To prevent the effects of microstroke in men and women, the victim must be provided with first aid in a timely manner. Its main task is to stop brain damage. The main actions:
- Call an ambulance immediately.
- The patient needs absolute peace, the body is given a horizontal position, while the head should be slightly higher – at an angle of 30 degrees to the body.
- If the victim has tight or uncomfortable clothes, they are unfastened, removed – this is necessary to improve blood circulation and the free access of oxygen to tissues.
- In case of nausea and the urge to vomit, the patient’s head should be turned to one side to prevent vomiting from entering the upper respiratory tract.
- Blood pressure is measured for the patient, if his indicators are elevated, they are given an antihypertensive drug (hypertensive patients should always carry the medicine selected by their doctor).
- You can attach ice to the back of the head.
- The patient is given a natural sedative – tincture of hawthorn, motherwort is well suited.
- It is necessary to ensure that the patient does not get up, does not make sudden movements.
- It is forbidden to give an antispasmodic to a person with a suspicion of an attack of a micro-stroke.
The course of the disease in young women and older patients may vary slightly – in patients older than 50 years, brain damage usually occurs faster.
Signs of a stroke are typical and atypical. The latter are peculiar to a greater extent precisely to women, they can complicate the diagnosis in the first hours of the development of pathology.
The first sign of a stroke in women is usually a sudden high-intensity headache. To this are added visual and/or hearing impairment, dizziness, speech impairment, numbness of the face and/or limbs, paresis of the face on the one hand, impaired gait and coordination of movements, severe weakness.
If the stroke is not ischemic, but hemorrhagic, the clinical picture is usually more severe. Photophobia, dysphagia, confusion, or loss of consciousness may develop.
With high blood pressure, there is hyperemia of the skin of the face, bradycardia, the turn of the foot of one leg out.
Atypical symptoms include pain and a feeling of stuffiness in the ears, severe chest pain, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, tachycardia, severe thirst, a feeling of dry mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and hiccups. Some patients experience nausea, vomiting, agitation, fever.
The presence of certain signs of a stroke depends on which part of the brain has been affected. Left-sided stroke is more common (the right side of the body is affected, and vice versa). With a left-sided stroke, speech, writing, reading disorders can also develop. In the case of a right-sided stroke, speech disorders are usually absent, but can be noted in left-handed people.
Signs of a stroke and microstroke in women may be the same, but usually with a microstroke they are less pronounced and quickly regress. Nevertheless, a microstroke is not an innocuous state, often transient ischemic attacks are precursors of stroke in women.
If there is a suspicion of an acute violation of cerebral circulation, even if it is a possible micro stroke, the patient should be immediately hospitalized in a hospital.
What to do, how to provide first aid? Mainly, you should ensure peace and flow of fresh air, and also do not leave the patient alone until the arrival of doctors. The patient should be laid with a raised head end, loosen tight clothing, with the development of vomiting, turn her head to the side, substitute a suitable container. No medications should be given until the ambulance arrives.
The arriving doctor needs to be informed about the noticed symptoms, the drugs taken by the patient, the existing diseases, the presence of allergies, as well as the measures taken.
Depending on the pathogenesis and localization, two main types of microstrokes are divided: ischemic and hemorrhagic.
In the first case, thrombosis and spasm of the vessels are implied, accompanied by a violation of the metabolism in the cells, their starvation and death. In the second case, there is a rupture of blood vessels, penetration of red blood cells, blood flow into the intercellular space and pressure on the brain tissue.
With ischemia, the consequences are faster, but the microstroke itself occurs in 80P% of patients. With hemorrhage, a microstroke can quickly progress to the acute phase, and when repeated two to three times lead to cerebral edema, coma and disability.
Symptoms of a microstroke in women are not particularly different from those encountered by men and children. In this case, specific and basic manifestations are distinguished. Nervousness, migraine, difficulty breathing, swelling, fatigue and malaise can talk about the development of a microstroke. But the main signs of a micro stroke in women are:
- headache, dizziness
- loss of consciousness
- problems with memory and speech
- motion disorder
- numbness and loss of sensation
- cramps and pains
Since often the main symptoms appear even three to five hours before the onset of the attack itself, there is time to go to the hospital and begin treatment. This will prevent the foci of inflammation from deepening and lead to serious consequences.
