Hypertension of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

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The heart is the main organ of man. If one of its four parts starts to work incorrectly, the whole body fails. Right-sided ventricular hypertrophy is one of the pathological conditions that is associated with an increase in the myocardium. This defect indicates the development of serious complications in the work of the lungs and heart.

The departments of the heart can increase for various reasons. According to the medical definition, right ventricular hypertrophy is an increase in the myocardium or thickening of the walls of blood vessels.

A change in size indicates an abnormal growth of heart cells (cardiomyocytes). The difference between a hypertrophied myocardium is that the vessels cannot nourish an overgrown organ.

For this reason, part of it experiences ischemia – a lack of oxygen and nutrients. Dilation of the right ventricle is one of the varieties of the disease.

There are 3 degrees of hypertrophy:

  1. Moderate – increase slightly. It has the same dimensions as the left.
  2. Medium – processes in this area of ​​the heart proceed more slowly.
  3. Pronounced – the right side is 2-3 times larger than the similar left.

The most common causes of right ventricular hypertrophy are concomitant diseases of the heart and lungs. They can be congenital or acquired. Congenital disorders are called:

  1. Tetradou Fallot. Valvular disease, which is diagnosed in newborns. Another name is “blue baby syndrome”: the baby’s skin becomes bluish during crying.
  2. Pulmonary hypertension. Causes increased pulmonary artery pressure.
  3. An anomaly in the structure of the interventricular septum. It leads to the mixing of the blood of the heart, the body receives insufficient oxygen.
  4. Mitral valve stenosis. It causes a violation of the outflow of blood into the artery due to a decrease in the opening.

The diseases that cause hypertrophy of the right ventricular myocardium include:

  • fibrosis, emphysema;
  • bronchitis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • pneumonia;
  • chronic fatigue and stress;
  • weight gain;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • high blood pressure.

An increase in the right ventricle of the heart is observed more in childhood. In infants, immediately after birth, the load on the right side of the heart is greater than on the left. Doctors call this cause of the change in the organ physiological.

However, congenital hypertrophy of the right ventricle in children is much more common. Some symptoms of the disease do not appear immediately.

Constant monitoring of the condition of the baby, a full examination after birth help to make the correct diagnosis and choose the exact treatment methods.

The first symptoms of the disease are not significant, often the patient does not notice them. When the myocardium grows, signs appear in the form of:

  • dizziness;
  • shortness of breath;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • arrhythmias;
  • chest pains;
  • shortness of breath;
  • outflow of legs;
  • cyanosis of the skin;
  • interruptions in the heartbeat.

This is due to the fact that the heart is not adequately supplied with oxygen, the manifestations are similar to heart failure. The doctor should prescribe a diagnosis on modern devices to determine the final diagnosis:

  1. Electrocardiography implies that heart rhythms are transmitted by sensors and recorded on paper. On an ECG, signs of right ventricular hypertrophy can be correctly deciphered by a general practitioner or cardiologist.
  2. Ultrasound of the heart, or echocardiography, accurately reveals changes in the structure of the departments of the heart. The method helps to detect blood flow disorders, measure the degree of pathology.

Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart on an ECG is visible if its mass becomes larger than the left. It looks like fluctuations in the peaks of the electrocardiogram. Key features:

  1. The electrical axis is deflected to the right.
  2. Ischemia of the subendocardial layers of the myocardium is observed.
  3. In part V1, violations of the QRS complex are visible. Then it has the appearance of a R wave or QR.
  4. In area V6, the complex has the form RS.
  5. In region V1, there are deviations from the norm in the ST segment. It is located below the contour and has an asymmetric shape.

Treatment of right ventricular hypertrophy should include complex therapy to eliminate concomitant diseases. The doctor prescribes medications that help normalize the functioning of the heart and lungs:

  • vitamins with magnesium and potassium;
  • blockers that reduce heart rate;
  • diuretics that remove water;
  • anticoagulants;
  • calcium channel antagonists responsible for heart rate;
  • medicines that lower blood pressure;
  • sedatives.

For prevention, a special diet is prescribed. The patient should exclude foods with a high salt content, add lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables. Surgical intervention is used only when the result of the increase is already becoming a heart defect. In young children, this operation can be carried out in the first year of life.

The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

Right ventricular hypertrophy

Ventricular hypertrophy (in other words, right ventricular myocardial hypertrophy or right ventricular hypertrophy) is a heart condition in which the right ventricle undergoes a change in size as a result of an increase in muscle tissue (heart fibers), and this in turn leads to congestion of the heart.

An increase in the ventricle of the heart occurs in people of different ages, but most of it is diagnosed in children. It is worth noting that cardiac hypertrophy can be observed in newborns, because they have increased heart function in the first days of life and on the right side of the heart.

As you know, a person’s heart has four chambers and two right parts of the heart regulate the work of the pulmonary circle of blood circulation, also called small. And the two left parts are responsible for the work of a large circle, or system. In a normal state of the heart, blood pressure in the right sections is less.

If a person has congenital heart defects or some kind of malfunction of the heart, then this rule is violated, which leads to an overload of the right ventricle of the heart, since it accounts for a greater blood flow than expected, and then its hypertrophy.

An increase in the right side of the heart is observed in people of different ages. Most often, such a pathology is diagnosed in babies. This is due to the fact that in the first years of life, the child’s body is growing rapidly, respectively, his heart is under increased stress.

When the disease is acute, then this indicates the presence of congenital heart disease. Such a diagnosis can be made on an ECG. Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart can be acquired. Often, such changes are associated with an improper lifestyle, malnutrition, constant stress.

The right ventricle is enlarged, since it is he who is responsible for the large flow of blood, that is, undergoes a greater load and, under certain circumstances, more quickly fails. Some signs directly indicate that the heart muscle is overloaded and depleted, unable to cope with the amount of work that is assigned to it by the body.

Often a person himself overloads the heart without even thinking about it. The occurrence of hypertrophy can lead to problems in the work of the heart. Because of this, arrhythmia occurs, that is, the heartbeat is not even, but chaotic, the heart beats faster, then slower, regardless of human activity.

Arteries harden and do not pass through some substances. Over time, these substances accumulate and form obstacles to the passage of blood. So there are stagnations that lead to the formation of blood clots.

In a healthy adult heart, the left ventricle has a larger mass than the right. It is understandable, because the left ventricle pushes blood into the aorta, while experiencing a large load. More often, when it comes to myocardial hypertrophy, doctors primarily imply a thickening of the left ventricle. Often, but not always.

