Hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart – causes, treatment, symptoms on the ECG

Problems such as: thickening of the heart muscle can cause problems:

  1. Hypertension – in 90% of cases in people suffering from arterial hypertension.
  2. Heart defects – both congenital and acquired.
  3. Excessive physical activity.
  4. Diabetes.
  5. Overweight.
  6. Psycho-emotional unstable states – stress, anxiety, excitement, etc.
  7. Sedentary lifestyle.
  8. Наследственность.
  9. Bad habits – alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction.

The walls of the ventricular chambers consist of three layers:

  1. Endocardium is an inner shell with a smooth surface that facilitates blood flow.
  2. Myocardium is muscle tissue, the most powerful part of the wall.
  3. Epicardium – the outer layer that protects the muscle.

Since the main responsibility for pumping blood rests on the LV, nature has provided for it a certain margin of safety. The left chamber is larger than the right (the LV size is one third of the total volume of the cardiac cavities), its muscle tissue is noticeably more powerful. The average thickness of the myocardium in different parts of the LV varies from 9 to 14 mm.

If the muscles of the chamber undergo an increased load (increased pressure or a significant amount of blood), the organ is forced to adapt to these conditions. The compensatory LV response is the proliferation of cardiomyocytes (cardiac muscle cells). LV walls are compacted and gradually lose elasticity.

Excessive stress on the LV is based on congenital or acquired heart disease.

Hereditary anomalies include:

  • Genetic defects. They arise as a result of a mutation of one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of heart proteins. In total, about 70 persistent changes were found in these genes that cause the growth of the LV myocardium.
  • Congenital malformations: decrease in aortic diameter (coarctation), ventricular septal defect, infection or absence of the pulmonary artery. It is with hereditary defects of the heart muscle that hypertrophy of the left ventricle in children is associated. Here the main form of therapy is surgery.
  • Congenital narrowing of the aortic valve (LV outlet, through which blood is ejected into the artery). Normally, the valve area is 3-4 square meters. cm, with stenosis, it narrows to 1 square. cm.
  • Mitral insufficiency. A flap defect causes backflow to the atrium. Each time during the relaxation phase, the ventricle is full of blood (volume overload).

Acquired left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy can develop under the influence of certain diseases and factors:

  • Arterial hypertension. It holds the first place among the pathologies that cause myocardial compaction (90% of cases). Muscle tissue grows due to the fact that the body is constantly working under pressure overload;
  • Atherosclerosis of the aorta. On the walls of the aorta and in its valve, cholesterol plaques are deposited, which are later calcified. The walls of the main artery lose their elasticity, which interferes with the free flow of blood. LV muscle tissue, experiencing increasing tension, begins to increase its volume;
  • Coronary heart disease;
  • Diabetes;
  • Overeating, heavy weight, obesity;
  • Protracted stress;
  • Alcoholism, smoking;
  • Adinamia;
  • Insomnia, emotional instability;
  • Hard physical work.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (GVL) is a thickening of the heart muscle greater than the established norm. But what’s wrong with that, you ask? Hypertrophy may be good for the muscles of the body, but bad for the heart. Over time, it thickens, in the result may occur – heart failure.

That is why doctors are trying to detect the disease in time and eliminate it.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is not a disease, but a syndrome as a result of which heart ailments can occur. This is a dangerous condition, because at first it is asymptomatic.

The problem can be observed both in the elderly and in young, active people. LVH progresses if untreated.

This is dangerous with such consequences as angina pectoris, heart failure, seizure, sudden cardiac arrest.

Among the causes of left ventricular hypertrophy are primarily called: stable hypertension, heart defects, genetic predisposition, diabetes, muscle dystrophy. Also favorable factors for the development of the disease are:

  • Sedentary lifestyle;
  • Drinking and smoking;
  • Obesity;
  • Stressful physical activity;
  • Psychological instability, stress.