It is worth remembering that even mild malaise and headache in women, along with experienced stress, physical activity or low immunity, can indicate the development of a micro stroke.
Treatment of a microstroke begins only after hospitalization, examination and diagnosis. Usually we are talking about differentiated treatment methods, which include surgery, taking medications, massages, physiotherapy, gymnastics, visiting a psychologist and an aphasiologist. But all this is possible only after ultrasound, tomography, blood and urine tests, cardiograms.
The treatment method is selected according to the diagnosis, the age of the patient and the degree of brain damage.
Signs of cerebrovascular accident in representatives of the beautiful half of humanity are manifested quite strongly. However, harbingers of a microstroke are often mistaken for routine overwork and are not associated with a serious illness. For early diagnosis of the disease and reduce the risk of negative consequences, it is necessary to pay attention to the following changes in well-being:
- headache that is not relieved by painkillers;
- constant fatigue, drowsiness, decreased performance;
- frequently recurring bouts of dizziness;
- increase blood pressure.
As the disease progresses, additional symptoms of micro stroke in elderly women appear:
- impaired coordination of movements;
- muscle weakness, numbness of the extremities;
- speech disorders occur;
- the patient cannot control facial expressions.
In order to verify the presence of the considered symptoms, you can ask the patient to perform several simple steps:
- smile – in the presence of pathology, one part of the face remains motionless;
- hold your hands up for a minute – due to muscle weakness, the patient is not able to perform this exercise;
- repeat the phrase said – in the processes of performing this action, violations of speech articulation will be noticeable;
- stick out the tongue – a deviation of the tongue to the side will indicate a violation of cerebral circulation.
In some cases, atypical symptoms of microstroke may occur in older women. These include: confusion, memory loss, chest pain, hiccups, nausea, blurred vision, heart palpitations.
If the first signs of a dangerous condition are detected, an ambulance team should be called in and first aid given to the patient. The following sequence of actions is allowed:
- lay the patient on a hard, even surface, turn his head on his side;
- provide free access to oxygen by unfastening tight clothing;
- measure the victim’s blood pressure, at high values, give a cure for hypertension;
- in the room where the patient is located, it is necessary to open a window for the influx of fresh air.
It is important to ensure that the patient is completely at ease; you should not move it yourself or change your body position. In case of vomiting, the injured person must be turned to the right side, slightly raising his head.
While waiting for medical care, you need to carefully monitor the patient’s breathing and pulse. At the first signs of clinical death, an indirect heart massage and artificial respiration are necessary.
To quickly restore the blood vessels of the brain and reduce the risk of stroke, it is necessary to recognize the symptoms of a micro stroke in elderly women on time. Self-medication or ignoring signs of cerebrovascular accident can lead to a worsening of the condition and increase the risk of a second attack.
With this pathology, there is a violation of blood circulation in the brain, which covers a small amount of tissue.
Unlike a regular, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, it is characterized by unexpressed clinical symptoms, which may include the following general manifestations:
- Headache of varying severity and localization. The peculiarity is that it is almost impossible to remove with conventional painkillers from a group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (analgin).
- Intermittent dizziness.
- Unmotivated weakness, reduced ability to work, fatigue, which practically do not disappear after rest.
- Increase and subsequent decrease in blood pressure.
- Nausea, which may be accompanied by vomiting, which does not bring relief.
- Tachypnea – rapid breathing.
- The appearance of pain or discomfort in the chest area.
- Drowsiness during the day, which can be replaced by insomnia at night.
What is the difference between a microstroke and a stroke?
A microstroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a violation of the flow of blood into the brain or spinal cord, the symptoms of which last no more than 24 hours. With TIA, a tissue infarction does not occur, that is, a neurological deficit does not develop, which is characteristic of strokes. The mechanism for the development of ischemia is a temporary narrowing of the artery or clogging of the vessel with a thrombus.
