How can I determine the blood type of a child by the blood type of parents Examples

Calculator “Blood type and Rh factor of the child”

Information about your own blood group is extremely important for the treatment, transfusion, diagnosis of various diseases. Therefore, this analysis is done immediately after its birth, along with neonatal screening. Studies to determine blood counts are conducted in clinical laboratories.

The procedure is as follows:

  1. In the laboratory, 3 serum samples are prepared containing antibodies of each group – A, B and AB;
  2. The blood taken for analysis is added to each serum sample;
  3. Antigens react with serum antibodies, which allows you to determine the blood group.

In order to determine the affiliation of blood, specialists monitor the reaction of the material with antibodies in serum. This reaction is called agglutination and means the process of gluing red blood cells and their sedimentation in the environment of certain antibodies.

Different behavior of red blood cells in serum is interpreted as follows:

  • If no reaction is seen in any of the three sera, group I is before the laboratory assistant;
  • If gluing and erythrocyte sedimentation is noted in sera containing antibodies A and AB, blood group II is determined;
  • If agglutination occurs in sera with B and AB antibodies, this is III;
  • If the reaction of red blood cells is noted in all three sera, the blood belongs to group IV.

Positive Rhesus is abbreviated as DD or Dd. If there is no such protein, then the rhesus also becomes negative, and is denoted as dd.

If one of the parents has a positive Rhesus in the family, the baby will almost certainly get the same. When in the family both parents are carriers of the Rh negative, then the baby will also be negative. And in the case of “mixed” rhesus from the parents, it is completely impossible to predict his child.

For such forecasts, accurate tables or counting systems cannot be compiled. It happens that a child with a negative Rhesus appears in a family of parents with positive Rhesus disease – this may be transmission of it through a generation.

The most unstable case is considered when the future mother has a negative Rhesus, and the father has a positive Rhesus.

If the baby inherits the paternal rhesus, the mother’s body will perceive the fetus as a foreign body and will begin to try to tear it away. Such situations are called Rhesus conflict. But modern medicine can control these processes and, if necessary, introduce immunoglobulin into the mother’s body. To detect a pregnant conflict, you must regularly donate blood.

Having studied the information about possible problems with a particular blood group and rhesus, you can pre-protect yourself and the future baby from congenital diseases.

After the baby is born, it is extremely important to immediately do an analysis to determine the group – the newborn will not even feel the blood draw, and the results can be ready in just a few minutes. In addition, it is important for parents to be aware of their blood type. This information is often needed in critical situations when there is no time for additional analyzes.

Previously, information about the blood group was put in the passport – this excludes the possibility of forgetting it, and information about it is available even if the person is unconscious, but with documents.

Given that some forecasts are not at all systematized, you should not look for reasons why two children in the same family will become carriers of different blood groups and rhesus. As it turned out, rhesus indicators can “shoot” through generations, which certainly cannot be foreseen in advance.

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It was discovered in 1940 by the same scientist – Landsteiner in association with the American biologist A. Wiener. Examining erythrocyte Rhesus erythrocytes, we found that another antigen, D, was present in them. Its presence was designated Rh. In further experiments, it turned out that some people (approximately 15%) do not have this antigen. Such a sign was denoted by Rh-.

Rhesus is transmitted from parents to children, the dominant is positive Rh. It remains unchanged throughout life, does not affect health. Determined in a laboratory way.

The presence or absence of Rhesus is transmitted by the law of dominance. With a positive Rh in the parents, the child will necessarily inherit it. If both parents have no D-antigen, then the baby will have a negative Rh.

A person receives a trait from each of the parents, but even with a positive Rh, he can be a carrier of a recessive negative gene. Existing combinations can be written with a combination of letters:

  • DD and Dd are positive;
  • dd is negative.

In a father and mother who have positive Rhesus, but are carriers of hereditary Rh-, the unborn child can inherit a negative Rhesus with a probability of 25%.

A woman with blood with indicators A (II) and Rh-, and a man with B (III) and Rh should have a baby. How to find out the blood type of a child and its rhesus?

In table No. 1, the column at the intersection of the corresponding columns indicates that the child is likely to inherit any group.

Table No. 2 contains information that the probability of having a baby with a positive or negative Rhesus factor is estimated to be equal to 50 to 50 percent.

In this particular case, it is impossible to calculate any of these characteristics in the unborn child.

The following example. A man with A (II) and a woman with O (I) decided to have a baby. Rhesus positive in both. What blood type and Rh does the unborn child inherit from their parents?

According to the tables, we determine that the possible options are O (I) or A (II). Rhesus can be negative with a probability of 25%. Dad and mom can be carriers of the Rh- gene, it will prove itself in transmitting signs to the heir. When two recessive genes are combined, they turn into dominant ones.

This is possible if there were Rh-negative ancestors along both parent lines. The carrier was inherited without any manifestation.

It is convenient to calculate the expected blood type of the child, as well as the possible Rh factor, using the online calculator available on our website.

A pregnant woman has a baby whose D-antigen may not coincide with her own. When talking about Rh conflict, they mean negative Rh in the mother and positive in the fetus. In other cases, no pregnancy complications associated with this indicator occur.

Rhesus conflict is most likely in the second and subsequent pregnancies of a woman, if her partner is Rh-positive. In 75 cases out of 100, the child inherits the rhesus of the father.

A complication of the Rh conflict may be hemolytic disease of the fetus, miscarriage at a later date, intrauterine hypoxia.

