Heart rhythm disturbances

A physiological change can be observed during activity, physical or brain. For example, during sports, charging, walking, and even with a loud, intense conversation, the pulse increases. During sleep, it slows down. Also, the heart beats faster against the background of a psychoemotional shake: laughter, fear, crying. Although the organ contracts itself spontaneously (in the sinus-atrial node), the brain affects it through the activation of nerve fibers.

The listed reasons have a natural basis. When the body returns to a resting state, the rhythm of the heart is restored. Another thing is persistent arrhythmia, which has become pathological. In this case, violations of the organ and circulatory disorders are recorded. Such arrhythmia must be treated, since it does not pass on its own.

The reasons for the failure are still being studied. The proven culprits of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders are changes in the endocrine and nervous systems. Organic changes in the heart also lead to arrhythmias:

  • developmental abnormalities;
  • structural disturbances.

These causes develop against the background of other heart diseases, congenital or acquired earlier.

Arrhythmia of the heart – what is it: a pathology in which the performance of the heart muscle is disturbed:

  • frequency;
  • rhythm;
  • sequence of cycles of excitation and contraction.

Normally, the heart should contract after equal periods of time. The frequency should not go beyond 60-80 beats per minute. Sometimes the heart speeds up or slows down. Arrhythmia is considered a rhythm that is different from the normal sinus rhythm.

Violation of the rhythm in people 50 years old occurs in 1% of cases. Every year the disease spreads more actively. By 60 years, the incidence rate is 10%.

In men, the risk of pathology is 1,5 times higher compared to women. The disease can be congenital; it worries children and adolescents in 0,6% of cases. Sometimes the disease is associated with pathologies – 8%.

ritm serdca mini - Heart rhythm disturbances

The risk of developing arrhythmias is also at people of middle or pre-retirement age. The causes of this disease are:

  • exhaustion of the body;
  • the person was subjected to heavy loads;
  • the patient has previously had injuries or illnesses;
  • there were violations associated with professional activities.

For such patients, doctors prescribe medications that can help with cardiac pathology. With regular use of drugs, the risk of developing conditions similar to stroke is reduced.

The mechanism of origin of sinus rhythm

What is cardiac arrhythmia? To give a detailed description of such a broad concept is not an easy task. To understand its essence, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of the formation of heart rhythm. It is born in the organ itself. The main source of contractile impulses is the sinus node, which can be found in the right atrium, and more precisely in its apex.

The signals produced at this point pass through the conducting fibers to the atria, and they contract. Further, the excitation wave can only pass through the atrioventricular (AB) node, because the muscle layer of the ventricles and atria is separated by a layer of fibrous cells, and they are not able to conduct electricity.

The nerve signal continues to move through the His bundle, extending from the atrioventricular center, to the Purkinje fibers. The bundle is located in the septum between the ventricles and has a branched structure. One part goes to the right ventricle, the other to the left. The left camera is larger than the right one and is subjected to more stress.

aritmiya serdca simptomy lechenie 3 - Heart rhythm disturbances

The cardiac muscle has the unique feature of automatically producing electrical impulses at regular intervals. Moreover, all nodes of the conductive system can do this. The main one (first-order pacemaker) is the sinus section. It generates signals at a frequency of 60-80 per minute.

The atrioventricular site and the beginning of the His bundle are a second-order source of electricity. Its ability to generate impulses is somewhat reduced and amounts to 35-50 per minute. The automatic center of the third level can give rise to an excitation wave, causing 15-35 beats of the heart per minute.

The contractile signal of the main pacemaker, passing sequentially through all the automatic centers, prevents the generation of electrical impulses in them. If for some reason a malfunction occurs in the conductive system or the first node, one of the two remaining ones takes on its responsibilities.

The pathogenesis of arrhythmias includes a change in the pacemaker. Normally, the pacemaker in the heart is the sinoatrial node, which generates pulses with a frequency of 50-60 pulses per minute. Under the influence of various factors, the main in the heart can be the atrioventricular node, bundle of His, or directly the atrium or ventricle.

The second mechanism of arrhythmias includes two conditions: a normal pacemaker (sinoatrial node), but damaged or additional pathways. As a result of this, the node generates a normal number of pulses, but they cannot pass due to the block that has arisen on their path, or go through additional paths that were formed in utero, but are not able to innervate the heart.

The third mechanism of arrhythmias is that the sinoatrial node either generates impulses with a greater frequency than necessary, or with less. In both the first and second cases, a blockade will be observed, since with more pulses, the atrioventricular connection through which they pass will delay them.

Causes of rhythm disturbance

Arrhythmia of the heart can be congenital and acquired in nature and develop for cardinal, extracardial and mixed reasons.

The following cardinal reasons are identified, under the influence of which the heart rhythm may be disturbed:

  1. congenital and acquired heart defects
  2. endocarditis of infectious origin
  3. cardiomyopathy
  4. rheumatic heart disease
  5. non-rheumatic carditis

Medical practice shows that the development of arrhythmia can occur if the patient has pathologies of the endocrine and nervous system, as well as various somatic disorders. In addition, infectious diseases that occur in acute and chronic form, intoxication of the body and overdose of drugs can provoke rhythm disturbances.

The main factor causing the development of such a heart disease is the appearance of problems with the formation of an impulse and the speed of excitation due to inhibition of the function of the sinus node. Such pathologies develop as a consequence of various dystrophic, inflammatory, sclerotic and necrotic processes that occur in the heart muscle.