In international neurological practice, the 24-hour rule used to apply. It was believed that the preservation of symptoms for more than a day is considered the onset of a stroke. Since 2002, TIA has been diagnosed by detecting pathological changes in brain tissue.
Microstroke is the short-term occurrence of neurological dysfunction, which is caused by focal ischemia or a decrease in blood flow to the brain, but does not lead to organic damage to it. Symptoms of TIA appear within an hour after blockage of the artery.
What is a microstroke in medical practice? In the Russian Federation’s guide to neurology, issued in 2010, TIAs are classified as acute cerebrovascular accident, in which symptoms occur for a period not exceeding 24 hours. Signs of a microstroke can be focal and cerebral, but during the day they completely pass, the patient recovers.
What to look for, how to recognize?
For early detection of the first signs of stroke and microstroke, a method for determining neurological disorders, called FAST, was developed:
- F (face – face) – asymmetry of the face is detected, different widths of the eye slits. In order to identify small changes, a woman should be asked to smile, as well as stick her tongue forward. With a micro stroke, you can see the deviation (deviation) of the tongue to the side.
- A (arm – strength) – the definition of motor impairment and decreased muscle strength. For this patient, they ask their hands to squeeze their fingers, while a decrease in strength can be determined on one arm. Determination of the legs is carried out in a supine position, the patient is asked to raise his feet up, and his hands are trying to prevent this, assessing muscle strength.
- S (speech – speech) – neurological symptoms often include speech impairment. To identify the slightest change, you can ask the patient to say a few tongue twisters.
- T (time) – all common and neurological symptoms of a microstroke develop over a short period of time (acute course of pathology).
Postponed circulatory disorders in the brain tissue may be accompanied by a change in behavior.
The emotional sphere is changing, a good mood is sharply replaced by unmotivated tearfulness, aggression. Identification of any diagnostic clinical criteria in combination with an acute course indicates a possible development of a microstroke.
This is the basis for an immediate appeal to a medical specialist who will prescribe adequate treatment, an additional objective examination to clarify the diagnosis.
Symptoms of a stroke in women
Women react more emotionally and sharply to stress, which increases the risk of jumps in blood pressure and rupture of the walls of the vessels of the brain.
Hormonal fluctuations are characteristic of the female body during each month, especially in the second phase of the cycle. In women, blood volume and heart rate change regularly. Especially the risk of TIA increases during pregnancy and childbirth. Hormonal levels affect blood circulation in the body and brain.
Contraceptives affect the density of blood, therefore, increase the risk of blood clots. Long-term use of contraception leads to varicose veins, thrombosis. Any hormone therapy affects the function of the liver, which produces proteins and blood coagulation factors.
Causes of microstroke
The causes of microstroke in women do not differ from those that lead to an ischemic or hemorrhagic attack. This is about:
- chronic diseases of the heart, kidneys
- vascular pathology
- old age
- bad habits
- head injuries
- taking contraceptives
- constant stress and physical exertion
Also, pregnant women are susceptible to a micro stroke at the time of bearing a child or during childbirth. A similar situation awaits those who suffer from epilepsy and other mental disorders. Constant mood swings, hormone problems and stress are enough for a woman to survive an attack of a microstroke.
The main reason is the blockage of one of two important blood vessels: the carotid or vertebral artery. They branch out into a series of smaller branches, supplying blood to every part of the brain.
During stress, arteries respond to adrenaline rush by compression of the muscle layer, which leads to a compensatory increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the risk of TIA increases with problems with posture, namely, the cervical spine, as well as with dystonia. Women are more prone to vegetovascular dystonia precisely because of dysregulation of the functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
The risk of TIA increases with atherosclerosis or deposits of fatty plaques on the walls of arteries. With vasospasm against stress, there is a change in the polarity of the endoteria – cells lining the vessels. Then the body begins to restore tissue, increasing platelet activity. To restore polarity, fat molecules are adhered to the overgrown layer of cells. As a result, the lumen of the artery narrows, blood flow is disturbed.