To avoid dangerous consequences, a pregnant woman is put on a special account. The content of immunoglobulin M and G in her blood is regularly monitored. Monitoring measures are carried out – ultrasound, cordocentesis, amniocentesis. This allows you to take action in time if the child begins to threaten something.

Panic ahead of time is not worth it. Rh-conflict occurs no more often than in 10% of cases during the first pregnancy. To avoid it during repeated pregnancies, a woman receives a special drug – anti-Rhesus immunoglobulin – within three days after birth.

Even if the drug has not been administered, vaccination can be carried out at the next pregnancy. It will significantly reduce the risk of Rh-conflict between the mother and the unborn baby.

There are still some factors of parental blood incompatibility that need to be clarified before conceiving a baby. If they are serious enough, and the spouses really want children, you need to prepare for his birth in advance.

After fertilization of the egg with a sperm, conception occurs – the formation of a new organism with maternal and paternal traits. Each of the parents gives offspring 23 chromosomes, where all hereditary characters are encoded. They can be dominant, i.e., overwhelming, and recessive, not prevailing. The genotype of the child cannot be determined in advance. Genetics can give an answer, with some probability, which eyes, nose or lips the child will inherit.

The blood type of a child is determined according to the laws of genetic inheritance. You can get to know her parents in advance using tables and calculators. But absolute certainty exists only in those cases when the only option is possible.

Today, the determination of this factor can occur in the following ways (of course, knowing all the data of the parents):

  • using the ABO system;
  • taking into account the Rhesus factor.

To get information about a possible blood type in a child, knowing both from the parents, you just need to remember the course from school biology (this is the moment when genetics passed). There is nothing complicated: each of us always receives a pair of genes from both parents (one from mom and the second from dad).

The developing (having all sharp signs) gene will be dominant, and the second, which is not realized in the body, is recessive (weak). At the same time, the fact is not excluded that when a child combines both a dominant with a recessive, two dominant, and there may also be both recessive.

To understand this process, a simple analogy with eye color is given:

  1. If one of the parents has brown eyes and the other has bright eyes, then the dark-eyed father (or mother) will be the dominant link. The child will inherit both of these genes, but his eyes will be just brown.
  2. A recessive gene is also able to appear, but only when it is paired with a similar one. Provided that each of the parents has bright eyes, the child will also have bright eyes in the same case.

Another point that must be remembered when solving all the genetic problems of the dominant is denoted by capital letters, and suppressed (recessive) signs by small letters. The same example with eyes will help us understand this:

  1. The brown eyes of one of the parents indicate that his genotype is usually written in letters AA or Aa.
  2. Light is definitely a “weak” factor, and the record in this case can only be in one variant aa.
Order CareGeneral characteristics of the study, indications for and interpretation of the results.(495) 748-93-69 from 10 to 20 (495) 507-54-59s 10 to 20 Elderly / Home doctor: (495) 799-20-63 from 10 to 20/ Home / Medical Tests / Test Prices

Analysis for anti-Rhesus antibodies (without titer).

The analysis for anti-erythrocyte antibodies is the detection of antibodies to an unusual protein that is located on red blood cells – the Rh factor. These antibodies cause hemolytic disease in newborns.

Rh factor (Rh) is a red blood cell protein that is inherited. People in whom this protein is present in the body (85% of the population) are called Rh-positive, and those who do not have it are called Rh-negative.

Blood type of the child

Everyone knows that anyone inherits genes from their parents. A similar situation occurs in the case of this analysis. To determine it, it is enough to know the blood type of the father and mother. In this case, going through all the possible combinations, you can find out the child’s membership in the group as a percentage.

As mentioned above, there are conventions for each group. Using them, you can get the necessary information. Of course, not all cases guarantee determination with 100% accuracy. But it is worth listing the possible combinations.

If both parents belong to the first group (00), the second (AA) or the third (BB), then with a probability of 100% the child will be the same. In cases where one parent has I (00) and the other has II (AA) or III (BB), then II (A0) or III (B0) is issued, respectively. The fourth group can be in a child, whose one parent is with the second group (AA), and the other with the third (BB).

With the Rh factor, the situation is much simpler. If it is negative for both parents, then the baby will have a similar one. In other cases, it is impossible to predict the result.

To do this manipulation at home, you need only a small test strip and a drop of blood. In just a few minutes, the finished result will be on hand.

Such an innovation will avoid waiting for the analysis and the result in the hospital. Often time plays an important role in this matter.

Danish specialists are also keeping up with the innovations. The express cards developed by them under the trade name Eldoncard can significantly reduce the processing of this analysis. Moreover, they can be used in emergency situations in hospitals, educational institutions and at home.

It is based on improved types of “dry” monoclocative reagents. With their help, it is possible to determine AB0 antigens and Rhesus affiliation together and separately.

For the analysis does not require specially trained personnel, laboratories and equipment. You will need only water or physical. solution.

The order of the study:

  1. Add a drop of water to each reagent circle.
  2. Take blood and apply it on a special stick.
  3. Put on the card and wait 1,5-2 minutes.

The rapid test has a wide range of storage temperatures. He passed numerous tests in various rooms, in emergency situations, has certification in Russia.

As a result, if you are just interested to know your blood type and the process of the study itself, then be sure to use the instructions given in the article. Otherwise, you should contact a medical institution to get an accurate result. In any case, whatever the reasons, to make a kind of analysis at home on your own is quite real!