The right ventricle pushes out the venous blood flowing into it from all organs into the vessels going to the lungs. They branch into small capillaries, envelop the alveolar tissue of the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. Carbon dioxide and metabolic products leave the capillaries, and oxygen enters the blood from the lungs. Oxygen-rich blood flows through the pulmonary veins into the right atrium.

Prevention

Prevention of right ventricular hypertrophy comes down to the following several requirements. Firstly, this is a warning of the development of phlebothrombosis of the legs:

  • diagnosis of this pathology at the earliest stages and its immediate treatment;
  • preventive examination by a specialist;
  • after surgery, with the diagnosis of phlebothrombosis, the patient is recommended active movement;
  • fulfillment of all doctor’s recommendations.

In case of chronic lung diseases:

  • Avoid hypothermia and draft;
  • do not smoke, including not being a member of second-hand smoke;
  • treat the disease at the earliest stages;
  • lead an active lifestyle with an adequately moderate load;
  • take oxygen shakes.

For prevention purposes, it is also recommended to periodically do an electrocardiogram, abandon bad habits and adhere to therapeutic nutrition. You should regularly check with a cardiologist, undergo examinations, follow all recommendations and take appropriate medications.

To prevent the occurrence of hypertrophy, timely medical attention is required for diseases of the bronchi and lungs, the first signs of circulatory failure. Early treatment, including timely surgery for heart defects, avoids decompensation and development of the pulmonary heart.

Patients diagnosed with chronic inflammatory processes are required to undergo a full course of antibiotic therapy.

For the prevention of relapse of heart and respiratory diseases, it is required:

  • complete cessation of smoking;
  • walk outdoors;
  • conducting daily therapeutic exercises and breathing exercises;
  • massage;
  • physiotherapeutic procedures.

To reduce the load on the heart, diet restricts salt, spicy, fatty and fried foods, alcoholic beverages, coffee and strong tea. A diet is recommended, including a sufficient amount of vegetables, cereals, dairy products, fish, lean meat, fruits.

Myocardial hypertrophy occurs with increased stress on the heart. Diseases of the lungs and heart defects make it difficult to eject blood from the right ventricle, which requires great efforts of the heart muscle and thickening of the muscle layer.

Clinical manifestations occur with the development of right ventricular failure – shortness of breath, tachycardia, congestion in the lungs, liver, and swelling of the legs. For diagnosis, a complete examination of the lungs and heart is indicated. Treatment is carried out by means of reconstructive interventions in case of abnormalities in the structure of heart valves, septa or with medications for bronchopulmonary pathology, heart failure.

A little physiology

It is known that the human heart has four chambers: it consists of two atria and two ventricles. Normally, all cavities are isolated from each other. The heart is a muscle pump that acts in a specific sequence due to the cardiac conduction system and myocardial contractility. The work cycle looks like this:

  • the left ventricle throws oxygen-rich blood into organs and tissues – into a large circle of blood circulation;
  • blood, passing through increasingly smaller arteries, enters the capillary network, where gas exchange occurs and changes color to dark, enters the small veins, then into the large veins that flow into the right atrium;
  • from the right atrium, which performs the function of a venous “cistern”, it flows during diastole (relaxation) into the right ventricle;
  • the right ventricle during contraction with force ejects venous blood into the pulmonary artery into the pulmonary circulation, which is located in the lungs to saturate it with oxygen;
  • red, oxygen-rich blood is collected in the pulmonary veins, and then through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium;
  • blood is ejected from the left atrium into the left, the strongest ventricle, and now it is ready to repeat the whole way – the circulation circles are closed.

Many are perplexed: why is the pulmonary artery called an artery, although venous blood flows in it, and, conversely, the pulmonary veins are called veins, but contain bright red arterial blood? The answer is very simple: the basis of the nomenclature is not the color and composition of the blood, but the nature of the location of the vessels: all the vessels that enter the atria are veins, and all that flow from the ventricles are arteries.

We told this in order to have a clear understanding that the heart muscle does not work at all as a whole: the left ventricle provides oxygen to the whole body, and the right one directs blood to the lungs.

Left ventricular hypertrophy on an ECG

LVH can occur for a number of reasons, one of the triggering factors is high blood pressure, the left ventricle to work in an accelerated rhythm. At first, the walls of the chamber thicken, which subsequently leads to a loss of elasticity and a deterioration in functional activity. In a child, GLH is usually associated with congenital heart defects.

You can also read: Features of the heart muscle

  • narrowing of the aortic valve;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • pathological enlargement of the heart muscle;
  • debilitating long-term power physical exertion;
  • overweight.

Consider the clinical signs of left ventricular hypertrophy on an ecg:

  • chest pains;
  • dyspnea;
  • tachycardia;
  • dizziness, up to fainting;
  • fatigue.

The left ventricle is the most important link in the circulatory system. He is responsible for supplying blood to tissues and organs, which is why hypertrophic changes will certainly affect the work of the most important body systems.

In order to avoid the development of serious complications, the pathological process should be identified in the early stages. To do this, when the first symptoms appear, consult a cardiologist

LVH can lead to the appearance of such complications, namely:

  • heart failure;
  • IHD;
  • arrhythmia;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • cardiac arrest and death.

If we talk about left atrial hypertrophy, it arises due to the following reasons: obesity, cardiomyopathy of various origins, pulmonary diseases, aortic stenosis, hypertension, stressful situations, etc.

The only ventricle of the heart that responds to changes in wall thickness to high physical or psychoemotional stress in a person is the left. The right ventricle is hypertrophied only in the case of pulmonary pathology or heart disease, while the left ventricle is hypertensive, and with arterial hypertension, and with frequent stresses, and during physical exertion in athletes. His myocardium was initially developed more strongly, and with increased loads, his hypertrophy begins.

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At first, this process is compensated, and it does not affect blood circulation, but heart failure develops over time. This is due to the fact that the new high wall thickness does not allow normal blood supply and innervate the myocardium, as a result, the wall becomes flabby. In addition, the filling of the ventricle with blood from the left atrium is disrupted, which means that over time the atrium also hypertrophies, then the process can go to the right heart (first, the right atrium, and then the right ventricle).

In addition to hypertrophy, malformations occupy an important place among heart pathologies. They may be congenital or acquired.

Congenital malformations are caused by impaired embryonic development. These can be incorrectly formed valves, chords of inappropriate length, non-closure of the septum between the ventricles, or transposition of the great vessels. Very often there are combinations of transposition with other defects. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention to save the life of the child, however, unfortunately, not in every case the operation can save the life of a small person with such a pathology.