Children primarily develop arrhythmia of extracardiac origin, and the leading place in this is perinatal pathologies. This means that heart rhythm disturbance can be a consequence of the complicated course of pregnancy and childbirth, as well as intrauterine malnutrition. In addition, such a pathology of the heart can be diagnosed in premature babies and when the child is infected, which causes pathology of morphogenesis and functional immaturity of the cardiac conduction system.

In children with cardiac arrhythmias, there is often an adverse course of the perinatal period in the pathogenesis. In addition, the development of the disease is observed in patients who have a history of cardiovascular disease, and are also diagnosed with repeated foci of chronic infections and acute diseases.

The appearance of certain signs of arrhythmia is determined by the type of disorder, but in some cases the disease can be completely asymptomatic.

Most often, with a violation of the heart rhythm in a patient, the following clinical manifestations occur:

    Cardiopalmus. A characteristic sign of tachyarrhythmia is cons >aritmiya serdca simptomy lechenie 8 - Heart rhythm disturbances

Heart rhythm disturbance in patients may be accompanied by the development of various symptoms and some diagnostic procedures are necessary to make an accurate diagnosis.

Now that it has become more or less clear with what arrhythmia is, one can go on to why they arise.

The causes of arrhythmias are divided into several main groups:

  • Extracardial causes (not related to heart damage):
  1. prolonged increase in body temperature over 38 degrees;
  2. changes in the thyroid gland – thyrotoxicosis (excessive increase in thyroid hormones in the blood), hypothyroidism (decrease in hormone production);
  3. acute vascular, respiratory, renal or liver failure;
  4. cardiopsychoneurosis ;
  5. poisoning with various substances;
  6. increased intracranial pressure;
  7. an overdose of drugs (cardiac glycosides, beta-adrenergic blockers);
  8. smoking (both active and passive), excessive use of alcohol, coffee;
  9. pathological reflexes that occur in the heart, but caused by diseases of other organs and systems.
  • Intracardial causes (directly “cardiology of arrhythmias” or heart damage):
  1. acute or chronic heart failure;
  2. acute myocardial infarction;
  3. severe leaking angina (acute attack);
  4. inflammatory diseases of the heart muscle – myocarditis;
  5. cardiosclerosis (resulting from atherosclerotic changes or after a heart attack);
  6. systemic diseases of the connective tissue;
  7. direct damage to the pathways during surgery;
  8. rheumatic diseases;
  9. hypoxic damage to the heart muscle;
  10. electrolytic imbalance.
  • Congenital pathology of the pathways, heart muscle, pacemaker.
  • Physiological reasons:
  1. physiological bradycardia in athletes;
  2. strong or prolonged physical activity;
  3. emotional overstrain.

In connection with these features, in men arrhythmias occur somewhat less frequently. Thus, in order to find out the causes of cardiac arrhythmias, a thorough examination of the patient is necessary.

If the impulse occurs in the sinus node and arises frequently, then this provokes sinus tachycardia with a heart muscle contraction rate higher than 90 beats in one minute.

The focus of the pulse can occur in areas that are located below the pulse path.

The impulse originates in the atria, as well as in the atrioventricular node, in the myocardium of the ventricles.

The causes of problems in the sinus node that transmits the rhythm depend on the type of arrhythmia:

    Sinus type tachycardia is a rap >aritmiya serdca simptomy lechenie 9 - Heart rhythm disturbances

Abnormalities in conduction are blocking the path of the heart pulse. A block for an impulse can occur all along its path.

The blockade is divided into types:

  • Sinoatrial form;
  • The development of the block inside the atrium;
  • Blockade atrioverticular;
  • Blocking the legs of the bundle of His;
  • ERW syndrome (Wolf-Parkinson-White pathology);
  • asystole of the left ventricle (cardiac arrest).

Combined views also appear:

  • Parasystole;
  • Atrioventicular type dissociation;
  • Ectopic rhythm with impulse output blocking.

These types of pathology provoke the appearance and work of a double rhythm in the heart. The driver of the ectopic impulse works simultaneously with the driver of the sinus node and therefore there is a disengagement of the rhythm – the atria have their own rhythm, the ventricles have their own.

Heart rhythm disturbance – ICD code 10

The International Classification of Diseases – ICD – is designed to combine statistics and methodology from the medicine of different countries. Each disease is reflected in this classification and has a code designation.

In ICD 10, cardiac arrhythmias are presented in the class “Other heart diseases” (I130-I152). Violation of the heart rhythm according to the type of ventricular extrasystole, for example, has a code of 149.3. Other types of cardiac arrhythmias are likewise indicated.

It should be noted that ICD 10 is useless in the practice of a doctor. For the diagnosis and treatment of diseases (not only arrhythmias), classifications that are more convenient in use are used, and not the ICD code 10. Heart rhythm disorders have different classifications, one of which is given in the article.