In addition to these, the most common ABO and Rh factor systems, there are less common antigenic systems: Kell, Kidd, Duffy and others, which are secondary antigenic blood systems.

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To determine the blood group and Rh factor, venous blood sampling is performed. Special training during the analysis is not required.

What problems can arise when planning a pregnancy, can it be assumed what blood type and Rh factor will be in the child by the blood of the parents?

When planning a child, problems may arise both in the ABO system and in the Rh factor system. Particular attention should be paid to women with the first blood group, since antibodies α and β are in the blood plasma which can interact with antigens on the surface of the red blood cells of the fetus. This situation may develop if the fetus has a second or third blood group. Usually, a conflict in the ABO system develops during the first pregnancy and does not pose a threat to the fetus and health of the woman.

During pregnancy, the doctor can prescribe a blood test for group antibodies and monitor them throughout pregnancy.

More serious is the situation in the case of the development of the Rhesus conflict. If a Rh-negative woman is pregnant and the fetus has a positive Rh factor, there is a likelihood of developing a Rhesus conflict. Moreover, during the first pregnancy, it can be expressed minimally, and with subsequent pregnancies, its severity increases.

This is due to the formation of anti-D antibodies (class G immunoglobulins) in the mother’s blood in response to ingestion of Rh positive fetal red blood cells both during gestation and during childbirth. The entry of fetal antigen-positive red blood cells to the mother is also facilitated by abortions, miscarriages and an ectopic pregnancy.

Inheritance of blood groups is carried out equally from both parents, according to Mendel’s law. If both parents have the first blood group, the child will also have the first group. For parents with the first and second groups, children can have both the first and second groups, a similar situation with the first and third groups.

The main goal is the prevention of possible diseases associated with the carriage of certain blood groups. But, it is worth noting that from the point of view of evidence-based medicine, this theory has not been tested.

According to this theory, patients with the first group, the oldest, should eat more meat (red varieties), fish and seafood, offal (heart, kidneys, liver). From vegetables, potatoes, cabbage, greens, and legumes.

People with the second blood group should eat more fresh fruits, fish, seafood, poultry (turkey, chicken), should limit meat, dairy products, flour. Of the drinks, preference is given to green tea, coffee, water. It is worth including sports (swimming, cycling for example) in your daily life.

Carriers of the third blood group are recommended to eat meat, dairy products, offal, eggs, vegetables (except for tomatoes, radishes, radishes, olives) and fruits. Preferred physical activity: running.

The owners of the fourth, youngest group, should increase the content of fresh vegetables in the diet, it is allowed to eat meat, seafood, fish, sour-milk products. Physical activity should not be very stressful.

The determination of blood groups has found great importance and distribution in modern medicine. It is difficult to imagine a medical institution where transfusion of blood or its components is not performed. I would like to note that each person should know their blood type and blood rhesus, it is better if this information is entered in an identity document. Be healthy.

Doctor therapist Chuguntseva E.A.

By its nature, the Rh factor is a protein that is found mainly in red blood cells, to a lesser extent – in white blood cells, platelets and other tissue cells. The Rh factor, getting into the blood of a Rh-negative person, causes its immunization, which is manifested by the production of anti-Rhesus antibodies. Thus, transfusion of a Rh-positive blood to a Rh-negative patient stimulates the formation of antibodies in 50% of cases.

Immunization with a Rh-negative woman can result from intravenous administration of Rh-positive blood, previous spontaneous or induced abortions, ectopic pregnancy, but most often pregnancy and childbirth by a Rh-positive fetus, especially during surgical interventions: manual separation of the placenta or cesarean section.

Rh factor incompatibility during blood transfusion even in small doses can cause antibody production in the recipient. With repeated transfusions without taking into account the Rhesus factor, the recipient develops intravascular hemolysis of donor erythrocytes.

A feature of rhesus reactions is their slow development and late manifestation (1-2 hours after transfusion). Both reactions and more severe formidable complications are expressed by the same clinical picture as with blood transfusion, which is incompatible in the group (see Blood transfusion), and require the same therapeutic measures.

In severe cases, it is necessary to immediately find out the causes of the complication and, when establishing the opposite Rhesus affiliation, perform transfusion of Rh-negative blood (bloodletting in a volume of 600-800 ml and the introduction of a slightly larger amount of blood). Otherwise, the same measures as for complications from a blood transfusion that are incompatible in the group.

Prevention can be fully ensured only with the use of the same Rh factor blood. Before each transfusion, it is necessary to test for compatibility with the Rh factor of the patient’s serum and donor erythrocytes according to the usual method (see Blood transfusion), but at a temperature of 45 °. The presence of agglutination indicates incompatibility.

Its absence absolutely does not affect human health, but if the child and mother have different Rh factors, problems arise. Most often, this situation occurs: a woman in labor with a negative Rh factor (Rh-) carries a child with a positive Rh factor (Rh). The woman’s immune system, in this case, produces antigens against the Rh-positive factor of the child.

To reduce the likelihood of maternal Rh-antibodies occurring on Rh’s baby’s blood, sometimes, 30 weeks before giving birth, she is given injections of anti-D-gamma globulin. In some cases, additional injections are required if it is suspected that the mother’s blood was mixed with the blood of the fetus (for example, with abdominal injuries). Injection cleans the baby’s blood from possible antigens and prevents the mother’s immune system from responding to them.

Dependence of blood group inheritance can be traced. Do both parents have I (0)? Their children are 75 percent likely to inherit the same. The heir to the parents with the second group in 0 percent of cases will receive a similar one. But a quarter of babies have a chance to be born with I (). With III (B) in both parents, three quarters of the babies are born with the same group, a quarter – with the first.