If the child has a defect in the septum between the ventricles or atria, then the arterial and venous blood will mix, due to which life will be possible. Children whose transposition of the great vessels is combined with non-closure of the septum have a bluish skin color. At first, this is the only symptom, but in the future the full clinical picture joins it.

If transposition is an isolated defect, then death from hypoxia occurs almost instantly. Sometimes the transposition is detected even in the prenatal period, in this case they are prepared in advance for the operation. Surgical treatment for transposition of the great vessels can be radical or palliative.

The function of the left ventricle is to release arterial blood into a large circle of blood circulation, and therefore, to supply all organs and tissues with oxygen and nutrients. So that he can better cope with his task, do not offer him excessive loads. There should be moderate physical training without overstrain.

ECG and signs of pathology

The disease itself is divided into several types that distinguish the course of the pathology, signs and symptoms.

It is observed when the mass of the right side of the heart is several times larger than the left side.

The disease is moderate.

It is observed if the processes taking place on the right side of the heart muscle are slowed down and lag behind the processes on the left side. They should not be observed asynchronous operation.

There is nothing wrong with the detection of this disease. Timely and proper treatment will help get rid of the problem. When diagnosing, there is a slight increase in the right area.

In the initial stages, there are no symptoms. That is why timely diagnosis is difficult. In order to avoid the latent form of the disease, it is necessary to perform an ECG once a year. To identify the first stages of pathology in babies, intrauterine CTG and ECG are prescribed after the first year of life.

On an ECG, right ventricular hypertrophy is well defined. Every functional diagnostics doctor, cardiologist and therapist knows the ECG signs of right ventricular hypertrophy, we will analyze the main ones and we:

  1. In assignments of V1 V2 III aVF increase in height of a tooth of R;
  2. The ST bias is slightly lower than the contour, negative or bumpy T in V1 V2 III aVF;
  3. Pravogramma (EOS rejected to the right).

These are the main signs of an increase in the right ventricle, according to which pathology can be suspected. ECG right ventricular hypertrophy for people over 30 has the following diagnostic criteria:

  • Deviation of EOS to the right more than 110 degrees;
  • High R-teeth in V1 (more than 7 mm), S-teeth in V1 less than 2 mm, R / S in V1 more than one;
  • The S wave in V5 and V6 is greater than or equal to 2 mm;
  • complexes of type qR in V1.

If there are two or more of these criteria on an ECG, right ventricular hypertrophy may be exposed. Doctors also remember the confirming signs of right ventricular hypertrophy, which include:

  • changes in the ST segment and T wave according to the type of “overload” in leads V1-V3,
  • an increase in the right atrium.

How on the ECG appears GLP

Hypertrophy of the right atrium on the ECG is also manifested by quite pronounced manifestations, the main thing is to correctly recognize them. The main manifestations of such an ailment on an electrocardiogram are due to the fact that it is accompanied by a violation of small blood circulation. There are quite a few manifestations, thanks to which, it is possible to easily determine the presence of a disease, its stage and form using an electrocardiogram.

The specialist will easily detect deviations using an electrocardiogram

When conducting this diagnostic method, it is especially important to pay attention to the P wave, since it is with it that the main changes occur:

  • the amplitude of the P wave increases, its duration increases;
  • tooth P is characterized by an acute form;
  • teeth have a symmetrical apex;
  • the height of the tooth P can increase by 2-2,5 mm from the norm;
  • pathological changes can be observed in the third and second assignment.

Important! With hypertrophic lesions of the right atrium on the electrocardiogram, the deviation of the axis of the P wave to the right can be traced

ECG signs of hypertrophic lesions of the right atrium manifest themselves differently in each lead, and it is very important to pay attention to this to get a complete picture of the disease. There are cases when, with such a disease, a negative indicator of R. can be observed. The severity of the disease is indicated by a large number of thoracic branches with an acute and high tooth P

It is precisely due to the fact that the disease manifests itself differently in all leads, it is better if a qualified specialist will deal with the decryption, this will prevent the error

The severity of the disease is evidenced by the large number of thoracic branches with an acute and high R-clove. It is precisely because the disease manifests itself differently in all leads that it is better if a qualified specialist decrypts it, this will prevent mistakes.

Manifestations of hypertrophy in a newborn baby in the first hours or days of life can be due to physiological changes, the restructuring of blood circulation from the fetus. But most often pediatricians and neonatologists diagnose right ventricular hypertrophy due to intrauterine heart defects: tricuspid valve stenosis, interventricular septal defect, Fallot tetrad.

The severity of defects can vary, with unexpressed defects, compensation of cardiac activity may occur at first, with severe defects in children, the skin becomes bluish, shortness of breath at rest or with minimal exertion, older children complain of heart pain, weakness, palpitations. In children, there is a lag in growth and development, chest deformity as a cardiac hump, frequent fainting.

Diagnosis and probable causes

The causes of right ventricular myocardial hypertrophy are acquired or congenital. In the first case, the restructuring of the heart muscle is usually a consequence of diseases of the respiratory system:

  • obstructive bronchitis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • pneumosclerosis;
  • emphysema;
  • polycystic;
  • tuberculosis;
  • sarcoidosis;
  • bronchiectatic disease;
  • pneumoconiosis.

In addition, a primary change in the volume of the chest with various deviations is possible. These include:

  • violation of the structure of the musculoskeletal system (scoliosis, ankylosing spondylitis);
  • decrease in neuromuscular transmission (polio);
  • pathology of the pleura and diaphragm associated with trauma or surgery;
  • severe obesity (Pickwick syndrome).

The primary lesion of the pulmonary vessels, which leads to hypertrophy, can develop as a result of:

  • primary pulmonary hypertension;
  • thromboembolic foci in this area;
  • arteriosclerosis of arteries;
  • volume formations in the mediastinum.

Hypertrophy of the right ventricle in the baby is associated with congenital malformations of the heart:

  1. Tetralogy of Fallot, which leads to a violation of the emptying of the right ventricle, as a result of which hypertension occurs in it.
  2. Violation of the integrity of the interventricular septum. In this case, the pressure in the right and left parts of the heart is equalized. This leads to a decrease in oxygenation (oxygenation) of the blood, as well as to hypertrophy.
  3. Stenosis of the valves of the pulmonary artery, which impedes the movement of blood from the heart to the vessels of the pulmonary circulation.
  4. Pulmonary hypertension associated with increased vascular resistance.

With congenital malformations, hypertrophy appears already at an early age.

Catalysts for the growth of cardiomyocytes, which leads to the progression of pathology, can be different bronchopulmonary ailments:

  • fibrosis;
  • emphysema;
  • chronic obstructive bronchitis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • pneumoconiosis;
  • sarcoidosis;
  • pneumonia.