The formation of blood clots is associated with a number of factors:
- palpitations, heart disease;
- blood clots on the background of elevated cholesterol, platelets;
- in the presence of thrombophlebitis and varicose veins.
Studies determine the main factors for the development of TIA:
- Increased blood pressure up to 130/90-220/110 mm Hg 60% of patients with a history of microstrokes.
- The use of oral contraceptives for more than 3 months – in almost 18% of cases.
- Hormonal stimulation when planning IVF (artificial insemination) – in 9% of women.
- Overweight – almost 10% of patients.
- 9% have snoring or sleep apnea.
In approximately 10% of TIA cases, prior factors are not established.
The combination of factors classifies some women at high risk:
- Occasional increase in blood pressure due to overweight and taking hormonal drugs for contraception.
- IVF planning and hypertension in women.
- Presence of hypertension, overweight, and snoring or sleep apnea.
A sharp jump in blood pressure occurs with neurocirculatory dystonia, characteristic of young people. The use of oral contraception changes the rheological properties of blood, increases viscosity. At the same time, the elasticity of the walls of the vessels decreases.
Dissection (stratification) of the walls of the arteries is one of the little-studied causes of TIA in young people and women before menopause. The integrity of the arterial wall is impaired by injuries of the cervical spine. But with abnormalities in the development of blood vessels, even a coughing fit and careless movement can cause hemorrhages, leave part of the brain tissue without oxygen.
Injuries to the neck and brain increase the risk of micro strokes due to impaired vascular integrity. Hematomas are associated with microcirculation problems in affected areas of the brain even after concussions.
With age, the risk of a micro stroke increases every year. Older people are more at risk for microstroke and stroke. This is due to the general aging of the body and the long course of chronic diseases that negatively affect the circulatory system and metabolic processes.
At the age of 65-70 years, this condition is more common in men, and in 75-80 years old – in women. Elderly people should pay more attention to the prevention of microstroke, since it is easier to prevent than to eliminate the consequences in the future. Thus, it is possible to prevent the development of a more serious condition – a stroke or cerebral infarction.
Typically, a microstroke develops against the background of the following diseases:
- arterial hypertension;
- atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels;
- atrial fibrillation;
- coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction);
- systemic vascular diseases;
- pathology of cerebral vessels;
- osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
These types of diseases are often exposed to older people, so if they are present, you should regularly visit your doctor to monitor the condition and correct therapy. At the Yusupov hospital, patients can receive qualified help to prevent the development of strokes. Neurologists at the Yusupov Hospital have extensive experience in the treatment of such diseases, the results of which significantly improve the quality of life of the patient.
A microstroke is characterized by a temporary decrease in blood supply to a certain area of the brain or retina. In a certain part of the vessel, a blood clot forms, which impedes the flow of blood into the parts of the brain. As a result, there is a lack of oxygen, which leads to disturbances in the functioning of neurons. It should be noted that with a microstroke, the blood supply to the affected tissues is disrupted, although to a large extent, but not completely: a certain amount of blood nevertheless reaches the desired goal. With a complete cessation of blood flow, an ischemic stroke or cerebral infarction occurs.
The clinical picture of a microstroke develops suddenly and rapidly, but also quickly disappears. The patient may experience the following symptoms (most often several at once):
- severe dizziness;
- noise in ears;
- nausea, vomiting;
- severe headache;
- violation of coordination of movements;
- fluctuations in blood pressure;
- memory impairment;
- speech impairment;
- flashes of light before the eyes, the appearance of “flies”, double vision, loss of areas of the field of vision.
Patients have pale skin, involuntary movements of the eyeballs in a horizontal plane are observed. The patient cannot touch the tip of the nose with his fingertips closed. Elderly people in the presence of one or more of these symptoms need to immediately see a doctor, since the regeneration processes worsen significantly with age. For an adequate recovery of the brain, patients need the help of a neurologist.
Specialized treatment includes the use of drugs of several groups:
- Nootropic drugs (Piracetam, Phenotropil), which improve the functional state of neurocytes and metabolic processes in them.