If mom and dad are carriers of both types of protein IV (AB), things get more complicated. Only half of the children born to such parents inherit the composition of their blood. The rest have an equal chance to get II (A) or III (B).

You can identify the pattern of genetic transmission and with different blood groups in parents. If the mother has the first group, and the father has the second or the third (or vice versa), then the baby will inherit one of them. The combination of mom’s I (0) and daddy’s IV (AB) as a result always gives as II (A) or III (B) in the newborn. They cannot have a fourth or first group. It happens similarly if dad has I (0) and mom has IV (AB).

When a baby is born to parents with II (A) and IV (AB), it has a 50 percent chance of getting blood of the second group. But also the child may have III (B) or IV (AB). And if one of the parents is a carrier of II (A), and the second is III (B), it is unrealistic to calculate the blood group of their descendant. There may be any option. Interestingly, a person with a fourth blood group, whoever he marries, will never have an heir with the first.

The Rhesus factor is also genetically determined: – A couple with positive Rhesus can have crumbs with or without antigen. – If parents have this indicator with a minus sign, the baby will also have a similar one. – With different Rhesus factors, the baby will inherit one of the parents.

When planning a large family, a young couple should take into account the inheritance of both the blood group and the Rh factor. In cases of doubt in paternity or the need for a blood transfusion, only a theoretical calculation cannot be taken into account. Laboratory testing is needed. Parents and children take tests, the blood type is calculated as accurately as possible.

  • According to the laws of Mendel, parents with blood type I will have children who do not have A- and B-type antigens.
  • Spouses with I and II have children with corresponding blood groups. The same situation is characteristic for groups I and III.
  • People with group IV can have children with any blood type, except for I, regardless of what type of antigens are present in their partner.
  • The most unpredictable is the child’s inheritance of a blood group in the union of owners with groups II and III. Their children can have any of the four blood types with the same probability.
  • An exception to the rule is the so-called “Bombay phenomenon.” In some people, A and B antigens are present in the phenotype, but do not appear phenotypically. True, this is extremely rare and mainly among Hindus, for which it got its name.
Mother, fatherBlood type of the child: possible options (in%)
III (100%)
I III (50%)II (50%)
I IIII (50%)III (50%)
I IVII (50%)III (50%)
II III (25%)II (75%)
II IIII (25%)II (25%)III (25%)IV (25%)
II IVII (50%)III (25%)IV (25%)
III IIII (25%)III (75%)
III IVII (25%)III (50%)IV (25%)
IV IVII (25%)III (25%)IV (50%)
Mother, fatherBlood type of the child: possible options (in%)
III (100%
I III (50%)II (50%)
I IIII (50%)III (50%)
I IVII (50%)III (50%)
II III (25%)II (75%)
II IIII (25%)II (25%)III (25%)IV (25%)
II IVII (50%)III (25%)IV (25%)
III IIII (25%)III (75%)
III IVI (25%)III (50%)IV (25%)
IV IVII (25%)III (25%)IV (50%)
firstsecondthirdfourth
firstI – 100%I – 25%
II – 75%
I – 25%
III – 75%
II – 50%
III – 50%
secondI – 25%
II – 75%
I – 6%
II – 94%
I – 6%
II – 19%
III – 19%
IV – 56%
II – 50%
III – 37%
IV – 13%
thirdI – 25%
III – 75%
I – 6%
II – 19%
III – 19%
IV – 56%
I – 6%
III – 94%
II – 37%
III – 50%
IV – 13%
fourthII – 50%
III – 50%
II – 50%
III – 37%
IV – 13%
II – 37%
III – 50%
IV – 13%
II – 25%
III – 25%
IV – 50%
  • positive – protein is present;
  • negative – no protein.
  • when a man and woman have the first group with a recessive property (0), then the baby will certainly inherit it;
  • the second group is formed in children upon receipt of antigen A;
  • for the appearance of the third group, the dominant species of gene B is required;
  • in order for a child to be born with the last group, one parent must transfer gene A, the second – B.
Mother fatherIIIIIIIV
IІI, ІІI, IIIII, III
III, III, III, II, III, IVII, III, IV
IIII, IIII, II, III, IVI, IIIII, III, IV
ІVІІ, IIIII, III, IVII, III, IVII, III, IV
  • if both parents have a “-” rhesus, the child will have the same;
  • in the case when one is the carrier of the positive, and the other is negative, six out of eight children will inherit the positive Rh;
  • according to statistics, for parents with a “” Rh factor, 15 out of 16 children are born with the same Rhesus factor and only one with a negative one.

A table for determining the blood type of a child from parents

  • I (0) – blood group is characterized by the absence of antigens A and B;
  • II (A) – is established in the presence of antigen A;
  • III (AB) – is established in the presence of antigens B;
  • IV (AB) – is established in the presence of antigens A and B.

Based on this classification, a number of genetic patterns were revealed during the inheritance of a blood group. Parents with I blood group will have children who do not have A- and B-type antigens. Spouses with groups I and II have children with corresponding blood groups. The same situation is characteristic for groups I and III. People with group IV can have children with any blood type, except for I, regardless of what type of antigens are present in their partner.

The most unpredictable is the child’s inheritance of a blood group, if the parents have blood groups II and III. Their children can have any of the four groups with the same probability. All possible options for determining the blood type of a child are shown in the table.