There are also causes of right ventricular hypertrophy that are not associated with cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases:

  • pathological increase in body weight (obesity);
  • systematic and prolonged stress flowing into neurosis.

Another factor provoking the development of right ventricular hypertrophy may be excessive enthusiasm for aerobic exercise.

With an average form of HPV, an excess of size and mass of both ventricles is noted, with a pronounced form, the difference in these parameters is significant. The absence of therapeutic measures in the acute form of the course of pancreatic hypertrophy can lead to the death of the patient.

Also, the syndrome of HPV is classified by the type of occurrence:

  • physiological (congenital), when the right ventricular hypertrophy in a child is diagnosed from the first days of life. Pathology manifests itself as a consequence of CHD (congenital heart defects) and is often diagnosed immediately after birth by extensive cyanosis (cyanotic shade of the skin) of the face or entire body.
  • pathological (acquired) – a syndrome of enlargement of the right ventricle occurs as a result of transferred bronchopulmonary ailments or physical overloads.

Right ventricular hypertrophy is much less common than left ventricular.

Hypertrophy is caused by an increase in the size of the heart due to an increase in the size of the cells of the heart tissue. In this case, only cardiomyocytes undergo growth.

The causes of right ventricular hypertrophy are:

  • Narrowing or stenosis of the pulmonary valve located at the exit from the right ventricle of the pulmonary artery;
  • Increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension). As a rule, this condition is accompanied by dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath;
  • Tetrad Fallot. This is a congenital heart disease, which is characterized by four signs: pulmonary valve stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, aortic displacement to the right side, and interventricular septal defect. This defect is also called the “blue” defect, since its main symptom is the turning blue of various parts of the body;
  • Ventricular septal defect. With this defect, two departments of the heart communicate with each other, as a result, blood mixes, which leads to insufficient oxygen supply to the organs. The heart tries to compensate for the lack of nutrition of organs by increasing the contractions of the ventricles, which leads to an increase in both ventricles;
  • Pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia, pneumosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema).

Physiological hypertrophy is promoted by systematic aerobic exercises. Therefore, an increase in heart size is often observed in people who play sports and lead an active lifestyle.

In the early stages of right ventricular hypertrophy, its symptoms are not pronounced.

At later stages, signs of right ventricular hypertrophy are manifested:

  • A feeling of heaviness and severe pain in the chest;
  • Difficulty breathing;
  • Arrhythmia, impaired heartbeat. Quite often, patients feel a sense of “trembling” of the heart in the chest;
  • Sudden bouts of dizziness. Fainting conditions;
  • Severe swelling on the legs.

The clinical picture of right ventricular hypertrophy may also be accompanied by a “pulmonary heart”, the cause of which is pulmonary embolism. Acute pulmonary heart is characterized by acute right ventricular failure, severe shortness of breath, decreased blood pressure, and tachycardia.

The chronic form of the pulmonary heart has the same clinical picture as the acute pulmonary heart until the decompensation process begins. In severe forms of chronic right ventricular failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease occurs.

Any deviations from the norm are considered a sign of pathology, which will immediately be noticed by an experienced specialist. But each person who was given an ECG at least once looked with interest at a folded several times long piece of paper with mysterious symbols and symbols, trying to understand at least something.

The first sign of right ventricular hypertrophy in decoding ECG data is the predominance of its potentials over the left, due to which R waves appear in the right chest leads, and depolarization occurs to the right.

The pathology may be indicated by a shift of the QRS complex vector to the right, which in turn leads to the appearance of R-teeth. Another indicator of the disease is the replacement of the rS complex in the V1 lead with an R-wave.

If normally the left ventricle gives more impulses, then with a defect in the right ventricle, it is the pancreas that will prevail, shifting the vector to the right of itself.

Cardiologists distinguish three degrees of defect development:

  • Light (slight deviation from normal values);
  • Medium (signs of hypertrophy are already significant, but pancreas indices are still slightly less than those of the left);
  • Severe (impulses of the right ventricle have already exceeded LV parameters and prevail in ECG results).

On the cardiogram, you can see special characters that characterize one or another state of the heart. For example, a high positive R wave and a deep negative P wave are responsible for the frequency of contractions of the left and right atria, and the symbols Q, S, R characterize ventricular contractions. The letter T indicates the relaxation of the ventricles.

Signals of the development of the disease according to the results of a cardiogram can be:

  • Sufficiently high rates of RV1, V2 teeth in the absence of deviations in the V2, TV1 teeth in the STV1, V2 segments;
  • Sufficiently high fluctuations of RV1, V2 with a marked reduction in the pulsation of the segment STV1, V2 with a negative tooth amplitude TV1, V2;
  • The presence in the other leads of an elevated R wave and a reduced ST segment.

According to the results of the cardiogram, the defect of the right ventricle is not so pronounced as the left ventricle, which is a significant reason for a more thorough examination and clarification of the diagnosis.

Cardiographic varieties identified on the basis of distinctive ECG changes are called types of hypertrophy. They differ in the location of pathological signs.

The detection rate is approximately 23% of patients. This type is due to the displacement of the heart down with a turn of the apex back. Such hypertrophy of the right ventricle develops with increased airiness of the lungs at the stage of the pulmonary heart.

  • Low voltage of the ventricular tooth in V-leads;
  • Deep tooth S and positive T in V1-V6;
  • Displacement of the transition zone (V3-V4) towards V5.
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Blockade (rSR ‘)

It is detected in 18% of patients and is characteristic of heart block. It is caused by the simultaneous conduction of ventricular arousal, when the left chamber first contracts, then the right one.

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For such hypertrophy of the right ventricle is characteristic:

  • The appearance of the Q wave in V1-V2;
  • Deep S in V1 combined with deep R in V6;
  • The displacement of the heart axis is first to the left, and at the end of the contraction to the right.

The most common type (45% of cases), characteristic of high pulmonary hypertension, when the right ventricle becomes the largest cardiac chamber.

  • QRS complex expansion for more than 12 ms;
  • R-wave voltage of more than 8 mm;
  • Deep S wave, the amplitude of which gradually increases from V1 to V6.
  • The omission of ST below the contour;
  • In the standard and right leads, the T wave is negative.

It develops in 10-13% of patients with moderate overload of the right half of the heart, when the right ventricle becomes equal in size to the left.

  • Displacement of the heart axis to the right up to 100 degrees;
  • ST below contour;
  • Negative T in the right and standard leads;
  • The ventricular complex has the form rSR ‘;
  • Voltage R ‘more than 7 mm.

Dilation is a stretching of the chamber cavity, accompanied by a thinning of its walls.