For a person leading a sedentary lifestyle, a sharp, intense physical activity can be of particular danger.

I would like to highlight the physiological causes of cardiomyopathy in people leading an active lifestyle, engaged in physical labor, athletes. Prolonged and excessive physical effort, intense training without adequate control of the heart carry a health risk and can lead to asymptomatic ventricular hypertrophy, and in some cases to a heart attack.

Causes and risk factors

Indicate your pressure

  • heredity;
  • bad habits;
  • prolonged physical activity.

Wall compaction occurs with prolonged exposure to negative factors such as stress, sleep disturbance and insomnia, smoking and alcohol abuse, and overdose of energy drinks and caffeine. Concentric left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy is observed in hypertensive patients and people suffering from tachycardia, because the increase in blood pulsation is one of the main causes of thickening of the heart walls. At risk:

  • overweight people;
  • diabetics;
  • patients with Fabry syndrome.

These reasons determine the development of acquired hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart. In addition, there are a number of anomalies, congenital and inherited, due to which there is an increase in the muscle layer in the left ventricle:

  • mutations in the genes responsible for the synthesis of heart proteins;
  • reduced aortic diameter;
  • infection or absence of the pulmonary artery;
  • defect of interventricular septum;
  • congenital stenosis of the aortic valve;
  • mitral insufficiency.

Supportive measures for the treatment of the disease

The problem with hypertrophy is that it has no symptoms. Doctors may suspect an ailment by the following manifestations:

  • feeling of suffocation;
  • fainting;
  • dizziness;
  • insomnia;
  • trembling heart syndrome;
  • pain in the left side of the chest – pinching, squeezing, squeezing, etc .;
  • fatigue with previous active physical exertion;
  • pressure drops;
  • migraine;
  • fluid accumulation in the lower extremities (swelling);
  • dyspnea.

Indirect signs of LVH of the heart are those indicators that are visible with instrumental research methods with ECG. These include: violation of intraventricular conduction, repolarization phase, decrease in the amplitude of the T wave.

Hypertrophy of the left ventricle often develops without any symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease, when the compaction of the walls does not disturb blood circulation. The disease may not show any signs for several years and be detected only during a routine medical examination during an ECG, this is its danger.

  • Chest pain;
  • Dizziness;
  • Fainting with instant sinking heart;
  • Heart rhythm disturbances;
  • Atrial fibrillation;
  • Fatigue, weakness;
  • Irregular blood pressure;
  • Sleep disturbances;
  • Shortness of breath during exercise, as well as at rest.

With any of these symptoms, you need to contact a cardiologist as soon as possible and conduct an examination. In addition, it should be remembered that cardiomyopathy itself is one of the possible symptoms of diseases such as heart disease, heart failure, pulmonary edema, heart attack and others. Procrastination with medical help in this case can result in serious complications and lead to death.

Important in the treatment of the disease is a change in the patient’s lifestyle, refusal to use alcohol, smoking, as this reduces the flow of oxygen into the body. Moderate exercise is recommended – hiking, swimming, aerobics, jogging. For athletes, a gradual decrease in the intensity of training is necessary.

In recent years, left ventricular hypertrophy is diagnosed in very young people. Without treatment and medical control, the disease will necessarily progress. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly be observed by a cardiologist, follow all the recommendations of doctors, take prescribed medications and lead a healthy lifestyle.

Cardiac pathology for a long time does not manifest itself. But over time, increased muscle mass begins to affect the systemic circulation. The first signs of malaise appear. They are usually associated with great physical exertion. With the development of the disease, the manifestations worry the patient at rest.

Symptoms of left ventricular hypertrophy:

  • Shortness of breath, interruptions in the heart, lack of air.
  • Dizziness, fainting.
  • Anginous (compressive, pressing) pain behind the sternum.
  • Swings HELL.
  • High blood pressure that does not respond well to therapeutic measures.
  • Swelling of the limbs and face in the evening.
  • Attacks of suffocation, an unreasonable cough in a prone position.
  • Cyanosis of nails, nasolabial triangle.
  • Drowsiness, headaches of an obscure nature, weakness.