There are studies that make it possible to predict the future gender of the child, as well as its nature. Modern ultrasound examination can provide more reliable information about the child’s gender, but the characteristic signs of morals in blood groups, oddly enough, are.

  • The most “ancient” blood type is the first. Therefore, its carriers, as a rule, possess leadership qualities, are committed to eating large quantities of meat.
  • Those who have group 2, on the contrary, do not like meat and often switch to a vegetarian diet.
  • The “owners” of the third blood group are more open, sociable, easily in contact with people.
  • The least common type of blood group is 4, and people with such an indicator are more often vulnerable in nature and hypersensitivity.
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These facts are not proven by scientific research and are rather conclusions from observations.

The easiest option to find out where the blood type is written is to look at the information in the passport. Most people in it have a seal indicating the appropriate blood type and Rh factor. If there is no such data in the passport, then you should see the medical record.

In the extract from the card group characteristics must be indicated. Depending on them, you can determine the blood group. If 00 is indicated, then you have group I; 0A, AA – II; 0B, BB – III and AB – IV. The Rh factor is even easier to find out, at the top should be “” or “-“.

Indications for determining the blood group and Rh factor are quite wide. This study is performed: during surgical interventions (planned and emergency), during routine pregnancy management, in childbirth, if necessary, transfusion of blood components, freshly frozen plasma, and hemolytic disease of the newborn.

Rh factor (Rh) is a red blood cell protein that is inherited. People in whom this protein is present in the body (85% of the population) are called Rh-positive, and those who do not have it are called Rh-negative.

Analysis is prescribed in several cases. Firstly, if a pregnant woman with Rh- needs to undergo immunoglobulin treatment. Secondly, if the mother had miscarriages, artificial births, abortions, an ectopic pregnancy, and abdominal injuries, which increases the chances of fetal red blood cells getting into the blood system of the pregnant woman.

Venous blood is taken for analysis. No smoking is allowed 30 minutes before. If the result is positive, then antibodies are detected and a Rhesus conflict may occur. With a negative result, antibodies were not detected, so the likelihood of a Rhesus conflict is very small. Anti-Rhesus antibody testing is a proven method for detecting antigens to prevent and treat Rh conflict.

Blood groups of parents and children: table and Rh factor. Character traits of a person depending on blood type

Considering the diet by blood group in detail, I would like to talk in more detail about these same blood groups: when they arose, which of them is the most common blood group, where to find out the blood group and what personality traits representatives of different groups have.

Blood group – a sign of the separation of representatives of the same species according to the characteristics of the blood based on differences in the structure of proteins. The first 3 blood types in humans were identified in 1900 by an Austrian physician C. Landsteiner. Soon after, a fourth group was discovered. The Czech scientist J. gave the digital designation to blood groups.

Jansky in 1907, he finally formalized the doctrine of the main groups of human blood. In 1928, the League of Nations Hygiene Commission approved the blood group letter designation (AB0), which has since been used worldwide. Belonging to a specific blood group is determined by antigens A and B contained in red blood cells, and antibodies a and b, which can be found in blood plasma.

Rhesus blood is an antigen (protein), discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and A. Weiner. It is located on the surface of red blood cells, red blood cells. Most of the inhabitants of the planet are Rhesus and are Rh-positive. The rest are Rh-negative. For our blood type diet, the Rh factor does not matter.

A rhesus blood test is very common. It must be done in every hospital before surgery to avoid problems that may occur during blood transfusion. The same analysis is required when registering women for pregnancy. And also for all men when registering for military service. If this is not your case, then you can find out the blood group in the nearest clinic. Contact your local doctor. Blood is taken from a vein for analysis.

The most common blood type is 1 (0). It is believed that at the dawn of mankind, all people had one blood group – the first. This is the blood of ancient people who lived in communities and earned their livelihood by hunting and gathering. Modern medicine believes that since then the blood composition of the first group has not changed significantly.

People with blood type 1 are responsible, decisive, assertive, and practical. They are objective in making difficult decisions and evaluating events, law-abiding. They are very logical and have a tendency to strategic thinking. Confident, strong and often occupy a leading position in society. The physique most often has a strong, more stocky, with pronounced muscles. Often indifferent to other people’s opinions and desires, demonstrate a love of physical activity, are prone to competition.

Blood type 2 was allocated later, with the development of agriculture and the change in the social system from the primitive communal to the tribal. Associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

Most often, people with blood type 2 have the following characteristics: attention to the needs of others, the ability to listen carefully. These people really know how to negotiate and collaborate. They are impressionable and resourceful, sensitive and prone to perfectionism. Appreciate privacy. Their thinking is very intense and focused on details. The physique of such people is often thin, with little muscle, tall.

Probably, the allocation of the third blood group is associated with the mass domestication of animals and the nomadic way of life.

People with blood type 3 are creative, original, with a light character. Cheerfulness and free-thinking are their distinctive qualities. They are prone to subjective judgments and very easily adapt to environmental changes. They are natural organizers.

Blood type 4 (AB)

It is believed that blood type 4 stood out as an independent category of the latter, during the time of the great migration of peoples. Some scientists suggest that it appeared as a result of the synthesis of the second and third blood groups.

Most often, people with blood type 4 are intuitive, emotional, temperamental and independent. Very friendly. They are able to build trusting relationships with others, are able to empathize and empathize. Build often have a dense, with a predominance of adipose tissue.