Classification

There is a certain classification of arrhythmia, taking into account the type of impulse:

  • Gastric arrhythmia is accompanied by a rapid rhythm in which conducting impulses are transmitted from the ventricular region. This type of disease is detected in people with pathologies of the cardiovascular system and in those who lead an unhealthy lifestyle. Any complaints of worsening do not occur, but rarely can be disturbed by bouts of cardiac tremors or fading. If the patient does not have other heart diseases, treatment of gastric arrhythmia may not be carried out. It is possible to normalize the heart rate while maintaining the right lifestyle and with the help of sedatives.
  • Sinusoidal arrhythmia is considered the most common type of heart disease, in which impulses come from the sinus node. Such arrhythmia is considered as a normal reaction of the body to severe stress and is mainly diagnosed in patients who are prone to nervous disorders. In the event that sinus arrhythmia does not occur against the background of other types of heart diseases, then no special treatment is prescribed.
  • Paroxysmal arrhythmia is characterized by heart palpitations, which can suddenly appear and also disappear. The main reason for the development of this type of disease is the excitation of foci in the atrium or ventricles, from which impulses to the heart muscle emanate. With paroxysmal arrhythmias, symptoms appear such as increased weakness, pain in the heart, lack of air, and blue lips. This type of disease can pose a serious threat to human life, therefore, if signs of the disease appear, immediate hospitalization is necessary.
  • Systolic arrhythmia develops against the background of impulses that arise as a result of abnormal contraction of the ventricles. Heart disease, nervous disorders or malnutrition can become the cause of such a disease. Symptoms can be different and they are determined by those reasons that caused a violation of the heart rhythm.

There are many types of arrhythmias, and the symptoms in each patient can radically differ from each other. It is for this reason that one should not listen to the advice of people who suffer from such a disease, because with each type of arrhythmia, the treatment will be completely opposite.

If a rhythm disturbance occurred in the direction of its fall, bradycardia is recorded. If towards acceleration, tachycardia is diagnosed. However, the classification of arrhythmias is based on a more accurate indication of the place of origin or other features. For example, “sinus tachycardia” means a failure in the sinus node. It is there that the cells that generate the impulse (pacemakers) are located.

There is also a conditional classification of these conditions by type, which divides arrhythmias into those that appear due to a violation of a function. For example, an autowave.

Classification of cardiac arrhythmias is possible depending on the frequency and regularity of its contractions:

  • Bradycardia is a rare rhythm that is characterized by a deviation from normal heart rate (heart rate) to a lower side (below 60).
  • Tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat, their number per minute reaches a value of 100 and above.
  • An anomaly in which there is a violation of the frequency of contractions.

Each of these species has many subspecies. It is necessary to dwell on some of them.

The main varieties of slow rhythm occur when:

  • weakness of the sinus node;
  • artioventricular blockade.

Accelerated reductions are usually divided into:

  • atrial fibrillation;
  • supraventricular tachycardia;
  • ventricular tachyaradia.

Various disorders associated with the lack of regularity of heart beats are combined under the name extrasystole.

It occurs when impulses from the node exit weak (therefore, they are not able to cause contraction), or they are irregularly conducted, encountering an obstacle in their path. In the first case, it is customary to talk about sinusoidal bradycardia with a stable slowdown of the myocardium. In the second – about sinoatrial blockade, when the heart rhythm goes astray, and there is an alternation of periods of deceleration and acceleration of heartbeats.

The respiratory form of sinus arrhythmia implies a faster rate of heartbeats during inhalation and a pulse deficiency at the time of exhalation. Such violations are associated with irregular and uneven formation of contractile impulses. Another reason is the unequal saturation of the heart muscle with blood during respiratory movements.

  • chronic fatigue;
  • frequent dizziness;
  • fainting;
  • causeless, sudden onset of shortness of breath;
  • sharp darkening before the eyes;
  • heart ache;
  • a person feels a heartbeat.

Causes of sinus arrhythmia in a child:

  • myocarditis is an inflammatory infection in the heart muscle;
  • amyloidosis – an abnormality associated with the accumulation of muscle tissue of amyloid, a protein of pathological nature;
  • damage to the heart by autoimmune diseases (lupus erythematosus, rheumatism);
  • side effect of certain medications.
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Weakness of the sinus node in adults provokes:

  • ischemia of the heart muscle, it provokes a failure of blood circulation in this area;
  • scarring of myocardial tissue at the location of the sinoatrial center due to a heart attack.

This type of arrhythmia is associated with dysfunction of the atrioventricular node. The signals entering this department are delayed in it longer than the prescribed time (this is a violation of the first degree). With blockade of the second degree, not all impulses sent by the sinus node reach the ventricles, passing through the AV section.

  • confusion;
  • fainting conditions;
  • angina attack;
  • convulsions;
  • cyanosis of the face;
  • rare pulse (40 beats per minute and below);
  • sudden weakness;
  • dark veil before the eyes.
  • cardiac ischemia;
  • vascular dystonia;
  • heredity;
  • side effects of drugs;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • tumors.

In infants, such violations are found when the intrauterine development took place with abnormalities. Another reason is the transmission of the infection from the pregnant mother to the baby.

Another name for this type of heart rhythm disturbance is atrial fibrillation. In this case, the sinoatrial node is not the main driver of impulses. The source of excitement is randomly contracting individual muscle fibers located in the atria. Such reductions (their number reaches 400-600 per minute) are similar to flicker, so arrhythmia is called atrial fibrillation.

Signs of atrial fibrillation:

  • heartache;
  • recurring difficulty breathing;
  • increased sweating;
  • weakness;
  • pronounced sensations of interruptions in the rhythm;
  • sense of anxiety.
  • age changes;
  • diseases and operations of a cardiological nature; heart defects;
  • chronic diseases of other organs;
  • alcohol abuse.