- B vitamins that improve metabolism in the tissues of the nervous system.
- Antihypertensive drugs (Lisinopril, Amlodipine, Bisoprolol) to normalize blood pressure.
- Antiplatelet agents (Cardiomagnyl, Aspecard) to prevent intravascular blood clots.
- Statins (Atorvastatin) – drugs that lower the concentration of cholesterol in the blood for the treatment and prevention of the development of atherosclerosis (the deposition of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in them).
The choice of drugs, determining the dose and duration of their use is carried out by the attending physician on the basis of the data of the diagnosis.
In addition to medicines, the doctor gives general recommendations. These include diet (foods that restrict fatty fried foods) and increased physical activity. In uncomplicated course, further treatment of a microstroke can be carried out at home.
A microstroke refers to a “vascular disaster” and can cause the development of the following negative consequences:
- A more pronounced acute circulatory disorder, which can occur during the first 10 hours, including an extensive stroke, with the death of a significant amount of brain tissue.
- Violation of higher nervous activity in the form of impaired memory, decreased mental performance.
- Persistent neurological disorders requiring long-term treatment and rehabilitation.
Timely initiation of adequate treatment minimizes the risk of adverse effects.
A microstroke is considered a relatively mild circulatory disturbance in the brain tissue. The disease is a signal for immediate adequate treatment to avoid more serious complications.
The main danger of a micro stroke is:
- at risk of developing sexual dysfunction in men;
- in a possible malfunction of the internal organs;
- in paralysis of the limbs (full, partial, single or bilateral);
- in 60% of clinical cases, in the absence of timely medical care, hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke develops within the next 3 days after a microstroke.
Who is at risk?
The main risk groups for TIA include:
- Menopausal women with a stable increase in blood pressure or tachycardia.
- Overweight young women taking hormonal contraceptives.
- Women who undergo hormone therapy to stimulate IVF.
Sharp increase Blood pressure during stress or physical stress is considered an isolated risk factor.
As part of the study, patients undergoing TIA were questioned about pains that were observed a week before circulatory disorders or 24 hours before the event. It turned out that throughout the year before the microstroke, patients had migraines with an aura, which means changes in vision, hearing before an attack of a headache.
Because of the approach of a microstroke, migraines with an aura, an increase in headache attacks can indicate.
It is a mistake to believe that age is the main factor that increases the likelihood of a micro stroke. Manifestations of a microstroke can be both in a student who has experienced severe stress during the session, and in elderly hypertensive patients. According to medical statistics, the risk of microstroke increases significantly in people older than 55 years.
Groups of patients with a high probability of developing the disease:
- patients with angina pectoris and hypertension – it is high blood pressure that serves as a “trigger”, provoking problems with the blood vessels of the brain and “local” blood circulation;
- people with a hereditary predisposition to microstroke;
- pregnant women;
- patients with thrombosis, poor coagulation and other blood diseases;
- overweight patients (obesity);
- heavy smokers and those who abuse alcohol;
- everyone who suffers from diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- weather-dependent patients sensitively and painfully reacting to changes in weather conditions.
There is a risk group, patients who must go to the hospital first, even without the first manifestations of an attack. This will allow you to diagnose and begin treatment. Usually we are talking about such problems:
- hypertension, arrhythmia
- vascular pathology
- joint diseases
- chronic kidney disease
- suffered a stroke of a microstroke or stroke
- nicotine and alcohol abuse
In addition, pregnant women, as well as women after 50, are at risk. First of all, patients should pay attention to their health after an initial attack or in the presence of mental disorders, because one emotional shock is enough for a microstroke to develop, and then ischemia.
Treatment of the consequences of the disease
In the first hours after a micro stroke, brain cells die, but due to the fact that the damage is insignificant, over time, the affected neurological functions are restored. To minimize the risk of undesirable consequences of a microstroke, the patient should be taken to the hospital within 3 hours after the attack.