To summarize, we can assume that the roots of certain character traits are in our genetic memory. Numerous anthropological studies repeatedly confirm one indisputable fact. Throughout human history, behavioral characteristics and certain personality traits are directly related to the probability of survival.

Attractiveness, strength, aggressiveness and the ability to cooperate provided the possibility of human existence as a biological species. However, these traits and types of behavior are not innate, but are brought up, and become more sophisticated depending on changes in the cultural environment and habitat.

Personal patterns of behavior have a direct relationship with biochemical parameters characteristic of people with a particular blood group.

How to determine the rhesus factor in your child blood type inheritance table

Some experts put forward several theories about the influence of blood types on the taste preferences of people.

According to studies, they assigned certain classes of products to each group. Thus, finding out what you love the most, you can predict your data.

Representatives of group I include lovers of meat products. For II – a love of vegetables and various types of cereals is characteristic. People who prefer dairy products belong to III. Representatives of group IV do not have obvious taste preferences.

Blood Type and Psychology

It is believed that blood type affects the nature and abilities of a person. Using this theory, you can compare your character.

A person with clearly expressed leadership qualities, a strong character, self-confident, is a representative of the first group. The second includes people who are calm, quiet and peaceful. The third – characterizes bright, eccentric and sociable personalities. The character traits of the representatives of the fourth are much more difficult to single out; they are too versatile.

Innovative methods for determining the blood group and Rh factor at home

In official science, people today are divided into 4 types, depending on the presence or absence of certain erythrocyte antigens (agglutinogens) – A, B or 0.

If agglutinogens A are detected, this is group II, B – III, A and B – IV. If antigens are not detected (0) – I group. Group properties can be determined only during a special study in the laboratory.

Another protein (Rhesus) present on the surface of red blood cells subdivides all the owners of each group into Rh-positive (having Rh protein) and Rh-negative (without it). The second option is ¼ people. This factor does not affect well-being and health. But its presence or absence matters during pregnancy.

What blood type does the child inherit: maternal or paternal? In fact, the offspring inherits both group and Rhesus affiliation from their parents: takes from each of them one sign for their DNA.

Hence, in general, the group affiliation of any person is as follows:

  • 00 – the first group (the first zero is inherited from mom, the second from dad);
  • AA (A0) – the second (one gene A from each parent, or A from the first, for example, from the mother, and 0 – from the second (father);
  • BB (B0) – the third;
  • AB is the fourth.

All of them may or may not have Rh protein.

Blood consists of the liquid part – plasma and formed elements (red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells), on the surface of red blood cells there are antigens, a kind of outgrowths, the presence of which is responsible for the division into blood groups.

Currently, it is customary to use the ABO system to determine the blood group. According to this system, the groups are divided into I (O), II- (A), III- (B) and IV (AB), which means that carriers of the I blood group do not have specific antigens on the surface of the red blood cell, and α is determined in the blood plasma and β antibodies, carriers of group II have an A-antigen on the surface of red blood cells, and β antibodies are detected in plasma, carriers of group III have a B antigen on the surface of red blood cells, and α antibodies in plasma, and carriers of group IV have A and In antigens, plasma antibodies are not detected.

Boy or .

For many centuries in a row, the woman was blamed for the lack of an heir in the family. To achieve the goal – the birth of a boy – women resorted to diets and calculated favorable days for conception. But let’s look at the problem from the point of view of science. Human sex cells (eggs and sperm cells) have half the chromosome set (i.e. there are 23 of them). 22 of them are the same for men and women. Only the last pair is different. In women, these are XX chromosomes, and in men, XY.

So the probability of giving birth to a child of one sex or another depends entirely on the chromosome set of the sperm, who managed to fertilize the egg. Simply put, for the gender of the child is fully responsible . dad!

Immunological conflict on the Rhesus factor and the ABO system.

  • A positive Rhesus factor is denoted by DD or Dd and is a dominant sign, and a negative one is dd, recessive. With the union of people with heterozygous Rhesus (Dd), their children will have a positive Rhesus in 75% of cases and negative in the remaining 25%.

Parents: Dd x Dd. Children: DD, Dd, dd. Heterozygosity arises as a result of the birth of a Rhesus-conflict child in a Rhesus-negative mother or can persist in the genes for many generations.

According to the Rh factor, the entire population of the globe is divided into its owners (Rh-positive) and those who do not have this factor (Rh-negative). Lack of a rhesus does not affect health in any way. However, a woman has a threat of a Rhesus conflict with her child, especially during repeated pregnancies, if this factor is absent in her blood, but in the baby’s blood.

  1. Blood transfusion. It is strictly forbidden to mix blood with different rhesus. This can trigger the destruction of blood cells (hemolysis), which often leads to death.
  2. Pregnancy and preparation for it. The expectant mother needs to make sure that there is no Rhesus conflict. It occurs if a woman has a Rhesus “-”, and a father has a “”. Then, when the baby inherits paternal rhesus, the body of the future mother is able to reject the fetus. Under such conditions, the possibility of bearing and giving birth to a full-fledged child is minimal.

In this case, the pregnant woman will have to be checked regularly to determine the amount of antibodies and their titer. Depending on the results obtained, a full examination of the fetus may be carried out. When a Rhesus conflict occurs, a hemolytic disease occurs in the child, which leads to premature birth, anemia, dropsy, or even death.