The origin of this arrhythmia (supraventricular) is due to the presence of additional conductive channels that are pathologically active in relation to electrical impulses. An excitation wave passes from the sinus center through the fibers of the atrium to the AV node. From there, it moves to the ventricles, causing them to contract.

But then the signal immediately goes back through an additional pathway (which is congenital) to the atrial zone, causing them to contract again, and again reaches the ventricles. After that, the whole process is repeated a large number of times. In this case, the heart rate rises to 200 or more per minute.

Typical manifestations of the pathology as a whole are similar to the common signs of other types of arrhythmias, but they also have some features:

  • unpleasant squeezing sensations in the throat;
  • pressing chest pain;
  • frequent urge to urinate;
  • headache;
  • nausea;
  • loss of appetite;
  • quick shallow breathing.

Prerequisites for the development of supraventricular tachycardia:

  • heart defects and diseases;
  • the effect of certain medications taken incorrectly or without a doctor’s prescription;
  • hormonal imbalance;
  • pathologies of the thyroid gland;
  • smoking and alcoholism

Such a rhythm disturbance is a serious pathology, which is often the cause of a sudden death of a person. The ventricles do the job at an accelerated pace, the heart can beat in a subject exceeding 100 contractions per minute. With values ​​of 200 shocks or more, it is customary to ascertain the development of ventricular fibrillation (fibrillation), and this condition requires immediate medical attention.

If for some reason a section of the conducting system is blocked between the sinus node and the ventricles, the latter begin to make contractile movements that are inconsistent with each other.

In another case, damaged myocardial tissues have electrically inert zones. They are not able to conduct pulses that come from the sinus node. So in the ventricles abnormal foci of excitation are formed: the signals “get stuck” in the problem area and move in the opposite direction. These cycles are repeated over and over, causing the ventricles to shrink randomly at high speed.

Ventricular arrhythmia, typical symptoms:

  • severe chest pain;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • severe shortness of breath;
  • heart palpitations;
  • severe dizziness;
  • severe weakness;
  • blood pressure monitor shows a decrease in blood pressure.

In some cases, people do not feel anything at all (with unstable ventricular tachycardia), and heart rhythm disturbances can only be detected on the ecg. However, a persistent form of pathology can occur violently with severe manifestations, sometimes ventricular fibrillation and clinical death associated with cardiac arrest quickly develop.

A complicated stage of cardiac arrhythmia

  • The state of collapse. Collapse is manifested by a sharp decrease in blood pressure lower than 90 mm. Hg. st (systolic). Collapse can occur in the form of an attack, and also be a consequence of the introduced antiarrhythmic drugs. Diagnosed with drug hypotension;
  • Arrhythmogenic form of shock – occurs when there is a decrease in blood pressure in the bloodstream, in the brain. This complicated form is expressed in pallor of the skin, in severe form by loss of consciousness, cyanosis of the skin, Blood pressure not higher than 60 mm. Hg. Art. (systolic). Emergency medical assistance is required, without ambulance a fatal outcome occurs;
  • The ischemic form of stroke is the consequences of arterial thrombosis. With a paroxysmal form of tachycardia, the blood becomes foamy and can clog the arteries of the brain. The manifestation of the pathology: it becomes unsteady in movements, a problem with speech, paralysis of limbs or body parts;
  • Pulmonary Artery Thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism) – This disease occurs due to pulmonary artery thrombosis. The most difficult situation is fatal;
  • Myocardial infarction in the acute stage of the disease is a rather complicated condition in which myocardial hypoxia occurs due to insufficient blood flow to the organ. In the myocardial tissue from hypoxia, a focus of necrosis is formed, which manifests itself as severe pain in the sternum;
  • Ventricular fibrillation (asystole, a state of clinical death) is a complicated form of paroxysmal ventricular tachyarrhythmia, which goes into the fibrillation of the ventricular chambers. The ability of the ventricles to contract leads to impaired blood flow (blood ceases to flow into the bloodstream) and the heart stops.

How does arrhythmia threaten children?

In children, arrhythmias are diagnosed, usually of a congenital nature. These include ventricular tachycardia, for example, Brugada syndrome, of the “pirouette” type. These cardiac arrhythmias in children are considered life-threatening, since they differ in the risk of sudden death. That is why early diagnosis is important if the child has relatives with similar pathologies. Among childhood arrhythmias, tachycardia and extrasystole are most often diagnosed, and less commonly, bradycardia.

In the case of an acute attack of tachycardia in a child (you can read more about tachycardia in children here), the following symptoms are observed:

  • a sharp change in state;
  • heartache;
  • heart palpitations;
  • shortness of breath, darkening in the eyes;
  • the appearance of a coma in the throat;
  • pulse up to 250 beats/min.

The presence of even some of the listed signs should be the reason for an urgent call of ambulance. It is important to remember that a sharp failure in the work of the heart in children can lead to fainting, sudden death during physical exertion (jumping, climbing, running, active play). The same applies to adolescents and adults.

Symptoms of pathology

aritmiya eto 3 - Heart rhythm disturbances

Symptoms of a disturbance in the rhythm of the heart organ can be asymptomatic and detected at a routine instrumental examination.

There is a change in the patient’s behavior:

  • A person often subsides and listens to the work of the heart organ;
  • A sharp change of mood is manifested;
  • Suspiciousness and increased tearfulness;
  • Changes in the psyche are accompanied by a feeling of constant anxiety;
  • State of paranoia and fear of death.

