the pelvis;
  • turn on its side;
  • to press the chin to the chest.

Exercises are performed 10-20 times until fatigue. You can start with a minimum number, increase the number of movements regularly.

Sitting you can perform the same movements. In addition, classes with small objects are useful – shifting beads, buttons, matches from one box to another, holding objects in your hand with moving them to the other hand.

  1. To sit without support with legs down from the bed.
  2. Rotate your head.
  3. Tearing off the legs and fixing the position.
  4. Raising arms up to the sides.
  5. Pulling the legs to the chest.

Independent transition to a sitting position should be performed several times during the day.

It is necessary to conduct all classes while standing next to a reliable support. It can be a bed with a high back or a machine tool. The chair is not suitable for this. The first exercise is simply keeping the body upright with support.

In the future, you need to learn to do all the movements that were performed lying and sitting, maintaining balance:

  • turn your head;
  • raise arms and legs;
  • perform swings with limbs;
  • rotate the housing;
  • squats;
  • make short trips around the room, then – around the apartment.

As a result, the patient must go for walks along the street, accompanied by a healthy companion.

Massage

The initial stage of massage begins in a hospital setting. Its task is to remove increased muscle tone, restore blood flow and stimulate lost muscle activity. Massage is performed by a qualified specialist, the initial sessions last 5 minutes, the duration of exposure is constantly growing.

After returning home, the procedure should be performed by relatives or a visiting masseuse. All actions are performed according to the scheme proposed by the rehabilitation doctor.

The hand is laid to the side at shoulder level, a roller is placed under the foot. All places of limb flexion, finger joints are massaged. The movements are careful, there should be no pain.

If the patient’s arm is healthy, he can perform massaging movements on the affected areas himself. It is useful to sort out small objects – buttons, beads. They restore the functions of fine motor skills.

Important: massage improves blood circulation and metabolism in damaged limbs, restores muscle elasticity.

Home stroke treatment

Taking the victim of a brain stroke from the hospital, it is important to continue the prescribed medication. The patient should receive medication so that the blood circulation in the brain improves. To do this, prescribe drugs such as Encephabol, Actovegin (in tablets and injections), Vinpocetine, Mexidol. With the help of drug therapy, the brain is enriched in glucose and oxygen.

Nutrition after a stroke in the first two weeks is carried out using a teaspoon. Bring food to a semi-liquid consistency, wipe. When the patient’s swallowing is restored, you can feed more solid food. Exclude foods that increase cholesterol: baking, baking, all greasy. When composing the menu, try to use the following products:

  • Half of them should be whole grains (wheat, rice, oats, corn, buckwheat).
  • Vegetables beans, peas, dark green and orange products.
  • Fruits daily, fresh, dried, thawed.
  • Dairy products (low-fat).
  • Proteins are lean poultry, not daily, sometimes replaced with fish, legumes.
  • Fat nuts, fish. Do not cook with margarine, bacon, give butter in a minimal amount. Vegetable oils are preferred.
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Massage

Recovery of the human body after an ischemic stroke by broth alone is not carried out. However, these recipes can speed up the rehabilitation process. Such tools can help:

  1. Pea flour and honey should be mixed in equal amounts. Take this remedy before eating 1 tsp.
  2. To restore weak arms and legs, baths with rosehip roots can be used. Need 5 tbsp. l chopped raw materials with 2 cups boiling water. After the liquid has cooled slightly, the limbs can be lowered into the bath for a couple of minutes.
  3. Half an orange and a lemon must be twisted in a meat grinder. In the gruel, you can add 2 tbsp. l honey. Accepted means of 1 tbsp. l twice a day. You can drink this medicine with tea.
  4. To treat pressure sores caused by ischemic stroke, an ointment is prepared: grind 2 onions, add vegetable oil to the gruel. On low heat, simmer the mixture for about 30 minutes. Next, the onion is removed from the oil, and beeswax is put in it. Sore spots need to be treated twice a day.
  5. Beet kvass is used to strengthen blood vessels in ischemic stroke. To prepare the product, 1 kg of beet is required. The vegetable is cut into small cubes and folded into a glass jar. To beets, add 100 g of sugar, as well as 2 g of salt and 3 slices of bread (black). Then warm water is poured. Now the vessel is put in a warm place for several days. Drink the resulting remedy three times a day. The course of therapy is 3 months.

The main rule of rehabilitation for ischemic stroke is timeliness and intensity. Only the correct actions of doctors, the help of loved ones and the desire of the patient himself will ensure his recovery.

Pros and cons of rehabilitation centers

Many health centers and boarding houses offer rehabilitation services after an ischemic stroke of the brain. Their undoubted advantages are:

  1. Professional care and constant monitoring of the patient.
  2. A large staff of specialists of various profiles – gerontologists, psychotherapists, rehabilitologists, cardiologists.
  3. A good base for the rehabilitation treatment department is the possibility of mud and hydrotherapy, magnetotherapy, UHF, and much more.
  4. The ability to communicate with other patients, monitor their progress and healthy rivalry in the results of rehabilitation.
  5. Participation in general events, a cultural program helps to improve mood, tone, believe in yourself.
  6. The patient ceases to be alone all the time, the social circle is much wider, social connections are not lost.

Among the negative aspects of rehabilitation centers it should be noted the high cost of stay, which is not affordable for most citizens.

A long separation from home, the absence of a natural and beloved environment, the inability to see your favorite walls, books, cats, often become an obstacle to improvement. The choice of inpatient or home recovery method should take into account the nature and preferences of the patient.

It should be remembered that the patient, after an ischemic stroke, is rarely able to make the right choice. It will have to be done close.

What is rehabilitation aimed at?

In ischemic stroke, depending on the degree of brain damage, the disease can cause temporary or permanent disability – these are very common consequences.