An integrated approach to resolving the problem should take into account the cause of the micro stroke. The following methods of drug therapy have proven effectiveness:
- prevention of blood clots (for this purpose, patients undergoing a microstroke are prescribed Dipyridamole, Aspirin, Clopidogrel, Warfarin, Xarelto);
- antihypertensive therapy (the use of drugs to lower blood pressure);
- the use of drugs that lower blood cholesterol (Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin).
In addition, many doctors additionally prescribe drugs whose benefits are unclear. They include:
- vasodilating and improving blood circulation drugs (for example, Xanthinolum, Instenon);
- medicines to restore “healthy” metabolic processes in the vessels;
- metabolic agents that improve blood circulation and metabolism in the brain (among them, Aktovegin, Mexicoor, Cerakson are preferred);
- treatment with nootropic drugs that improve brain function (Cinnarizine, Piracetam).
After the occurrence of a microstroke, in most cases a repetition of transient ischemic attacks occurs. The likelihood of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke also increases. The result of these conditions can be paralysis, disability and death. In older people, the risk of developing complications is significantly higher, which is associated with age-related disorders of the body. Therefore, signs of a microstroke should not be ignored and, if they occur, seek medical attention as soon as possible.
Symptoms of a micro stroke are invisible, the disease is carried on the legs. Older people associate the appearance of malaise with fatigue, “magnetic storms”, poor mood, etc. However, the consequences of a microstroke will not take long.
In many cases, memory impairment, impaired attention, the appearance of an aggressive state, irritability, mood swings. Normal work after a micro stroke can be difficult. Among women, the most common disorders of the psychoemotional state. And in men, malfunctions in the work of internal organs predominate. A microstroke in the right hemisphere can cause limb paralysis. Transient blindness develops, short-term complete amnesia.
Predicting the patient’s future condition will depend on the causes of the microstroke. If the condition is caused by an obvious cause (stress, smoking or alcohol abuse, overeating), then its elimination will be the most effective way to prevent relapse. With microstrokes due to any chronic disease, it is necessary to select the appropriate treatment regimen.
In the Yusupov hospital, experienced neurologists use an individual approach to treat patients after a micro stroke. Timely seeking medical help will reduce the risk of a recurrence of a micro stroke and the development of a full stroke. Statistics show that after suffering a microstroke in 10% of cases during the year an extensive stroke occurs, which causes irreversible harm to health. Therefore, neurologists at the Yusupov hospital strongly recommend that you see a doctor immediately if signs of a microstroke appear.
At the Yusupov hospital, patients receive a full range of medical services, which will help them recover as quickly as possible after a micro stroke. High-quality diagnostics and an individual approach to the choice of therapy allow you to get the maximum result. If necessary, patients can undergo treatment in a hospital, where they are provided with comfortable conditions of stay and round-the-clock medical care.
You can ask for help and get expert advice by calling the Yusupov hospital.
The consequences of a micro stroke in women go away a couple of hours or days after the onset of the disease. With a secondary and tertiary microstroke, the consequences can last much longer. The patient is faced with such problems:
- partial loss of vision and memory
- mental disabilities
- paralysis and numbness of limbs
- coordination difficulties
- psychical deviations
- difficulty writing
Despite the fact that the main consequences pass after a couple of hours, seizures may appear for another two to three months, but only in the absence of treatment, prevention and rehabilitation.
The main complications of microstrokes are:
- increased risk of re-stroke;
- neurological symptoms amid neuronal death.
The rapid start of complex treatment with drugs and the surgical restoration of arterial patency reduces the risk of stroke after TIA by 80%.
After TIA, an important aspect of therapy is the preservation of brain tissue in order to avoid neurological disorders. As prevention, cytoprotectors are used to prevent ischemia and cerebral infarction.
With spontaneous restoration of blood flow, which occurs after TIA, there is a problem of reperfusion tissue damage. Because the death of neurons is also observed. In the early or long term, this can lead to a short-term loss of sensitivity, impaired coordination of movements and loss of clarity of speech.
Neurons are damaged due to oxidative stress caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species during ischemia. Damage to cells appears both with a lack of oxygen, and after the restoration of blood flow. Therefore, for prevention, patients are prescribed drugs with antioxidative and antihypoxic effects.