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Symptoms of arrhythmia can be different. They are associated with the frequency, as well as the rhythm of the contractions of the heart, their effect on the hemodynamics of the human body. There are diseases that do not have clinical manifestations. They are diagnosed during a physical examination or electrocardiography.

In a person who suffers from this pathology, the skin of the face is grayish. This is due to the fact that the blood rushes unevenly to the head. The system of vessels and capillaries does not have time to cope with overloads, which causes stagnation of blood. Among the likely consequences is a venous network.

With sinus tachycardia, patients experience an increased heartbeat. In this case, pain in the heart muscle can accompany this condition.

With sinus bradycardia, the heart rate is 55 beats per minute. This may be accompanied by symptoms:

  • pressure reduction;
  • dizziness;
  • feeling of weakness;
  • aching pain in the sternum;
  • difficulties with physical activity.

Extrasystole is characterized by strong heartbeats until the sensation of its complete stop. Among the signs are:

  • feeling of lack of air;
  • persistent sweating;
  • exposure to fears;
  • pallor of the skin.

Sinus arrhythmia is manifested by the fact that the patient’s heart rate decreases when he takes a breath, and increases when he exhales. A similar condition is often observed in adolescents, women who are preparing to become mothers. Well-being is not much worse. The condition does not require long-term treatment.

With atrial fibrillation, the symptoms are:

  • paroxysmal course of pathology with individual indicators of the frequency and duration of each attack;
  • the establishment of a chronic form of pathology after a series of attacks;
  • deterioration can be rare, short-lived, in some cases they progress.

If a person has cardiac arrhythmia, the symptoms with which patients come to the hospital are as follows:

  • heart palpitations;
  • weakness of the body;
  • a feeling of heaviness in the sternum;
  • a feeling of fullness of the chest with fluid;
  • severe pain;
  • persistent dizziness.

For any disturbances in the rhythm of the heartbeat, you should consult a specialist. If you do not attach importance to the signs, this can lead to a sharp violation of the state, sudden death of a person.

Diagnosis and treatment

Some types of arrhythmias do not cause the appearance of characteristic symptoms, so the most reliable diagnostic method is ECG, including daily monitoring. During an ECG, arrhythmia is recorded as a curve that deviates from the standard.

In most cases, the main cause of the development of arrhythmias is chronic heart disease, because the treatment is carried out with the help of those drugs that help slow down the development of the underlying ailment.

Drug therapy includes taking:

  1. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
  2. beta adrenergic blockers
  3. sartans
  4. calcium channel antagonists
  5. statins
  6. diuretics
  7. other cardiovascular drugs

Arrhythmia can be detected on an ECG by accident during a medical examination, when a person does not feel any deviations in his condition. If the patient complains of certain symptoms, it is easier to identify the pathology of the heart in the presence of persistent regular arrhythmia.

Paroxysmal rhythm failure (temporary) is not always possible to detect using a conventional cardiogram. For this, they use Hotler monitoring – this is the process of round-the-clock taking of electrocardiological indications.

But violations may not occur every day. Therefore, to detect them, they try to cause arrhythmias artificially, and thus find out the essence of its origin. This is done using the following methods:

  1. Transesophageal electrical stimulation of the heart muscle.

It consists in the introduction of an electrode into the esophagus. In a certain area, this organ comes into contact with the heart, which makes it possible to detect signs of arrhythmia. To do this, electrical stimulation of the myocardium is performed, and the changes that occur are recorded with special devices.

  1. Mapping or electrophysiological examination of the heart.

On the monitor, the doctor can see an interactive map reflecting the inner surface of the heart with the help of special sensors.

Intracardiac examination involves the introduction of electrodes into the organ, they are able to “count” the electrical signals that pass through the conducting system. The method allows you to artificially cause arrhythmia in order to obtain the most accurate data.

An external study of heart rhythm occurs similar to the removal of a normal cardiogram. Only in this case, not 12, but about 200 external sensors mounted on the chest are used.

Reflects the rhythm of the heart during the execution of certain dosed loads.

On a special rotary table, the position of the body of a person is transferred from horizontal to vertical, then the heart rate is measured.

A special radioactive substance is introduced through a catheter into the heart. The radiation emanating from it is recorded by gamma cameras, the received information is transmitted to the monitor.

Echocardiography allows you to explore the cavity of the heart, their size, valves, the ability of the body to contractile activity.

Diagnosis of arrhythmia includes a comprehensive examination of the patient. One of the simplest and most reliable diagnostic methods is an electrocardiographic study.

Since arrhythmias can be transient, and during the day they can occur and disappear several times, Holter monitoring is necessary for the most accurate determination of arrhythmias. This is the same electrocardiographic study, only registration takes place during the day. In this case, the patient should note in a special notebook on the clock their actions (climbed the stairs, had a fight with a friend, etc.). Holter monitoring is the most accurate type of study.

When decoding an electrocardiogram, doctors can evaluate the heart rate (sinus, atrial, atrioventricular, ventricular), its regularity or irregularity. Then the conductivity is estimated. To do this, the duration of the teeth and the intervals is measured, with their expansion, delayed conductivity is noted.

For diagnosis, an echocardiographic study is also performed to identify structural changes in the heart. If the cause of arrhythmia is unknown, then conduct a comprehensive study of all organs and systems, based on complaints and anamnesis to exclude concomitant diseases.