Noticing such signs in yourself, you must hurry to the cardiologist.

One of the first symptoms of an ailment is pain in the heart. Concomitant signs of myocardial hypertrophy are arrhythmia and hypertension. Together, they give an occasion to consult a doctor and undergo a heart test. Additional symptoms for LVH:

  • sleep disturbance;
  • headache;
  • “loss of strength” syndrome.

Patients with pressure drops may experience short-term fainting. Signs of left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart may not appear for a long time in vivid symptoms, when the deviation develops slowly. But they can immediately make themselves felt with the rapid progress of the disease, especially in combination with other heart ailments. When the ventricle is hypertrophied, “fading” of the heart is observed. Subsequently, tachycardia may develop due to them.

Diagnostics

Before diagnosing “LVH of the heart”, a cardiologist at the initial appointment should:

  1. Interview the patient – find out what complaints he has, what he does, whether he leads an active lifestyle, whether there are bad habits, etc.
  2. Perform an examination using palpation, establish the borders of the heart, their displacement, find out the width of the vascular bundle, etc.
  3. Listen to the patient, identify breathing disorders, amplification or muffled tones of the “engine”.

An electrocardiogram is one of the most common diagnostic methods. An ECG determines the thickness of the myocardium, as well as pronounced signs: cardiac output, pressure gradient, etc. However, LVH of the heart on an ECG does not give a % guarantee when making a diagnosis, because general symptoms can also be characteristic of a healthy person.

More extensive and deeper analysis of the heart muscle. With its help it is possible to determine how thickened the myocardium and its septum are, what areas are observed with reduced contractility, the general state of the heart muscle.

This is echocardiography with the Doppler effect, thanks to which you can determine the speed, direction of blood through the vessels. With its help, a specialist can see the shape and size of the heart cavities, the work of heart valves, evaluate the contractility of the myocardium.

This is an accurate research method, thanks to which a specialist has the opportunity to get high-resolution images, assess myocardial contractility, and make a final diagnosis. Using MRI, the doctor can conduct dynamic monitoring of the patient’s health during drug treatment or analyze the results of surgery.

To evaluate the work of the myocardium, a specialist can prescribe samples to the patient with a change in body position, atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature, and others.

Depending on the condition of the patient, diagnostic methods can be supplemented by coronarography, fluorography, etc.

At the first appointment, the doctor collects an anamnesis (patient complaints, information about family diseases). If the family had endocrine diseases, hypertension, heart defects, then hypertrophy of the walls of the left ventricle becomes more than likely.

To clarify the diagnosis, the following procedures are prescribed:

  • Chest x-ray. On the x-ray, enlarged shadows of the heart and shadows of the aorta will be visible;
  • Electrocardiogram;
  • Daily ECG monitoring
  • Echocardiography;
  • Stress echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart before and after exercise);
  • Doppler test (checking cardiac blood flow also using a load);
  • Laboratory blood test;
  • Blood test for hormones;
  • Analysis of urine.

By identifying the degree of the disease, the doctor will prescribe coronary angiography (an X-ray study with the introduction of contrast fluid into the cardiac bloodstream). So determine how free the lumen of the coronary arteries.

Cardiac MRI is performed to accurately visualize intracardiac pathologies.

Effective treatment

Since mild and moderate left ventricular hypertrophy is mostly asymptomatic, it can only be detected in clinical examinations. To do this, carry out the following diagnostics: ECG, MRI, ultrasound of the heart, Doppler echocardiography, an index is calculated to determine the degree of hypertrophy.

To conduct qualified treatment, it is important not only to diagnose the disease, but also to determine its nature and features of the course. Based on the survey data, the most favorable method for the treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is chosen, with the goal of normalizing myocardial function and performed by a medical or surgical method.