Modern medicine offers the only way to save a child with a Rh conflict – intrauterine blood transfusion under the supervision of ultrasound and experienced doctors. This significantly reduces the likelihood of premature birth and the development of a hemolytic disease in the child. To reduce the likelihood of this problem occurring, pregnant women are prescribed a certain course of therapy throughout the term, including taking vitamins, minerals, antihistamines and metabolic drugs. Delivery at a possible Rhesus conflict is recommended to be performed ahead of schedule by Caesarean section.

It is relevant to know the following:

  1. If there are no such proteins in red blood cells, then this is the first group.
  2. In the second, A-agglutinogens will be present.
  3. The third contains b-proteins.
  4. Both components will occur in the fourth.

Let’s try to present a calculation on the example of each of the parents:

  1. Let mom have a second blood type. In this case, its genotype can be represented by two variants IAIA or IAI0.
  2. If the father has the fourth group, then his set is IAIV.
  3. According to the calculations, the child may have fifty percent inheritance of the variants of both groups of the father and mother (that is, the second and fourth).

According to the law of genetics, which were formulated by Mendel, the child himself may have one of the following options:

  1. If the mother and father have the first blood group, then the child will also have the same symptom.
  2. In the case when both parents have blood type II, the child has the first, so the second.
  3. The third blood group indicates that the baby can be born, both without specific proteins in red blood cells, and with B-antigens (that is, I or III groups).
  4. If such parental options as I II or I III are present, then we can assume that the children will be born with one of them.
  5. But there are also their own “denials”: ​​if one of the parents has a fourth blood group, then they cannot have a baby with the first. And vice versa.
  6. But moms and dads with the second and third group may well have children with any of the above symptoms.

The calculation is simple: if dad has QC, then the future baby will already have a positive Rhesus factor in a hundred percent case. This joyful moment is, as a rule, not very “pleasant” for a future mother who has kk.

The fact is that this can result in a conflict of antibodies of a baby that has not yet been born. For this reason, a pregnant woman with a similar state of affairs has a constant sampling of blood tests, this helps to monitor the situation and take appropriate measures in time.

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It turns out the following picture:

  1. If the parents have both signs (both the dominant and the recessive allele), then there is still a fourth fraction of the possibility that the baby will have a negative Rh. This will happen if two recessive genes “meet”.
  2. If at least one of the parents has a Rhesus antigen, there is a fifty percent chance that the child will be born with or without him.
  3. But if both parents have a negative Rh factor, then the result of the birth of the crumbs will be the same.

The blood group is determined by the presence or absence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells, it cannot change during life, since the formation of the antigenic composition of red blood cells begins long before the birth of a person.

The presence of antigen A on the surface of the erythrocyte in the fetus with a gestational age of 40 days was detected, however, the full maturation of the antigenic system occurs within a few months after birth.

Is it possible to calculate what type of blood the child will have?

How to determine the type of blood of children

  1. If both parents have type I (0), then the child will have exactly that type. Another option is not worth the wait.
  2. For mom I (0), for pope II (A) or vice versa, then the heir will distribute blood according to type I or II.
  3. Papa I (0), mom III (B), the baby will have either III or I.
  4. In father I (0), in mother IV (AB), the child will inherit III or II.
  5. From the husband and wife II (A), the heir will take II or I.
  6. One III (B), the other II (A) – the descendant will receive any of these types.
  7. Mom II (A), dad IV (AB), the baby will have IV, III or II.
  8. In the event that two parents have III (B), the heirs will have I or III.
  9. If the father (B) III, the mother (B) IV, the children will have IV, III or II.
  10. For holders of IV (AB), children will receive IV, III or II.
Blood type of parentsГенотипBlood type of the child
first00 00first (00)
secondAA AAsecond (AA)
secondAA A0second (AA) or (A0)
secondA0 A0first (00) or second (AA), (A0)
thirdVV VVthird (BB)
thirdBB B0third (B0) or (BB)
thirdB0 B0first (00) or third (B0), (BB)
fourthAB ABsecond (AA), third (BB), fourth (AB).

There are ways to determine the percentage of probability that a blood group will be inherited, given the combination of parental genes. For example, what type will a son have if the future mother is the owner of the second group, and the father owns the fourth?

In a woman, in this case, combinations of A0 and AA can be observed, in a man, only AB. The child will inherit either AB, AA, or AB, AA, 0B, 0A.

If the mother has a combination of AA, then the son will acquire a fourth or second group. If the mother has the A0 genotype, the son will have a second with a greater probability than the third group (50% to 50%), or the fourth.

What group will the baby have if the mother has the first, the father the third? The woman here has only a combination of 00, and the man has two combinations of B0 and BB. The son will receive the following genotypes: 00, 0B, 00, 0B or 0B, 0B, 0B. So, if dad has a combination of BB, the third group will be handed over to his son. If B0 is the third or first (50 to 50%).

This method is used in preparation for pregnancy and during gestation. If you believe the theory, then the probability of the appearance of female or male babies is as follows:

  • mothers with the first type (group) of blood have a high probability of a girl from dad with a third or first type, and a boy with a fourth or second type;
  • if a woman has the second group, a girl will appear from a man with a fourth and second, and a boy from a husband with a third or first;
  • a mother with a third group will give birth to a daughter from a father with a first group;
  • a woman with a fourth will have a daughter from a man with a second. With the rest, sons will be born.

It turned out that if parents have a second (II) and third (III) blood group, then their children can equally inherit any blood group. And vice versa, if father and mother have first (I) and fourth (IV), then children inherit a blood group different from their parents – second (II) or third (III). Also, the first group (I) is excluded if one of the parents has a fourth blood group AB (IV).