To recognize the root cause of the violation and to establish a cardiac diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo an instrumental study, diagnosis of pathology:

  • ECG (electrocardiography) – the detection of heart activity, the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle is recorded (heart rate – more in this article);
  • Ultrasound of the heart organ – reveals the size of the heart, determines abnormalities in the organ, fixes the operation of valves and all chambers of the heart organ;
  • The Holter monitoring method is monitoring a sick person for 24 hours. The ECG is recorded both during the day and at the time of sleep of the patient. This technique is carried out only in the walls of the hospital cardiology department of the clinic.
  • Echocardiography – recognizes the thickness of the walls of the heart chambers, the ability to contract the left ventricle, the detection of heart defects, both congenital and acquired, the condition of the heart valves.

Violation of the rhythm can be of various types. When diagnosing a doctor, this is taken into account. Pathology may be characterized by:

  • rhythm reduction (bradycardia) – less than 60 beats/min;
  • increase (tachycardia) – more than 100 beats/min;
  • irregular heart rate.

Violations of the automatism of the functioning of the sinus node include:

  • sinus arrhythmia – problems in the rate of contractions of the heart muscle, the condition happens in young people, while breathing is enhanced;
  • sinus bradycardia – myocardial rhythms slow down;
  • sinus tachycardia – rapid heart rate;
  • atrial asystole – the activity of the sinus node is completely suppressed;
  • flickering arrhythmia – a person feels a flutter in the chest, the heart contracts more strongly: first it accelerates to 150 beats/min, and then to 300 beats/min, while the atria do not completely contract, and the ventricles are irregular;
  • blockade of the heart – the pulse disappears, the FMC decreases, the patient may fall into a fainting state, there is a risk of a convulsive regimen.

Diagnosis is important even in the absence of symptoms, as some pathologies may not be felt. Most often, they indicate that the patient has extracardiac diseases, for example, an increase in thyroid function. The danger is, for example, bradycardia. In 15% of cases, they cause sudden death. Pathology is accompanied by sudden loss of consciousness.

At the initial stage of diagnosis, you need to contact a therapist or cardiologist. The doctor examines the patient’s complaints, evaluates the peripheral pulse, notes the presence or absence of signs characteristic of cardiac arrhythmias.

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The following methods are shown:

  • electrocardiography – the electrodes are fixed on the chest, to the legs and arms, the doctor studies the duration of the heart rate phases, fixes the intervals;
  • echocardiography – a specialist uses a sensor equipped with ultrasound, detects the movement of walls, valves, their sizes;
  • daily ECG – Holter method – the patient is prescribed to wear a portable recorder for hours to monitor heart rate in a state of activity, rest and sleep.

The doctor will determine what the patient has arrhythmia, the treatment will be prescribed in accordance with its type. In addition, it is necessary to establish whether pathology is concomitant with another underlying disease. After that, they give recommendations on therapy.

In some cases, to restore the rhythm, the underlying disease is treated.

Doctors prescribe antiarrhythmic drugs, which according to the characteristics of the action are divided into 4 classes:

  • sodium channel blockers;
  • funds that reduce strength, heart rate;
  • potassium and calcium antagonists.

Patients may be prescribed sedatives, taking into account concomitant symptoms, such as heart pain.

A number of drugs allow you to act on the heart in order to improve cellular conductivity and accelerate metabolic processes.

With complex therapy, the doctor can prescribe not only blockers, but also funds based on trace elements, vitamins. The patient should change the diet, include more food with an increased concentration of potassium, magnesium. For example, you should eat fruits, especially bananas, prepare salads with lots of herbs. As a snack use nuts, dried fruits and sunflower seeds.

Of the products allowed:

Smoked, pickled and canned foods, pickles, fatty meats with sauces and spicy foods should be excluded from food.

The patient should refuse caffeinated drinks. You can replace them with herbal teas and mineral still water.

If the patient does not have congenital myocardial diseases, he is recommended breathing exercises. This method of therapy does not require the use of funds. But practice shows that drug treatment is more effective.

Treatment

It is necessary to treat arrhythmia depending on the type of violation, as well as on the cause of the pathology. Applied drug therapy, surgery, drug-free methods.

It is recommended to take medicines:

  • “Verapamil”, “Diltiazem” (calcium inhibitors);
  • “Novocainamide”, “Lidocaine” (sodium blockers);
  • “Sotogeksal”, “Kordaron” (potassium channel inhibitors);
  • Bisoprolol, Metoprolol (beta-blockers).

Surgery that requires treatment of arrhythmia:

  • radiofrequency ablation with an inserted catheter;
  • implantation of an artificial pacemaker (pacemaker);
  • defibrillator installation.

Dr. S.M. Bubnovsky recommends to squat every day to normalize heart rate. Such an exercise is performed with or without support. The back should be flat. The load increases gradually. Several approaches are made per day. The ideal result is 10 squats 10 times a day. During such exercises, blood circulates better in the vessels, lowering blood pressure. Feet are loaded – heart stress is relieved.

ASD – this abbreviation stands for Dorokhov antiseptic stimulator. The drug is presented in three versions. The second of them is more advanced, the third is used for external use. The tool was developed in the Soviet Union. Now it is considered a method of alternative medicine, sold in veterinary pharmacies, officially used to treat animals.

This medicine is made inexpensive and surprising in its effect from meat and bone meal and bone and meat waste. Adaptogens are the main active ingredients. They are produced by cells before dying. These elements contribute to the survival of damaged tissue in extreme situations. They start the process of maximizing the mobilization of immune structures, helping natural healing of the body on its own.

