Hemorrhagic cystitis in women causes, symptoms and treatment

Hemorrhagic cystitis is one of the forms of acute cystitis. In women, this unpleasant disease is more common than in men. This type has only one difference from other forms of cystitis – the presence of blood in the urine. For people with a chronic form of cystitis, hemorrhagic manifestations are not typical, but may occur against a background of complications. Most often, women suffer from cystitis in the autumn-winter period and early spring. The second wave of morbidity occurs at the peak of the holiday season.

Types of cystitis

According to the form of the course, acute and chronic cystitis can be distinguished. The second type is considered more dangerous. It can be asymptomatic and lead to various complications in the work of other organs: acute pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis. Acute cystitis, in turn, has a negative impact on the menstrual cycle.

According to the secondary bacterial microflora, hemorrhagic cystitis is complicated and uncomplicated. The second type proceeds faster and is easily stopped by antibiotics. Treatment of complicated forms should take place under the strict supervision of a physician in order to avoid the transition of the disease into a chronic form.

Also, cystitis can be primary and secondary. In the primary type, infection with the bacteria that cause the disease occurs. Secondary occurs as an immune response after chemotherapy, antibiotics and a number of other drugs.

According to the level of excretion of blood in urine, cystitis can be with gross hematuria and microhematuria. With profuse blood loss, the question of surgical intervention often arises.

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Main symptoms

The hemorrhagic type of the disease is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • Unpleasant or painful sensations in the bladder.
  • Increased urge to urinate.
  • Discharge of large amounts of urine.
  • Unpleasant smell of urine and appearance of blood and mucus in it.
  • Pain or pain when urinating (if the urethra is affected)
  • A slight increase in temperature is possible.
  • In isolated cases, incontinence is observed.

The increased urge can also torment women at night. This state is called nocturia. It occurs in 25% of cases. The unpleasant sensations in hemorrhagic cystitis can be aggravated by the use of salty, spicy and sour foods, coffee, strong black tea and carbonated drinks.

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The main cause of hemorrhagic cystitis is the entry of e.coli bacteria into the bladder. It is diagnosed in 80% of patients who complain of pain during urination and pain in the suprapubic region. Also, this disease is caused by adenoviruses and influenza with strain A.

Risk factors for occurrence are hypothermia or, conversely, a long stay in the sun, non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, radiation therapy, diseases of the lower intestines and surgical interventions.

Another provoking factor is congestion in the pelvic organs. Such diseases include stenosis, urolithiasis. These conditions lead to urinary retention, incomplete emptying of the bladder and, as a result, to irritation of the urinary mucosa.

Prolonged stressful situations cause depression of the immune system, which can negatively affect the function of the bladder and make it more susceptible to germs and bacteria.

Diagnosis of the disease

To determine the presence of cystitis, you can use a general urine test. A change in color and odor, as well as the presence of red blood cells in it, will help to accurately make the right diagnosis. A too low specific gravity of urine can also indicate the presence of bacteria in the bladder, but this indicator is not sufficient, since it occurs in a number of other diseases. For example, with insipidus and diabetes mellitus, renal failure, adrenal problems.

In severe forms of the disease, cystoscopy may be prescribed. With this procedure, the level of damage to the bladder mucosa is determined and an emergency decision is made. Launched hemorrhagic forms of cystitis can progress to the ulcerative and gangrenous stage.

Methods of treatment

Treatment is a whole range of measures. As the main therapy, as a rule, antibiotics and antimicrobial combined agents are prescribed: “Biseptol”, “Co-trimoxazole”, “Baktekod”, “Sumetrolim”. The most commonly used medicine is Monural. The advantage of this drug is the need for a single dose.

In addition, in the treatment of hemorrhagic form, uroseptic drugs are prescribed, which help to disinfect the walls of the bladder, and drink plenty of fluids. It is better to give preference to pure or slightly mineralized water, herbal teas and kidney fees.

Unlike ordinary cystitis, with a hemorrhagic form, it is undesirable to use fruit drinks from lingonberries and other sour berries, as this will lead to even greater irritation of the wall. Warming up will also have a negative effect.

With a pronounced pain symptom, you can take a tablet of the drug “No-shpa” or any pain reliever that does not contain paracetamol, since it is a strong allergen and can cause increased discomfort in the urine.

After the hemorrhagic form of the disease, as well as after other types, the increased urge may persist for several weeks. There is no specific treatment for this condition. As a rule, in this case, drugs from the group of m-anticholinergics are prescribed. The course of treatment is three months.

Preventive measures

With frequent relapses of the disease, you need to think about prevention. In the case of hemorrhagic cystitis, it is important to remember that self-medication can lead to the development of an interstitial form or the transition of the disease to a chronic form.

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The rules for prevention are very simple:

  • It is necessary to empty the urinary on time.
  • Drink plenty of fluids daily to help flush the urinary tract.
  • Monitor personal hygiene.
  • Avoid hypothermia.
  • Do not take antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription.

    Women who have the disease more often than once every three months are recommended constant observation by a urologist or gynecologist, taking uroseptic drugs in courses and general strengthening of the body.

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    Svetlana Borszavich

    General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
    Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
    The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
    The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.