Treatment and rehabilitation take a long time and allow to partially or fully restore a person’s normal state.

The main objective of rehabilitation therapy is the most complete restoration of all lost functions and skills, as well as the social adaptation of the victim of a cerebral infarction.

Is it possible to conduct a successful rehabilitation of cerebellar stroke? Yes, but only if timely treatment is provided.

The most intensive recovery measures are required in the first six months after a stroke, when their effectiveness is highest. After 6 months, recovering lost functions and skills is almost impossible. For the success of rehabilitation therapy, it is important for patients to understand the need to apply efforts and their full involvement in the treatment process.

If at the time of discharge due to health reasons the continuation of recovery at home is impossible, then in order not to interrupt treatment, a person is transferred to a specialized rehabilitation center. If this is not the case, then the rehabilitation rests with the relatives and is carried out at home.

The basic principles of rehabilitation therapy are:

  1. A complex approach;
  2. carrying out from the moment of a stroke;
  3. systematic;
  4. compliance with the stages;
  5. attentive attitude to the patient.

A recovery program after illness should be drawn up by a rehabilitologist.

Recommendations for non-lying patients

Diagnosed stroke changes a person’s life. Timely assistance minimizes the consequences of the disease. The recovery period depends on the severity of the brain disaster. A well-developed rehabilitation program and active participation of a person in it will allow launching compensatory mechanisms.

The surviving nerve cells partially or fully begin to perform the functions of the lost, so the person returns to the normal way of life. Daily exercise after a stroke at home is necessary, as physical activity increases the mood for recovery.

High risks of developing repeated ischemia and hemorrhage urge the patient to follow the following recommendations:

  • morning and evening to control blood pressure;
  • reduce body weight in obesity;
  • observe a hypocholesterol diet;
  • take prescribed drugs;
  • to refuse from bad habits.

Rehabilitation measures significantly improve the condition of patients in the post-stroke period. Classes conducted from the first days of the disease can return a person to a normal life. Positive changes are occurring in all areas involved.

The recovery process takes a long time, often a complete return of lost functions does not occur. Things to keep in mind:

  1. To improve the condition, you can use folk remedies – decoctions of dogrose, lily of the valley, hawthorn.
  2. Particular attention should be paid to drawing up the right diet, giving up bad habits.
  3. All rehabilitation measures should be regular, if you feel unwell, the load should be reduced.
  4. You should invite friends and acquaintances to the patient so that he does not lose touch with the world and does not become isolated in the disease.
  5. Praise for any success, inspire faith in the success of therapy.

With a slight damage to the brain and the rehabilitation started on time, it takes 2-4 months to return to normal. In more severe forms of the disease, it takes 6 months to restore the minimum self-care skills, improvement occurs after 2-3 years, complete recovery may not occur.

Significant brain damage leads to paralysis and disability, often ending fatally.

Rehabilitation after an ischemic stroke requires not only a lot of time, but also serious efforts on the part of the patient and relatives, as well as a correctly selected recovery program. Only common efforts will help the patient restore lost brain functions and return to normal life.

Methods

Rehabilitation after an ischemic stroke of the brain begins as soon as the threat to the patient’s life passes. Various methods are used to normalize the condition and return skills and functions.

Medicamentous

This method does not represent rehabilitation in the form in which it is customary to understand it, but is aimed at preventing a repeated stroke that can occur after the first one in a short time. With it, such drugs are used:

  1. blood coagulants (anticoagulants);
  2. hypotensive – helping to normalize blood pressure;
  3. statins – reduce the amount of bad cholesterol in the blood;
  4. neuroprotectors – help reduce the degree of damage to already affected brain neurons and prevent healthy lesions;
  5. vasodilators;
  6. antioxidants.

It is used to return the most complete movement and begins to be used already in the early recovery period. In the course of such a course of rehabilitation, the compensatory mechanisms in the body are launched, due to which muscle memory is returned. The start of classes should take place only under the supervision of a doctor.

Exercise therapy is carried out after an ischemic stroke according to the following rules:

  1. first exercises only for a healthy half of the body, the movements of which are not impaired;
  2. general strengthening and special exercises alternate;
  3. strict adherence to the training regimen and their regularity;
  4. gradual increase in loads;
  5. maintaining a positive attitude of the patient when performing exercises.

Massage

It is carried out at the first stage of rehabilitation only by a specialist in a hospital.

The main purpose of this recovery is to normalize the state of muscles that are in good shape. Massage also helps to improve blood circulation in tissues and stimulate immobilized muscles.

In the early days, sessions last no more than 5 minutes, and before discharge – from 30 minutes. At home, massage can also be performed, but only after consulting a doctor and how he will teach him how to do it.

How to restore speech?

Speech disorders cannot pass by themselves, and compulsory classes with a speech therapist are required. The process of speech recovery is long and complex.

If the patient’s condition is regarded as satisfactory, then speech therapy sessions begin 7-20 days after a stroke. The sooner it is possible to begin this rehabilitation, the better the result.

The duration of classes at first does not exceed 20 minutes. As a person’s well-being improves, they are lengthened up to 40 minutes. The entire period of recovery of speech can drag on to 4 years.

Rehabilitation terms

How long does it take to recover? The timing depends on how strong the stroke was. If the disease has a mild form, then the main rehabilitation takes up to 5 months, with moderate severity – up to 8 months and in serious condition lasts for several years. Also affects the period and when the patient began to receive medical care. The earlier treatment is started, the shorter the rehabilitation period.

It is best after a full rehabilitation course to send a person to a specialized sanatorium, where he will fix the result of recovery with the help of various health procedures. There, doctors will give recommendations on how to avoid repeated brain stroke.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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