Both pathologies are externally represented by an enlarged ventricle, however, in the first case the myocardium is thickened (the camera may not be changed), in the second – the myocardium is stretched (the camera is always enlarged).

The simultaneous development of right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation is observed with:

  1. Pulmonary hypertension;
  2. Defects of the partitions;
  3. Tricusp >

ECG signs of right ventricular hypertrophy

Features of the disease in children

As the child grows, the load on his heart also increases. If there is any obstacle to the blood flow through the vessels of the small (respiratory) circle of blood circulation, an increase in muscle mass of the right ventricle occurs. According to disappointing statistics, this disease is much more common in children, which is associated with the congenital nature of the pathology.

Physiological hypertrophy of the right departments can occur in the first days of life of the crumbs, since during this period there is a sharp restructuring of the circulatory system. However, more often the causes of this pathological condition in infants are as follows:

  • heart septal defect;
  • violation of the outflow of blood from the cavity of the right ventricle;
  • increased load on these parts of the heart during fetal development;
  • pulmonary stenosis.

In this case, the symptoms of the disease may not appear immediately, but after some time. This is due to the fact that at first, heart dysfunction is compensated by various protective mechanisms. With the development of a decompensated state, the first signs appear, but the condition of the child can be quite serious.

Physiological hypertrophy occurs in children of the first days of life, pathological – in various congenital heart defects (transposition of the great vessels, Fallot tetrad, ventricular septal defect and open arterial duct with high pulmonary hypertension, etc.), primary pulmonary hypertension, and congenital lung and lung diseases blood vessels (Wilson-Mikiti syndrome, lobar emphysema, etc.), chronic carditis, etc.

Finally, children often experience acute overloads of the right ventricle in case of a burn disease, acute pneumonia, and other conditions, often imitating right ventricular myocardial hypertrophy. Diagnosis of right ventricular hypertrophy by ECG in some cases is fraught with difficulties.

Significant difficulties are caused by the identification of signs of right ventricular hypertrophy on the ECG with vivid symptoms of left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy. Electrocardiographic changes in right ventricular hypertrophy are associated with the fact that the EMF vector of the right ventricle becomes predominant and changes the orientation of the total EMF to the right and forward with the excess of its normal age potentials.

At the same time, right ventricular hypertrophy is judged by the deviation of the EMF vector forward (leads V3R, V1, V2) and to the right (leads from the limbs). The combination of these signs makes the diagnosis most likely.

In the later stages of this disease, signs of the so-called pulmonary heart appear. The main symptoms of a pulmonary heart are:

  • the appearance of severe and sudden pain in the sternum;
  • a sharp decrease in pressure (up to the development of signs of a collapse state);
  • swelling of the neck veins;
  • progressive increase in liver size (pain in the right hypochondrium joins this process);
  • sharp psychomotor agitation;
  • the appearance of a sharp and pathological pulsation.

A sharp shortness of breath develops at rest, a person feels tightness in the chest. Later, suffocation, cyanosis occurs, to which the cough joins. Sudden death may occur in one third of all cases of pulmonary embolism.

With compensated pulmonary heart, as the main consequence of right ventricular hypertrophy, the symptoms of the underlying disturbance are not pronounced. Some patients may notice the appearance of a slightly pronounced pulsation in the upper abdomen.

Other symptoms indicate that a person develops so-called congestive heart failure.

The predominance of potentials of the right ventricle is often observed in newborns and young children. If such a sign is found, the child is examined for additional symptoms and complaints. Their identification serves as an indication for in-depth research.

In most cases, the predominance of potentials is a variant of the norm and is not a cause for concern. Such a child is not registered.

Hypertrophy of the right ventricle in newborns and children is a symptom of heart defects, cystic fibrosis, bronchial asthma and prolonged pneumonia. In contrast to the predominance of potentials, which can be congenital, hypertrophy develops gradually.

Its identification indicates an existing disease, which requires confirmation by x-ray and ultrasound studies. Children with this pathology are registered with a cardiologist.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of heart ventricular hypertrophy is often carried out using ultrasound or echocardiography – such methods are considered the most informative, because they allow you to visually assess the size of the heart walls.

Sometimes indirect signs of pathological abnormalities can be detected using an electrocardiogram (ECG of the heart) and chest x-ray.

Heart ultrasound

  • Electrocardiography (for detecting rhythm disturbances);
  • Medical examination (listening to heart murmurs, heart rate);
  • Echocardiography (determining the size of the ventricle using ultrasound, thickness measurement, detection of defects and their sizes);
  • Cardiovisor examination (dynamic observation of cardiac work);
  • Identification of the patient’s belonging to one of the risk groups (overweight people, professional athletes, people with bad habits);
  • Identification of genetic predisposition.

What is the danger of hypertrophy of the walls of the right ventricle of the heart? The fact that this is only an indicator of the presence of a serious disease of the cardiovascular or pulmonary system. The consequences are determined precisely by what caused hypertrophy.

A possible increase in the right ventricle serves as an indication for a thorough examination:

  1. History taking;
  2. Inspection of the heart region and the whole body;
  3. Palpation, percussion and auscultation of the lungs and heart;
  4. The study of the state of veins and liver;
  5. Conducting laboratory examinations (general and biochemical analyzes, determination of ASL-O), radiography and echocardiography.
  • Pulmonary hypertension in the initial stages;
  • Bronchial asthma;
  • The first stage of emphysema;
  • Congenital and acquired malformations accompanied by pulmonary hypertension.

The main methods for confirming or eliminating a possible disease are radiography and echocardiography.

Explicit hypertrophy indicates cardiopulmonary pathology, in 100% of cases it is combined with vivid symptoms and requires:

  1. Immediate clarification of the diagnosis using radiography and ultrasound of the heart;
  2. Determining the degree of pulmonary hypertension;
  3. Selection of a method and means of therapy.
  • Mitral and tricuspid malformations;
  • Defects of the partitions;
  • Defects of the pulmonary trunk;
  • Fallot’s disease;
  • Open aortic duct;
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Most often, pancreatic hypertrophy is manifested already in old age, very rarely in young people. But the exception is infants and newborns who were born with heart disease.

Diagnosis of right ventricular hypertrophy is based on patient complaints, examination results, ultrasound findings and electrocardiography.