Blood type AB (IV) is quite rare in all parts of the world, regardless of national and racial affiliation. It cannot be inherited, but is formed in the fetus under the influence of the genes A and B received from the parents.

In addition to the simple interest, “What blood type will the unborn child have?” There is another good reason to know what type of blood your baby may have. During pregnancy, not only a Rhesus conflict can occur, but in some cases a blood group conflict.

If the mother has the first blood group (I), and the child has any other, she can develop antibodies against him. In this case, it is necessary to check the presence of group antibodies in women with the first blood group, since if they are present, the development of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the blood group is possible. However, a severe form of hemolytic disease of the newborn is rare, only in isolated cases.

The blood of a certain number of people may contain a protein called the Rh factor (Rh). According to the Rh factor, all people can be divided into Rh positive Rh () and Rh negative Rh (-). Inheritance of the Rh factor occurs regardless of the inheritance of the blood group.

If the pregnant woman has Rh (-), and the spouse has Rh (), then the planned child will have a Rh factor in half of the cases (Rh). Rhesus conflict occurs during pregnancy of a woman with negative Rhesus, if the blood in the fetus is Rh-positive.

It is only possible to say exactly which Rh factor the child will inherit: if both parents have a negative Rh status. All children of this pair will have a Rh negative factor. In all other cases, the Rh factor can be any.

When red blood cells of a Rh-positive fetus get into the mother’s blood with a negative Rhesus, they are perceived by her immune system as foreign. The body begins to produce antibodies to destroy the red blood cells of the child. Since the red blood cells of the fetus are continuously destroyed, its liver and spleen try to accelerate the production of new ones, while increasing in size.

In the antenatal clinic, a pregnant woman must be checked for the Rh factor. If it is negative, it is necessary to determine the rhesus affiliation of the father. When there is a risk of Rh conflict (if the father has Rh ()), the woman’s blood is repeatedly examined for the presence of antibodies to the fetal red blood cells and their number.

During the first pregnancy, the future mother’s immune system only “gets to know strangers” (Rh erythrocytes), a little antibody is produced and a conflict may not occur. However, “memory cells” remain in the woman’s body, which in subsequent pregnancies promptly “organize” the fast and powerful production of antibodies against the Rh factor. Consequently, the risk of fetal damage during each subsequent pregnancy increases.

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What it is?

Along with specific functions (red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues, white blood cells protect our body from external and sometimes internal threats, etc.), blood also has specific signs, called the “antigenic system”. Depending on where these antigens are located, they are divided into 4 types:

The combination of antigens of one system in each type was called “blood group for a given antigenic system.”

Since only a few erythrocytic antigenic systems have the greatest clinical significance, then this review will focus on them.

In 1900, two scientists K. Landsteiner (Austria) and Shattock (USA), independently from each other, described the phenomenon of red blood cell gluing of one person by another person’s blood serum. This phenomenon is called isohemagglutination. Based on the analysis of the results of this reaction, Landsteiner identified 3 groups: A, B and C, which corresponded to A (II), B (III) and C (I) groups according to modern nomenclature.

A little later, another group was described – AB (IV). In 1940, the Rh factor was described by the same scientist (named after the rhesus monkey) and the Rh positive and Rh negative groups were identified.

In the antigenic system AB0 (AB zero), better known to us as a blood group, the main antigens are A, B and 0. There are also antibodies in AB0, there are two of them: anti-A (à) and anti-B (ß). It is the interaction of the same antigens and antibodies that causes the effect of adhesion or agglutination. Thus, the distribution of antigens A, B, 0 in red blood cells and natural antibodies anti-A and anti-B in plasma gives 4 variants of the complete serological formula: “0 (I) anti-AB”, “A (II) anti-B” , “B (III) anti-A” and “AB (IV)”. However, in practical medicine they write in abbreviation – without specifying antibodies.

The “Rhesus factor” includes at least 88 antigens, but only 5 are of practical importance, and they are determined when selecting a donor for transfusion of erythrocyte-containing media – D, C, E, s, e. In practice, when they say that positive rhesus or negative, mean exactly D.

Below is what blood type the child will have (table) according to the AB0 system and the Rhesus system.

Indicators A and B are antigens of red blood cells (agglutinogens). If a person does not have them, then his blood belongs to the first group (0). If there is only A – to the second, only B – to the third, and if both A and B – to the fourth. By these signs, you can determine the likelihood of a blood type in a child.

  • provided that two parents have 1 group, the blood of the child will coincide with them;
  • with mom and dad with the same 2 group, children will be with 1 or 2 group;
  • if one of the parents is a carrier of group 1, the child cannot be a carrier of 4;
  • if the father or mother has 3 groups, then the probability of having a child with 3 groups is the same as in the other three groups;
  • if 4, then children should never be carriers of 1 blood group.
Mother, fatherPossible options for the baby’s blood type in percent
III (100%)
I III (50%)II (50%)
I IIII (50%)III (50%)
I IVII (50%)III (50%)
II III (25%)II (75%)
II IIII (25%)II (25%)III (25%)IV (25%)
II IVII (50%)III (25%)IV (25%)
III IIII (25%)III (75%)
III IVI (25%)III (50%)IV (25%)
IV IVII (25%)III (25%)IV (50%)

Many parents also want to know how to calculate the Rh factor of the future baby. Another table will help with this. It is worth saying right away that the table will help you with the question of how to find out the baby’s blood type. But sometimes children can be born with “their blood type.”

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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