Surgical treatment is indicated if the cause of cardiomyopathy is a congenital heart disease in children, this method gives a good effect. Surgical treatment is also prescribed for severe course of the disease, narrowing of the aortic duct. During the operation, part of the hypertrophied muscle is removed, after the intervention, symptomatic therapy is performed.

Eccentric, obstructive, and concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle lend themselves poorly to therapeutic effects. But modern medical technologies can significantly stabilize the patient’s condition. The treatment tactics are mostly complex.

To restore the natural rhythm of the heart muscle, beta-blockers are prescribed (Propranolol, Anaprilin, Metapropol, Atenolol).

Calcium channel blockers (Verapamil, Procardia) correct the blood supply to the heart and central systems of the body, have a vasodilating effect.

ACE inhibitors – Kapoten, Zestril, Enalapril. Reduce blood pressure.

Anticoagulants (Warfarin, Indandion derivatives) prevent the appearance of blood clots in the ventricle.

Sartans (Lorista, Valsartan) are first-line drugs in the treatment of hypertension and the prevention of brain strokes.

If drug therapy is ineffective, surgical methods are used. The following surgical interventions are shown:

  • Operation Morrow – fragmented myocardial removal in the area of ​​the interventricular septum;
  • Mitral valve replacement;
  • Replacement or transplantation of the aortic valve;
  • Commissurotomy – separation of adhesions at the mouth of the main artery, fused as a result of stenosis (narrowing);
  • Coronary stenting (insertion of an implant expander into the lumen of an artery).

In cases where the treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy does not give the expected results, a cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker is sutured. Devices are designed to restore the correct heart rhythm.

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If the cardiologist approved, you can use the following tools:

  • Infusions of flowers of cornflower, lily of the valley, hawthorn;
  • Hypericum infusion with honey;
  • A mixture of garlic and honey in equal parts;
  • Mixed decoction of rosemary, motherwort and cough;
  • A decoction of parsley stalks in red wine.

A good effect is provided by the long-term use of baked milk with strawberry jam, grated cranberries with sugar, dried fruits, raisins, dried apricots.

LVH therapy comes down to three points:

  1. Elimination of the symptoms of the problem.
  2. Improving health status.
  3. Prevention of relapse, disease progression.

Since in most cases, LVH is the result of arterial hypertension, then under the supervision of a doctor, such drugs are prescribed to the patient that can normalize his condition:

  • ACE inhibitors – tablets “Lisinopril”, “Quadripril” and others. These drugs build pressure, and if you take them for a long time (at least six months), you can achieve normalization of the myocardial wall thickness.
  • Beta-blockers – Metoprolol, Bisoprolol medicines. These pills reduce the load on the heart, reduce the heart rate.
  • Means based on nitroglycerin. They are able to expand the vessels of the myocardium, thereby reducing the load on the muscle.

If the cause of the thickening of the wall is a heart defect, then get rid of the pathology by surgery. Moreover, it can take the form of:

  1. Aortic stenting.
  2. Prosthetics (heart transplant).
  3. Extraction of the part of the muscle that blocks the access of blood to the aorta.

Home methods only cope with LVH, which was caused by hypertension. You should resort to the help of non-traditional means after obtaining the approval of a doctor.

Among folk methods, one can distinguish such recipes:

  • Hypericum medicine – per 100 g of dry grass 2 l of water. Boil the raw materials, boil for 10 minutes. Insist, add honey (200 g). Take 2 tablespoons per day for a month. St. John’s wort calms, cleanses blood vessels, prevents arrhythmia.
  • Cranberry gruel. Grind fresh berries with honey or sugar. Take 1 tbsp. l after meal. Cranberries improves blood flow, restores vascular elasticity, reduces blood pressure, and has a general strengthening effect. It is advisable to make gruel daily to take the medicine fresh.
  • Garlic based product. Grind the peeled cloves in the garlic. Add honey (1: 1 ratio). Put to insist in a dark place for 5-7 days, periodically shaking the contents of the jar. Use a tablespoon three times a day. Regular intake of garlic cleanses and strengthens blood vessels, helps eliminate arrhythmias, is useful for hypertension, heart failure.
  • Decoction of blueberry shoots. Mix 10 g of raw material with 250 ml of water. Boil for 10 minutes, cool, strain. Take a tablespoon before each meal.