The drug treats many heart diseases, including. To combat arrhythmia, you need to drink medicine according to a certain scheme. Start taking 10 drops, then increase the dose by 5 drops after 5 days of therapy. Between these courses take a break of 3 days. Gradually, the dose is brought to 25 drops. You need to be treated before the cessation of unpleasant symptoms.

Folk methods

They will help relieve tension, normalize the rhythm of the heart, infusions and decoctions from plants:

Such mixtures are useful for strengthening the cardiovascular system and eliminating arrhythmia:

  1. Dried fruits, lemon, walnuts, honey, taken in equal parts and grated through a meat grinder.
  2. Honey, lemon juice, chopped apricot kernels.

You can cure heart failure due to homemade herbal infusions:

  1. Fennel, valerian root, mint leaf, caraway seeds, pharmacy chamomile. Take everything in equal parts and mix. Brew like this: a tablespoon of herbs is poured 500 g of boiling water, then insist 3 hours. Drink one glass a day.
  2. The tops of the pine mix with vodka (60 g per 300 ml). Let stand in the sun for 10 days. Consume 20 drops 3 times daily before meals.

For the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, antiarrhythmic drugs are most often prescribed. They can reduce the automatism of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, shorten or speed up the heart rhythm (depending on the group of drugs) and worsen conduction in the atrioventricular node, which lengthens the period of excitability of the heart muscle.

Currently, doctors use the classification, which includes 5 main groups of antiarrhythmic drugs, to treat the symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias and the disease as a whole. The classification of drugs is based on what arrhythmias generally are, in accordance with this, the choice of drugs is carried out:

  • Sodium channel blockers: also contain three subgroups of the same means. The main effect of their action is to reduce automatism, slow conduction, lengthen repolarization, and increase the effective refractory period. A subgroup of lidocaine accelerates repolarization.
  • Beta-blockers – reduce automatism and slow down conduction.
  • Potassium channel blockers – from additional effects, they have the property of uniformly lengthening the repolarization and action potential.
  • L-type calcium channel blockers – significantly reduce conductivity in the atrioventricular junction, inhibit cell depolarization.
  • Cardiac glycosides – are rarely used to treat arrhythmias.

All drugs are available in tablet form for the most convenient use. For first aid, parenteral administration (intramuscular or intravenous) of these drugs is possible.

Non-drug therapies are also used to treat arrhythmias. These include:

  1. Electric cardioversion – restoration of a normal rhythm with fibrillation or trembling of the ventricles and atria. The procedure is very painful, so the patient is first sedated, anesthetized or given anesthesia. The patient is connected to an ECG monitor, electrodes are placed on the chest and a kit is prepared for resuscitation. The required charge is selected on the defibrillator, the patient’s skin is treated with an alcohol solution to reduce electrical effects and gauze wipes are applied. After the first discharge, in most cases, the rhythm returns to normal.
  2. Catheter ablation is a non-surgical method of treatment, with surgical functions, the purpose of which is the source of arrhythmia, which must be destroyed. It is used in the presence of tachycardia with high digital values ​​and in the presence of additional congenital pathways in the patient. During ablation, an electrode is passed to the heart to the patient, through which an RF pulse is emitted. It serves as a source of destruction of arrhythmic foci.
  3. Implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator is the only way to prevent the patient from having life-threatening arrhythmias. A defibrillator is implanted in the heart, which is connected to the heart muscle using electrodes. The implantable device is a small box that records the heart rate 24 hours a day and restores it in the presence of irregularities. It is used mainly in patients with frequently occurring fibrillations. The device independently recharges the heart, and it continues to work in a normal rhythm.
  4. Electrical stimulator implantation is used in the treatment of heart block and severe bradycardia. The device consists of a unit that generates pulses and the electrode to which they are sent. An electrical stimulator is placed in the heart muscle under the endocardium. Depending on the degree of blockade, it is possible to conduct one or two electrodes, respectively, in one or two ventricles.

Remember that the state of your health is primarily up to you. With timely diagnosis and a healthy lifestyle, many diseases can be avoided.

carried out depending on their type, cause and pathogenesis of the disease in which they occur. For the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, various methods of therapy are used, both drug and non-drug. With cardiac arrhythmias, treatment is directed to the correction of the underlying disease. For correction

use various antiarrhythmic drugs.

Medication Therapy

Treatment of arrhythmias of rhythm and irregular conductivity varies depending on the type of disease and the etiology that caused arrhythmia. In all cases of pathology, blood thinners are used – the Aspirin medication.

Means that are used to stop pathology and relieve symptoms:

  • Statin drugs – to lower cholesterol in the blood (Ravustatin);
  • To lower the index Blood pressure (with hypertension) – enalapril;
  • Diuretics for relieving puffiness with heart failure – Veroshpiron;
  • Cardiac glycosides – Digoxin drug;
  • The drugs of the nitrate group are Nitroglycerin.

Regardless of the etiology of cardiac arrhythmias, rhythm-restoring drugs (antiarrhythmics) are used that are introduced into the body through the artery:

  • The drug is Panangin;
  • Medication Novokainamid;
  • Means Strofantin.

And also drugs that are able to maintain a rhythm are used.

With extrasystoles of various types – Betalok medication inside the body, through a dropper.