On an electrocardiogram, signs of right ventricular hypertrophy may look like:

  • R-type. Typically, the presence of a QRS complex of gR or Rs type is typical. This type of deviation is usually found with severe right ventricular hypertrophy;
  • rSR1 type. Characterized by V1 cleaved QRS complex with 2 positive teeth;
  • S-type. It is characterized by the presence of a QRS complex in all chest leads and RS with a pronounced S-wave;

When making a diagnosis, the size of the right ventricle matters. This indicator determines the type of right ventricular hypertrophy, which can be:

  • Moderately pronounced. When the walls of the myocardium are enlarged, but the proportion of the right ventricle is less than the left ventricle;
  • Expressed. When the weight of the right ventricle remains less than the weight of the left, but the duration of excitation of the heart muscle is longer in the right ventricle than in the left;
  • Pronounced. In the case when the weight of the right ventricle exceeds the weight of the left.

An electrocardiogram allows you to diagnose only a malfunction in the electrical conduction of the ventricles, the size of the ventricle is determined using ultrasound of the heart, which also allows you to identify the defects present in it and their location, the force of blood pressure in the heart chambers, the ejection of blood through the place of defects.

With hypertrophy of the ventricle of the heart, changes are presented not only in the muscle tissue of the heart.

After an indefinite period, it can cause complications to the pulmonary vessels and arteries that cause such reactions:

  • aortic sclerosis – a disease inherent in the elderly;
  • blood circulation hypertension characterized by an increase in blood pressure in the pulmonary vessels;
  • Eisenmenger syndrome is a congenital anomaly of the heart with a defect in the interventricular septum.

An electrocardiogram (ECG of the heart), as a way to detect HPV, is not very accurate and cannot completely determine the presence of pathology. It shows only general changes in muscle structure, without any specificity. And the exact degree of the disease can not be determined, but only to reveal its presence.

ECG Right Atrial Hypertrophy

An echocardiogram in this case can give more specific and accurate results. An ECG can indicate not only the presence of pathology, but also determine the exact size and changes in the internal sections of the heart. And also accurately indicate and identify defects in muscle tissue. In combination with ultrasound dopplerography, you can find out the direction and speed of blood circulation of the heart vessels.

Such a comprehensive study can prevent the further development of pathology at an early stage, and prevent it from developing further.

Ultrasound of the heart – examine the thickening of the walls and septa, areas of reduced contractility, malformations.

  • Echocardiography – determine the size of the myocardium and cardiac cavities, the pressure gradient between the ventricles and blood vessels, cardiac output, the presence of reverse blood flow.
  • Stress tests – after a standardized load on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer, an ECG, echocardiography and ultrasound are performed to assess the state of the myocardium and resistance to physical activity.

If necessary, to clarify the diagnosis, coronary angiography and MRI of the heart can be prescribed.

When should you refrain from diagnosing right ventricular hypertrophy by ECG

ECG is a universal, widely available and very popular method. But the diagnosis of right ventricular hypertrophy only through a cardiogram has some drawbacks. First of all, a pronounced hypertrophy is visible on the cardiogram; with slight hypertrophy, changes in the ECG will be insignificant or not at all. In addition, to refrain from diagnosing right ventricular hypertrophy by ECG should, if such conditions occur:

  • blockade of the right bundle branch block,
  • WPW syndrome
  • confirmed posterior myocardial infarction,
  • in children, the above ECG signs may be a variant of the norm,
  • transition zone shift to the right,
  • the R wave has a high amplitude in V1 V2, but the R / S ratio in V5 or V6 is greater than unity,
  • dextroposition (the heart is mirrored in the right half of the chest),
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the presence of high R waves in V1 is possible, with an R / S ratio greater than one.

When diagnosing right ventricular hypertrophy, the width of the QRS complex should be less than 0,12 s. Therefore, accurate ECG diagnosis is not possible with BPNPG, Wolf Parkinson-White syndrome.

Hypertrophy is not limited to ECG in diagnosis. There are other methods to determine its presence:

  • Echocardiography – the most informative method, allows you to accurately determine the thickness of the ventricular wall, its volume, ejection fraction. Doppler echocardiography allows you to visually assess the blood flow through the chambers of the heart and blood vessels, defects in the valves or partitions of the heart, blood pressure in the cavities and blood vessels.
  • Chest x-ray. An increase in the shadow of the heart of the right sections may indicate their hypertrophy.

In the aggregate, having analyzed the data of the cardiogram and other methods of instrumental examination of the heart, supplementing them with an objective examination, auscultation of the heart, the doctor can set up hypertrophy. But even more important in the diagnostic and therapeutic matter is the establishment of the cause of right ventricular hypertrophy. The degree of its progression and the effectiveness of treatment depend on finding the cause of hypertrophy in the future.

An accurate diagnosis can be made only after the entire complex of diagnostic measures. Only then can treatment be started. Diagnosis is as follows:

    Medical examination. Without it, no examination can be started.

As a rule, it is a thorough medical examination that can suggest that a person develops hypertrophy. Typically, a cardiologist with experience and diagnosis of such patients can easily hear pathological murmurs in the region of the heart with a simple listening.

  • Cardiography. Hypertrophy of the right ventricle on an ECG is noticeable by numerous specific changes. However, on the ECG, the doctor sees only a rhythm disturbance, but not an increase in the size of the ventricle. Accordingly, the latter can cause numerous malfunctions in the heart rhythm.
  • A thorough analysis of the anamnesis, the collection of complaints may suggest the development of this hypertrophy.
  • Echo cardiography is an ultrasound examination of the heart.

    This type of diagnosis helps a specialist determine the thickness of the ventricular wall and other myocardial parameters. In addition, echocardiography is able to accurately determine the pressure in the ventricle, which, in turn, makes it possible to diagnose the disease.

  • Examination of the heart using a cardiovisor.
  • Determination of unfavorable hereditary disposition to the disease.

    Those who smoke, regularly consume alcoholic beverages, do not monitor the intensity of physical activity, it is necessary to periodically check with a doctor.

    With HPV, pathological changes are recorded not only in the myocardium. Over time, they are characterized by the spread to the pulmonary arteries and blood vessels, which causes the development of other ailments:

    • aortic sclerosis;
    • hypertension of the pulmonary circulation;
    • Eisenmenger syndrome (excess pressure in the pulmonary artery over the aortic).

    Hypertrophy in newborns

    Most often, this syndrome occurs in newborns as a result of problems with the development and functionality of the heart. This condition develops in the first days of life, when the load on this organ is especially great (especially on its right half.

    Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart also develops with a defect in the septum that divides the ventricles. In this case, the blood mixes, it becomes insufficiently saturated with oxygen. The heart, trying to restore normal blood flow, increases the load on the right ventricle.

    Hypertrophy is also possible due to tetralogy of Fallot, narrowing of the pulmonary valve. If any symptoms are found that indicate a malfunctioning heart, you should immediately show the child to a specialist.