It is impossible to completely get rid of hypertrophy. But by taking medication, you can remove the symptoms of LVH and minimize the risks of complications. Preferably, the disorder is treated with medication and under the supervision of a physician. At home, folk recipes and homeopathy are suitable for maintaining the body. A healing diet can help strengthen the myocardium.

Features of food

To strengthen the walls of the ventricle, as well as to restore the functioning of the myocardium, it is very important to follow a diet:

  • Reduce salt intake. It increases pressure, and this can cause strokes and ischemia.
  • Take seafood daily – squid, shrimp, mussels, oysters, fish. They improve the condition of blood vessels, reduce the likelihood of a heart attack.
  • Eat fresh vegetables, fruits, and dried fruits regularly. Bananas, dried apricots, dates, figs, apples, plums, pomegranates – all these products make the vessels elastic, relieve cramps with arterial hypertension, and remove harmful cholesterol.
  • Exclude smoked meats, fatty foods from the diet – it increases the risk of heart disease due to trans fats.

Patients need to eat fractionally, little by little, consume carrot juice, give preference to mashed cereals. Exclude spices and spices from the diet.

In conclusion

Increasingly, LV hypertrophy is found in people under 35 years old. Hoping for the compensatory capabilities of the young body, patients avoid going to the clinic.

But heart pathologies are dangerous because without medical treatment and control they are steadily progressing.

Only in 5-10% of patients, cardiomyopathy develops back. The rest fall into the high-risk group. Only persistent treatment and the implementation of the recommendations of a cardiologist will allow a person not to change the usual rhythm of life.

Statistics

  • Heart LVH is often recorded in patients aged 20-40 years.
  • Women suffer from LVH less often than men.
  • Thickening of the left ventricle with time and in the absence of treatment leads to an increase in the right atrium.
  • A fatal outcome from this ailment occurs in 2–8% of cases.
  • At the initial stage of hypertrophy, the patient has a favorable prognosis for recovery.
  • It is important for patients to rest at least 7 hours a day, abandon products that lead to intoxication, slagging, constantly monitor blood pressure, and reduce physical activity.

Heart LVH is a dangerous pathology, because at first it may not manifest itself in any way and only on an ECG, ultrasound and MRI, a cardiologist will see changes in the work of the heart muscle. If the doctor finds LVH, then he will definitely begin to treat the patient: medically or surgically. Depending on the cause of the pathology and its severity. With timely contact with a cardiologist, the prognosis is favorable.

Left ventricular hypertrophy – what does it mean?

To understand the essence of the problem and the causes of its occurrence, we first turn to anatomy and physiology. The left ventricle is one of the four heart chambers from which a large circle of blood circulation originates. Due to contractions of the left ventricle, the bulk of the blood is pumped to the brain, other organs, limbs and nourishing the heart itself. The greatest responsibility and load is assigned to this camera, therefore it begins to suffer first in case of various malfunctions.

Hypertrophy is a thickening of the walls of the heart in response to an increase in the load on the myocardium under the influence of various factors, and in the region of the left ventricle this phenomenon is observed in most cases. Adapting to new, complicated conditions, cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) begin to grow, while the walls of the left ventricle become denser, lose their elasticity and become thicker.

The inner space of the chamber remains unchanged, but the septum between the right and left ventricles can also expand (evenly or unevenly), which can cause a violation of the mitral and aortic valves. Due to pathological processes, the vessels supplying the myocardium are compressed, which in the current conditions needs a greater supply of oxygen and nutrients.