The sinus form of tachycardia is stopped by the drug Anaprilin.

Bradycardia of various root causes and blockages are treated with special therapy, which can cause the heart to contract faster and achieve a regular rhythm.

When medicines do not help

Non-pharmacological methods are resorted to in all severe cases with any kind of arrhythmia. These include surgical operations and less traumatic methods: cryodestruction, radiofrequency elimination of the site – the culprit of arrhythmia (radiofrequency ablation). In case of frequent relapses, the doctor considers the possibility of installing a pacemaker for the patient.

The device is fixed under the skin on the left side of the chest. In its action, he is a pacemaker, as he creates and controls artificial electrical impulses. Battery operated. Modern medicine is developing technologies to achieve the microscopic size of the device and sew it directly into the ventricle of the heart.

First aid

The provision of assistance for the pathology of cardiac arrhythmias depends on the etiology of the disorder, the stage of neglect of the disease, which is the root cause of the rhythm failure.

There are such problems with the rhythm when, in order to normalize it, it is necessary to take medical therapeutic drugs, and in some cases, urgent hospitalization in the intensive care unit of a cardiology clinic is necessary.

Before the arrival of the team of doctors, it is necessary to provide assistance in alleviating the attack:

  • Put the patient in a horizontal position (with a strong pulse, put a pillow under the head, with a low pulse – a pillow under the knees);
  • Open the shirt collar;
  • Open unobstructed access to fresh air (if the attack occurred in the room);
  • Measure Blood Pressure Index (Blood Pressure);
  • Measure heart rate (heart rate);
  • Drink sedatives – tincture of valerian, corvalol;
  • For pain in the heart – take Nitroglycerin;
  • If the patient is not the first time in a state of attack – take those drugs that were prescribed to him – to stop the attack;
  • With signs of pulmonary edema (choking, sputum in the form of foam, bubbling breath) – take a diuretic to remove excess fluid from the body;
  • Apply a vagal test – with a deep breath, press the eyeballs with your palms and hold for 15 seconds;
  • In case of a severe attack with respiratory arrest, perform indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.

Preventive measures

Initial preventive measures should occur long before a pathology such as arrhythmia appears in the heart organ.

Activity will help the better work of the blood circulation system, which will reduce the burden on the heart organ.

Maintain a food culture:

  • Refuse cholesterol-containing foods;
  • Reduce salt intake;
  • Reduce the diet of sweet foods;
  • Refuse caffeinated drinks, from fatty and fried foods;
  • Do not eat in large portions, because this leads to irritation of the vagus nerve node;
  • Enter the menu more fresh vegetables, herbs and fruits.

A preventative measure is to avoid stress. If it is not possible to calm the nervous system, then it is necessary to take sedative drugs. It will help well: yoga classes, aromatherapy, auto-training, as well as psychological counseling.

The danger of cardiac arrhythmias is that pathology can trigger complications:

  • insufficient blood supply to the lungs – cardiac asthma;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • oxygen starvation – up to brain ischemia;
  • problems with hemodynamics – blood flow through the vessels;
  • thrombosis – deterioration of blood flow in the ears of the atria;
  • thromboembolism – at the same time there is a separation of the thrombus, the lumen of the vessels is completely blocked;
  • cardiogenic shock – fatal in 80%;
  • fibrillation, ventricular flutter, which is equivalent to cardiac muscle arrest.

The prognosis of arrhythmia depends on the types of pathology. If the condition is not associated with organic heart muscle disease, there is no threat to human health and life. With a ciliated type of disease, there is a risk of ischemic stroke, severe heart muscle failure.

To avoid heart rhythm disturbances, you need to follow the recommendations at home:

  • do morning exercises;
  • sign up for athletics several times a week;
  • get rid of bad habits;
  • keep weight within the normal range;
  • lead a calm and measured life, observe the regime of work and rest;
  • exclude various stressful and emotional situations;
  • establish a diet, eat natural products.

Preventing the disease is easier than curing it. If you follow simple recommendations, then a person will have a happy old age.

Life forecast

Arrhythmia is a symptom. In many cases, it accompanies one of the heart diseases. Its occurrence can greatly worsen a person’s condition. For each of the violations, you can determine your level of danger.

  1. Low threat.
  • Sinus tachycardia and bradycardia.
  • The appearance of AV blockade (1 degree).
  • Atrial fibrillation (heart is reduced to 110 beats per minute).
  • Single extrasystoles.
  • The development of blockades in the branches of the bundle of His.
  1. Moderately dangerous pathologies.
  1. Life threatening conditions.
  • Complete AV blockade.
  • Ventricular tachycardia is paroxysmal.
  • Ventricular fibrillation or flutter.

The most severe consequence of rhythm interruptions is the sudden cessation of fatal heart activity. Atrial fibrillation is of great danger, especially when it is combined with heart failure, blood clots, cardiosclerosis, defects of the main muscle of the body.

Heart rate failure is an alarming indicator. You can not ignore it, even if the symptom is found only on the cardiogram and does not create tangible discomfort to the person. Such a violation should be observed by a doctor, and the patient must comply with all medical recommendations. Moreover, alternative methods of treatment can only act as additional measures of influence, only with the permission of a specialist.

Violation of the heart rhythm of the organ in the absence of serious organ pathologies and the transition to a complicated form is favorable. In other cases, the prognosis depends on the neglect of the pathology and how the pathology can be cured.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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