    How to treat hypertrophy

    To reduce the degree of heart muscle hypertrophy, the identification and treatment of the underlying disease that led to this disorder is required. If heart defects are detected, reconstructive operations on the valves and their replacement with artificial ones are recommended.

    If obstructive pulmonary diseases are the cause of pathological changes in the myocardium, then such groups of drugs are treated:

    • bronchodilators (Salbutamol, Serevent);
    • mucolytics (Lazolvan, Acetylcysteine);
    • corticosteroids (prednisone, dexamethasone, beclofort).

    In heart failure, correction of the lack of oxygen and potassium is first performed, and then cardiac glycosides are prescribed. To remove excess fluid, it is better to use potassium-sparing diuretics. Drugs from the group of prostaglandins (Alprostan, Vazaprostan), endothelin receptor antagonists (Bozenex, Traklir) have a powerful vasodilating and protective effect on myocardial cells.

    To strengthen the heart muscle, patients are shown funds containing potassium and magnesium salts (Panangin, Magnicum, Caliposis), metabolic stimulants (Mexidol, Mildronate), oxygen therapy and hyperbaric oxygenation.

    Symptoms of HPV

    In the acquired form, this syndrome is characterized by the absence of specific symptoms by which it is possible to determine just right ventricular hypertrophy.

    Signs of right ventricular hypertrophy are similar to the manifestations of many other ailments and at the initial stage of the development of pathology practically do not manifest themselves, starting to really disturb the patient only with a significant increase in the size and weight of the right ventricular myocardium. These signs include:

    • prolonged pain in the right sternum of a sharp, stitching character;
    • dyspnea;
    • dizziness, accompanied by a loss of orientation in space and fainting (in some cases);
    • violation of the rhythm of the heart;
    • swelling of the lower extremities, which becomes more pronounced by the end of the day.

    The main clinical signs of HPV include an increase in the frequency of heart contractions (tachycardia) and a sharp decrease in blood pressure. The clinical picture of right ventricular hypertrophy may also be accompanied by a “pulmonary heart”, the cause of which is pulmonary embolism.

    Dysfunction

    Under certain conditions, the left ventricle ceases to fulfill its functions. Depending on the type of violation, 2 types of dysfunction are distinguished:

    Systolic dysfunction is characterized by the fact that the heart muscle (myocardium) is not actively reduced, and the volume of blood ejected into the aorta decreases. The causes of this condition are observed in the following cases:

    • myocardial infarction (in almost half of patients systolic dysfunction is fixed);
    • expansion of the heart cavities (the reasons lie in infections and hormonal disorders);
    • myocarditis (the reasons are viral or bacterial infection);
    • hypertension;
    • heart disease.

    Systolic dysfunction disappears without severe symptoms. The main sign is a decrease in the supply of nutrients to internal organs, as a result of:

    • the skin turns pale, sometimes acquires a bluish tint;
    • the patient gets tired of a minor load;
    • changes occur in the emotional sphere and mental processes (memory is impaired, insomnia appears);
    • kidneys that cannot fully fulfill their function suffer.

    The changes that the left ventricle undergoes become a cause of deterioration, as the metabolism slows down and nutrition worsens.

    Another disease is diastolic dysfunction. This is the opposite change in value for the body, when the ventricle is not able to relax and completely fill with blood.

    There are 3 types of disease:

    • with impaired relaxation;
    • pseudo-normal;
    • restrictive.

    If the first two can proceed without symptoms, then the latter is characterized by a vivid picture. Causes of diastolic dysfunction:

    • ischemia;
    • cardiosclerosis after a heart attack;
    • thickening of the walls of the stomach, as a result of which their mass increases;
    • pericarditis – inflammation of the “heart” bag;
    • myocardial disease, when the muscles become denser, which affects their contraction and relaxation.

    Symptoms of diastolic dysfunction can be different:

    • dyspnea;
    • cough, which is frequent at night;
    • arrhythmia;
    • fatigue.

    The principle of electrocardiography

    As for the features of electrocardiography in diseases of the cardiovascular system, there are a lot of them. First you need to focus on the fact that such an examination is carried out in the most comfortable position for the patient.

    It’s important to know! During the examination, the patient should be in a relaxed state and breathe calmly, evenly, as the result of electrocardiography depends on this. To determine the ECG signs of right ventricular hypertrophy, 12 leads are used, 6 pieces are connected to the chest, and the remaining 6 pieces are connected to the patient’s limbs.

    Sometimes the technique of conducting electrocardiography at home is used, in this case only 6 branches are used. When conducting such a diagnosis, it is important to understand that several factors influence its outcome:

    1. The condition of the patient.
    2. The correct breathing of the patient.
    3. The number of leads used.
    4. Correct connection of each branch.

    Even if one electrode is not connected correctly, the electrocardiogram information may be false or incomplete. When conducting such an examination, the main emphasis is on the heart rhythm, the features of the T and ST teeth, the intervals of cardiac conduction, the electrical axis of the heart and the characteristics of the QRS.

    Treatment

    • Conservative;
    • Surgical
    • Palliative

    Since the pathology is secondary, the choice of how to treat right ventricular hypertrophy of the heart depends on the underlying disease. Timely therapy allows you to stop the progression of hypertrophy in time and improve the quality of life of patients.

    With pulmonary diseases, they perform:

    • Inhalation of bronchodilators (adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, aminophylline);
    • Reception of mucolytics, cough suppressants;
    • According to indications, antihistamines are used.

    In case of heart disease:

    • Blood pressure correction;
    • Reception of antiarrhythmic and diuretics;
    • Cardiac treatment (ACE inhibitors, nitroglycerin, calcium channel inhibitors).

    Surgical treatment is performed with the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy – at the last stages of pulmonary diseases and with decompensation of defects. Valve prosthetics, balloon valvuloplasty, commissurotomy, lung transplantation are possible: it all depends on the underlying disease.

    Palliative therapy is aimed at supporting the life of patients with end-stage hypertrophy, when the underlying disease cannot be cured. It includes the use of diuretics, cardiotonics, oxygen inhalation and proper patient care.

    The patient is required to categorically refuse the use of alcohol and energy drinks, as well as smoking. In addition to the main complex of therapy, physiotherapy exercises or swimming classes can be added.

    This pathology indicates more serious deviations in the work of the cardiopulmonary system, and if it is ignored and not treated, then the consequences can be very sad.

    If the disease is congenital, then timely therapy or surgery can stop the development of defects and stabilize the work of the heart.