What is the danger of hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart?

When hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart develops, organ nutrition is disturbed, and zones of abnormal hyperactivity and bypass conduction are formed. As a result of this, arrhythmia is observed, and due to an increase in the volume of the heart muscle and impaired blood flow in the vessels, ischemia and tissue necrosis occur. Moreover, if, for other reasons, oxygen deficiency is felt, the situation is exacerbated.

Hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart can have critical consequences when there is a sharp intense load on the myocardium, especially for inactive people and those who smoke, drink alcohol. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cerebral stroke, sudden cardiac arrest is high.

Left ventricular hypertrophy – symptoms

For a long time, left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy can not be felt, since the muscle can compensate for the defect in the initial period of growth of cardiomyocytes, when blood circulation is not yet disturbed. Alarming signs that can not be ignored and which may be the first symptoms of thickening of heart tissue:

  • respiratory failure, shortness of breath;
  • fatigue against the background of previous physical activity;
  • periodically occurring pains in the region of the heart, especially after physical exertion (compressive, pressing, burning);
  • frequent dizziness;
  • the appearance of fainting conditions;
  • feeling of a sinking heart;
  • blood pressure surges;
  • swelling of the legs.

One of the first studies that patients with suspected hypertrophy is referred to is cardiac electrocardiography. This procedure helps to establish the cause of the deviation, to identify the risk of heart failure. In patients who are examined with a preliminary diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy, the sinus rhythm of the heart is impaired, and in order to check this, it is additionally recommended to conduct daily ECG monitoring. When decoding a cardiogram, among the signs indicating a likely thickening of the walls of the left ventricle, there are:

  • left-side deviation of the electrical axis of the heart;
  • increase in the amplitude and duration of the QRS complex
  • changing the shape and direction of the ST segment and the T wave and others.

The diagnosis cannot be based only on ECG indices, therefore echocardiography is mandatory to detect the presence of hypertrophy, its degree and effect on blood flow. With pathology, the following symptoms are noted:

  • thickening of the heart wall – for women more than 1 cm, for men – more than 1,1 cm;
  • relative wall thickness index is more than 0,42;
  • the ratio of myocardial mass to body mass – for men more than 125 g / cm2, for women – more than 95 g / cm2.

The left ventricle of the heart has the largest load, since it must push the blood with such force that it reaches all the peripheral tissues. This is associated with a more frequent development of hypertrophic lesions of the muscle wall of the heart.

Hypertrophy in the norm can only be in people who engage in systematic physical activity, the so-called athlete’s heart. In other cases, a thickening of the myocardium indicates the presence of pathological changes in the human body.

Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the common heart pathologies. Patients with hypertension are at greatest risk of developing the disease. The disease is characterized by a thickening of the heart muscle in the ventricle on the left.

At the initial stage, the disease does not manifest itself, but in the future the symptoms of chronic heart failure develop. Depending on the etiology, the following types of hypertrophy are distinguished:

  • Secondary It arises as a result of a number of diseases – arterial hypertension, heart defects and others.
  • Primary />Types of hypertrophy

The basis of the mechanism of the development of the disease is an increase in the load on the muscle wall – due to increased pressure, the presence of an obstacle to expelling blood, increased myocardial function and other reasons. The heart is a muscular organ.

And, like any muscle, it responds to the load with an increase in its volume.

But if for skeletal muscles this is acceptable and even good, for the heart in most cases, an increase in wall thickness is a pathology, leading to various disorders.

At the initial stages, when the load is moderate, hypertrophy is insignificant, and patients do not feel any changes in their condition. This lasts until there is a breakdown of the compensatory mechanisms.

Due to the fact that the wall increases, the cavity of the ventricle decreases and there is nowhere for blood to accumulate during the relaxation period. And since blood presses on the heart from the inside, the structure of the organ begins to change.