Treatment of the consequences of the disease
Upon confirmation of the TIA, the patient is hospitalized for several days for observation. Hospitalization is required in the following cases:
- with increasing symptoms, which lasts more than an hour;
- with damage to the internal carotid arteries by atherosclerotic plaques by 50%;
- with atrial fibrillation;
- increased blood coagulation.
Further treatment is determined by the cause of TIA. Almost all patients require medical treatment. Prescribe antiplatelet drugs (antiplatelet agents), which prevent platelet adhesion and the risk of a new blood clot. Usually, aspirin, clopidogrel, or a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole are chosen. The need for antiplatelet therapy increases in the following cases:
- when clogging small vessels;
- against the background of mitral valve prolapse;
- with revealed calcification of the mitral ring;
- non-rheumatic lesions of the mitral valve.
Atrial fibrillation in the form of seizures and a persistent, acute coronary syndrome and mitral stenosis are indications for treatment with anticoagulants. First, direct-acting drugs (heparin) are used, and then vitamin K antagonists (warfarin).
Anticoagulants, such as warfarin, reduce blood coagulation. They are prescribed for the complicated course of TIA, but less frequently than platelet preparations. Anticoagulants are necessary for patients with left ventricular thrombosis on the background of myocardial infarction, with atrial fibrillation, rheumatic disease and other diseases that increase the risk of stroke.
In arteriosclerosis of arteries, statins in the highest doses are prescribed immediately after TI. If stenosis of the carotid artery is 70%, then a carotid endarterectomy is performed.
Prevention of microstroke in women is carried out only after passing the entire course of rehabilitation and recovery. In terms of time it takes at least three months, and includes the basic rules of treatment:
- rejection of bad habits
- taking medication in a prescribed dose
- moderate exercise
- elimination of stress and shock
- walks in the open air
- quarterly doctor examinations
- chronic disease treatment
- refusal to take birth control pills
- massage or acupuncture
It is important to repeat prophylaxis at least every three months with a break of two weeks. Then it will be possible to get rid of the consequences, the spread of foci of inflammation and exclude the possibility of developing repeated attacks. This is especially important for women after 50 years, because then the attack can be the last or result in serious problems.
After TIA, the likelihood of a stroke remains at 20%. Lifestyle Correction protects against dangerous vascular problems in the brain. After a micro stroke, health should be monitored more carefully:
- Engage in the timely treatment of any disease, including infectious.
- Monitor blood pressure and cholesterol, observed by a physician and cardiologist.
- Monitor blood sugar, take drugs to regulate it as necessary, eat in accordance with the recommendations of your doctor.
- Take anticoagulants as prescribed by your doctor to reduce the risk of stroke. Discuss with your doctor the occurrence of any problems with taking the medication.
- Walk 10 thousand steps a day, lead a healthy lifestyle. Refuse bad habits, reduce alcohol consumption to a minimum.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases the risk of hypertension and is an independent risk factor for microstrokes.
It is recommended to perform physical activity, which increase the heart rate. Calculate the pulse for aerobic exercise using the formula: (210-age) x 0,6. Walking at a speed of 5-6 km/h is one of the methods of prevention if there are contraindications in the form of chronic heart diseases for running. You can use an exercise bike, a game of table tennis, simple exercises with a rubber expander.
Nutrition must be balanced in favor of healthy fats, lower sugar, increased fruits and fiber. Additionally, take omega-3 fatty acids in capsules, vitamin D3, vitamin E.
Stress factor is one of the most important, which is isolated in the pathogenesis of microstrokes and heart diseases. The release of adrenaline causes the very spasm of the vessels, violates the respiration and blood supply to the brain. You can only protect yourself from stress in a world overflowing with negative information through affirmations and meditations.
It is useful after a stressful situation to “let off steam” – use synthesized adrenaline for action, for example, go for a walk. To reduce spasm, breathing exercises help – proper diaphragmatic breathing. It involves the expansion of the lower part of the ribs on inhalation and the contraction of the abdominal muscles on the exhale.
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