    In order to prevent the disease, it is necessary to lead a healthy and healthy lifestyle, avoid hypothermia, temper the body, and not ignore acute respiratory viral infections that can lead to pneumonia and the development of hypertrophy. In other words, you need to be more attentive to your own health and timely contact a specialist for expert help.

    The specifics of the task for surgery is to remove dried vessels and the installation of artificial heart valves instead of damaged ones.

    Medical treatment of the heart is not particularly difficult. Its task is to eliminate the symptoms of pathology by prescribing drugs and pharmacological groups that provide therapeutic intervention. These include: blood pressure stabilizers, diuretics (diuretics), adrenergic blockers, cardiac glycosides and anticoagulants.

    To maintain and stability of the effect, some of the above funds will have to be consumed throughout life. For a full recovery, suffering from hypertrophy, provides for a complete rejection of the abuse of alcohol and tobacco products, as well as adherence to the prescribed diet and diet.

    Patients with hypertrophy are advised to regularly visit medical facilities for a preventive examination of the cardiovascular system.

    First of all, this applies to patients with congenital pathology, athletes who are engaged in cardiac training, people who have had bronchial diseases, as well as those who have recently undergone a full course of rehabilitation.

    Treatment of ventricular hypertrophy of the heart implies primarily the elimination of the causes of this pathology. For example, if hypertrophy of the left heart ventricle develops against the background of arterial hypertension, hypotensive drugs are prescribed for the patient to normalize the pressure, and diuretics are used to remove excess fluid and prevent edema.

    If hypertrophy of the stomach of the heart occurs due to diseases of the respiratory system, bronchodilator drugs and anti-inflammatory drugs are used, depending on the initial disease.

    In the case when there are expressed (congenital or acquired) heart valve defects, the treatment is likely to be surgical, up to replacing the diseased valve with a prosthesis. In especially difficult situations, the only possible solution is organ transplantation.

    For whatever reason hypertrophy of the ventricles of the heart develops, any treatment involves the fight against myocardial damage – the appointment of cardiac glycosides and drugs to stimulate metabolic processes in the heart muscle. If necessary, antiarrhythmic treatment is prescribed.

    Sometimes, in addition to the basic methods, the patient is prescribed to follow a special diet that limits the intake of salt and liquid. If there is excessive body weight (obesity), it should be normalized.

    In any case, the approach to heart treatment should be purely individual, should take into account all the manifestations of malfunctions in the heart, as well as the presence or absence of concomitant diseases in the patient and his general state of health.

    Timely diagnosed hypertrophy can be completely cured, therefore, with the slightest suspicion of cardiac abnormalities, you should immediately consult a specialist. The doctor will conduct all necessary studies and prescribe the appropriate treatment, which will give the patient all chances for a long life.

    The choice of methods for treating right ventricular hypertrophy depends on the reasons that caused the development of this condition.

    The goal of treatment is to normalize pulmonary function, treat heart defects and eliminate narrowing of the pulmonary valve. The composition of drug therapy also includes drugs that slow down the development of hypertrophy.

    Much attention is paid to symptomatic treatment, the task of which is additional nutrition and maintenance of the heart muscle, normalization of blood pressure and heart rate.

    If the cause of right ventricular hypertrophy is a heart defect, then the patient is shown surgical treatment (most often in childhood).

    Patients with right ventricular hypertrophy must follow a special diet, adhere to the correct daily regimen, and stop smoking and alcohol. Especially effective in this condition are aerobics, swimming, physiotherapy exercises, running.

    Thus, right ventricular hypertrophy is a rather rare, nevertheless, occurring condition, especially in people prone to bad habits, obesity, and athletes involved in power sports. Therefore, it is especially important for these categories of people to monitor their heart condition in order to prevent the development of right ventricular hypertrophy and, as a result, serious heart diseases.

    This is a rather complex anomaly, which is accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. Therefore, it is so important to consult a qualified doctor in a timely manner.

    If hypertrophy occurs in the right ventricle of the heart, you need to know what it is dangerous, what are its symptoms and how to treat the disease.

    The classification of pathology is based on the characteristics of the clinical course of the disease. Cardiologists distinguish several types of hypertrophy:

    1. Pronounced – in this situation, the mass of the right ventricle greatly exceeds this parameter for an element starting a large circle of blood circulation.
    2. Classical – characterized by an increase in the size of the right ventricle, however, its mass is inferior to a similar parameter on the left side. Excitation in this zone has a longer duration.
    3. Moderate – accompanied by a slight external increase in the right ventricle, but its weight is less when compared with the left.

    Given the time the symptoms of pathology appear, hypertrophy can be congenital or acquired. The first form of anomaly is detected in newborn babies. It can also be diagnosed during pregnancy. Various diseases lead to the acquired form of right ventricular hypertrophy.

    Causes

    Hypertrophy of the myocardium of the right ventricle is the result of a number of factors. They are cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic. The main reasons include the following:

    1. Emphysema. This term refers to the pathological expansion of the alveoli and the nearby respiratory tract.
    2. Mitral stenosis. In such a situation, the opening narrows, which prevents the removal of blood from the atrium.
    3. Fibrosis. With its development, we are talking about compaction of the lungs. As a result, the body undergoes inflammatory changes.
    4. Violation of the structure of the interventricular septum. The anomaly provokes the mixing of atrial and ventricular blood. As a result, organs are supplied with blood containing little oxygen. This provokes the occurrence of a compensatory mechanism and an increase in the ventricle.
    5. Valve stenosis in the lungs. An anomaly provokes problems with the penetration of blood into the artery.
    6. Pneumosclerosis With its development, connective tissues appear instead of lung tissue.
    7. Pulmonary hypertension. It is accompanied by an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery, which provokes ventricular hyperfunction.
    8. Tetrad Fallot. Pathology is a congenital heart defect, which is accompanied by the release of blood from the right ventricular region.
    9. Bronchial asthma.
    10. Bronchitis.
    11. Pneumonia.

    With the growth of the baby, the load on the heart increases. With problems with blood circulation, there is a risk of an increase in the mass of the right ventricle.

    With prolonged presence of hypertrophy, secondary damage to the vessels of the lungs is observed. They become more rigid and lose their elasticity. This provokes an aggravation of the symptoms of the disease.

    Hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart in a child occurs under the influence of the following factors:

    • anomaly in the structure of the heart septum (DMS);
    • problems with the removal of blood from the right ventricle;
    • stenosis in the lungs;
    • excessive load on the heart during fetal development.

    Symptoms of the disease may not appear immediately, but only after a while. Therefore, for any symptoms of impaired myocardial structure, an ultrasound examination after birth should be done. In children, this anomaly is much more common.

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  • Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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