And the smaller the volume of the chamber, the more the configuration of the heart begins to change.

The next stage after thickening of the heart muscle is the extension of the ventricular cavity and the formation of concentric hypertrophy. In order to accommodate a sufficient volume, the heart chamber extends its structure in the form of a cone and thereby increases the blood capacity.

But at this stage, the changes do not end there. Without treatment of the pathology that provokes the load, muscle fibers begin to stretch not only in length, but also in width. And the last step is the development of eccentric hypertrophy.

The heart takes a bag-like shape, its chambers are stretched and have a thin muscle wall. Such an organ can no longer fulfill its function, and this condition is dangerous because congestive heart failure develops.

As a result, patients are diagnosed with disabilities.

a) the norm; b) concentric hypertrophy; c) eccentric

The causes leading to an increase in the load on the heart can be divided into two large groups – acquired and congenital.

By congenital include such conditions as:

  • Coarctation of the aorta – narrowing of the aorta in any area.
  • Congenital stenosis of the aortic valve.
  • The presence of only one ventricle.

There are a lot of acquired causes, but the most common ones are as follows:

  • Arterial hypertension. Increased pressure creates an excessive load on the myocardium.
  • Aortic valve stenosis. Due to atherosclerotic lesions, aortic valves thicken, increase in volume and lose their elasticity. As a result of this, they cannot open normally during systole and create an obstacle to the flow of blood. The heart needs to exert more strength to push blood through the narrowed opening.
  • Aortic valve insufficiency. This is the reverse state of stenosis. After systole, the valves of the aortic valve should close, so that the blood does not flow by gravity back into the ventricle. But in case of insufficiency, the valves do not cover the entire lumen of the aorta and the blood returns to the left chamber. Due to excess blood, the myocardium needs to increase strength in the next systole (contraction) in order to push out a larger volume.

Also, such pathologies can lead to left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy:

  • cardiac ischemia;
  • arrhythmias;
  • obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • bad habits.

The main symptom is the fact that there is a thickening of the myocardial wall, most often it is detected by ultrasound and electrocardiographic examination. Typically, hypertrophy affects the walls of not only the ventricle, but also the interventricular septum. All this leads to the expansion of the borders of the heart to the left. This is easily determined during percussion (tapping) and auscultation (listening).

Quite often, for a long time, the disease does not give any symptoms and it is detected by chance during preventive examinations on electrocardiography.

There are situations when patients already in the initial stages begin to make specific complaints and come to the doctor’s office. The most common signs of the disease are:

  • Palpitations.
  • The appearance of pain in the chest.
  • Pressure in chest.
  • The appearance of edema.
  • The occurrence of shortness of breath.
  • The appearance of interruptions in the work of the heart.

In addition to the above, there are symptoms that occur with other diseases, but in combination with the main ones, they can indicate the presence of a thickening of the myocardium. These indirect symptoms include:

  • A prolonged and persistent increase in blood pressure.
  • Headache.
  • Sleep disturbance.
  • General weakness and malaise.
  • Pain in the heart.

In the case of congestive heart failure, the following symptoms appear:

  • Severe shortness of breath.
  • Swelling of the extremities, which intensify in the evening.
  • Pulmonary edema develops, which further enhances respiratory failure.
  • Pain in the heart area intensifies.
  • Acrocyanosis is observed – the tip of the nose, nail plates, fingers acquire a bluish tint.

Children most often develop idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy, which is associated with genetic mutations. In a child, the myocardial wall begins to diffusely increase, and this process can only be stopped with the help of surgical operations.

It is impossible to completely cure left ventricular hypertrophy. Modern methods of therapy can only stop the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms.

Depending on the cause of the disease, the treatment methods will differ. If there are congenital or acquired defects of the valvular apparatus or heart, then surgery is performed:

  • prosthetic aortic valves;
  • closure of defects of the interventricular or interatrial septum;
  • with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy – excision of hypertrophic tissues and wrapping the heart with a special mesh that prevents further growth of muscle tissue of the heart.

Drug treatments are used for various acquired diseases. For example, with coronary artery disease and hypertension, as these pathologies are almost always combined with each other and most often lead to left ventricular hypertrophy. To treat these diseases in order to reduce the burden on the heart, various drugs are prescribed:

  • Beta-blockers – significantly reduce blood pressure and reduce the purity of heart contractions. They lengthen diastole (relaxation of the heart) and thereby reduce the load on the heart.
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Used for arterial hypertension in order to reduce pressure, they are also included in the complex treatment of congestive heart failure.
  • Antiarrhythmic drugs can treat disorders in the conductive system. Use such means as Cordaron, Arrhythmil, etc.
  • Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure, dilate blood vessels and reduce afterload on the heart muscle.
  • Diuretics are used for arterial hypertension and heart failure, they reduce post- and preload on the heart. This happens due to the fact that they remove excess fluid from the body and reduce the volume of circulating blood.

Left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart – what to do?

If hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart is detected, treatment should be prescribed in accordance with the cause that provoked this violation. The main goal of treatment is the normalization of myocardial function and the prevention of complications, which is achieved mainly by medical or surgical methods. In addition, the complex treatment includes:

  • normalization of lifestyle, rest and sleep;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • adherence to a rational diet;
  • body weight control;
  • dosing of physical activity;
  • correction of hormonal imbalance;
  • elimination of stressful situations.

Patients who have been given a disappointing diagnosis are alarmed if left ventricular hypertrophy is being treated and whether complete healing is possible. It is impossible to reduce the thickness of the myocardium and completely restore its functioning using the currently existing methods, however, with timely treatment started, good results are achieved, and patients can live a full life for many years.

We list which drugs for hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart are prescribed in most cases:

  1. Calcium channel blockers (Verapamil, Diltiazem, Procardia, Cardizem) – reduce myocardial contractility, relax the tissue of the walls of blood vessels, and reduce blood pressure.
  2. Beta-blockers (Concor, Bisoprolol, Carvedilol, Betalok) – reduce heart rate, lower blood pressure, prevent some harmful effects of stress hormones.
  3. Antihypertensive drugs, especially from the group of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Ramipril, Enalapril, Captopril, Lisinopril) – to lower blood pressure, reduce the load on the myocardium and improve blood flow.
  4. Metabolic cardiac drugs (Cardonate, Preductal, Inosine) – to improve the nutrition of the heart muscle, normalize metabolic processes in it, increase tissue resistance to ischemia.
  5. Antiarrhythmic medicines (Disopyramide, Amiodarone, Quinidine) – in the presence of complications in the form of a heart rhythm disorder.
  6. Nitroglycerin preparations – for the expansion of coronary vessels.

Depending on the severity of the patient’s condition, treatment can be carried out on an outpatient basis or in a hospital setting. If drug therapy does not bring positive results, they resort to surgical treatment, which is also indicated for congenital heart defects that cause myocardial hypertrophy. So, surgery can be performed on the valve apparatus, the elimination of stenosis, antiarrhythmic surgical interventions.

Having received the doctor’s recommendations on how to treat left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart, with his permission, therapy can be supplemented with alternative methods, most of which are aimed at eliminating hypertension. If hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart is associated with high blood pressure, taking a decoction will help.

When a thickening of the walls of the left ventricle of the heart is fixed, it is very important to pay attention to nutrition. Servings should be small, the number of meals – 5-6 per day. You should reduce the use of salt, flour products, sweets, fatty dishes. It is necessary to completely abandon pickles, smoked foods, fried foods, and too spicy dishes. Useful vegetables, fruits, seafood, dairy products. In addition, an adequate drinking regimen must be observed.

Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.

Detonic for pressure normalization

The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.

Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page www.detonicnd.com.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

Detonic