Devices are divided into groups depending on the purpose and configuration. In the first case, the device is recommended for wearing:
- after surgery on the heart;
- to prevent vascular pathologies caused by taking medications;
- to relieve an attack of ventricular fibrillation.
Long-acting pacemakers are essential for controlling arrhythmia. They are divided into 3 groups:
- Single chamber equipped with one electrode. It is implanted in the left ventricle. CS is not used for atrial arrhythmias.
- Two chamber containing 2 electrodes. One is placed in the atrium, and the second in the ventricle. An advantage over the single-chamber model is the control of rhythm changes in both the atrial and ventricular regions.
- Three-chamber – modern models of devices. The electrodes are implanted in the left ventricle and in the right parts of the muscular organ. Due to this arrangement of electrodes, optimal conditions are created for synchronization of contractions.
Pacemaker is selected depending on the type of cardiovascular pathology and the patient’s health status. The cardiologist informs the patient about the treatment tactics and about the features of preparation for the operation to implant a pacemaker.
The installation of a pacemaker can be recommended for patients with a slow pulse, especially if such rhythm disturbances are accompanied by the appearance of dizziness, fainting or fainting conditions. Pacemakers can be frequency-adaptive, which allow you to increase heart rate during physical exertion, or without frequency adaptation.
Three-chamber pacemakers, in addition to performing the function of a pacemaker, can be indispensable for the treatment of heart failure, allowing the ventricles to contract simultaneously and increase the force of contractions. Such pacemakers are also called resynchronizers.
And some pacemakers with a cardiovertor function can suppress life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances – ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Defibrillator-like cardiovers are used to prevent sudden cardiac death.
There are implantable cardioverter defibrillators and standard pacemakers. The former set the correct rhythm and eliminate arrhythmia, while the latter affect exclusively the heart rhythm. The use of electric pacemakers is advisable for bradyarrhythmias. If tachyarrhythmia is additionally observed and there is a high probability of ventricular fibrillation, then a model with cardioversion and defibrillation is selected.
An additional separation of models is carried out taking into account the impact area (single-chamber, two-chamber, three-chamber). Therefore, fixation is carried out on one or two ventricles, as well as to one atrium, depending on the model.
The need for an artificial pacemaker is temporary and permanent. Temporary installation of a pacemaker is necessary for the duration of the patient’s stay in the hospital to treat short-term problems:
- bradycardia after heart surgery;
- eliminate overdose of drugs;
- relieving an attack of paroxysmal fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation.
Pacemakers for the treatment of long-term problems with arrhythmias are produced by different companies, have their own differences. In practice, they can be divided into three types.
Obstacles to the outflow of blood when installing electrodes in 2 chambers are not formed
Single chamber – differs in one single electrode. He is placed in the left ventricle, while he can not influence atrial contractions, they occur independently.
- in cases where the rhythm of contractions of the ventricle and atria coincides, blood circulation inside the heart chambers is disturbed;
- not applicable for atrial arrhythmias.
Two-chamber pacemaker – endowed with two electrodes, one of them is located in the ventricle, the second – in the atrial cavity. Compared with single-chamber models, it has advantages because it is able to control, coordinate both atrial and ventricular rhythm changes.
Three-chamber is the most optimal model. It has three electrodes that are individually implanted in the right chambers of the heart (atrium and ventricle) and in the left ventricle. Such an arrangement leads to a maximum approximation to the physiological path of the excitation wave, which is accompanied by the support of the correct rhythm and the necessary conditions for synchronous contraction.
The choice of the desired model is determined by the type of arrhythmia, the patient’s condition. The attending cardiac surgeon can always advise the patient and relatives on the optimal therapeutic effect of the device in a particular situation.
If necessary, consult a doctor of any specialty; you must inform him of the implanted pacemaker. Such studies as ultrasound, x-ray, are considered safe. You can treat your teeth without the negative impact of dental technology.
Procedures that are recommended to be avoided and not used without consulting a doctor:
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
- operations using an electroscalpel;
- crushing stones in the gallbladder and urinary tract;
- physiotherapeutic methods of treatment.
A pacemaker is a small device that generates pulses that travel through the electrodes to the tissues of the heart. Inside the case there is a battery and a microprocessor, the outer “shell” is made of titanium, so there are no allergic reactions to the metal.
In modern pacemakers, the processor itself controls the heart rate. If the heart rate is sufficient, then the device does not send impulses, and in the case of a pause between contractions that stretches over the threshold value, the stimulator gives a signal to the myocardium. This type of work is called “on demand.”
Depending on the number of electrodes that stimulate the heart chambers, CS are:
- Single chamber. when the impulse goes only to one chamber – the ventricle, a significant shortcoming of which can be considered a violation of the physiological sequence of contractions of the heart;
- Two-chamber – the electrode is placed in the atrium and ventricle, providing a physiological contraction of the entire organ;
- Three-chamber – the most advanced device with three electrodes going to the atrium and separately to each ventricle.
The device of a pacemaker is reflected in its price. The most expensive devices, the cost of which reaches several thousand dollars, have many additional settings, provide the physiological sequence of contractions of the organ chambers, are reliable and safe, but the high cost does not allow their widespread use. Another drawback of these devices is the high power consumption, which reduces battery life.
Optimum are considered KS of the middle price category (about 1000 dollars), they are established by the bulk of patients. The undoubted advantage is the price, and the disadvantage is the service life of about 3 years.
Outdated models are cheap, and this is perhaps their only advantage, in other parameters of work they are much inferior to the first two types of devices.
By functionality, they produce:
- Pacemakers – have only the function of setting the heart to the correct rhythm.
- Implantable cardioverter defibrillators – in addition to imposing the correct rhythm on the heart, they can also stop arrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation.
Patients with bradyarrhythmias are given regular pacemakers, and patients with tachyarrhythmias and an increased risk of ventricular fibrillation are given pacemakers with the function of defibrillation and cardioversion.
Depending on the zone of influence, single-chamber, two-chamber and three-chamber EX are distinguished. Pacemakers with one camera are connected to one of the atria or one of the ventricles. Two-chamber – to one atrium and one ventricle. Three-chamber (another name for such a pacemaker is a cardiac resynchronization device) – to one of the atria and both ventricles.
A pacemaker is an electronic device in which electrical impulses are generated using a special circuit. In addition to the circuit, it contains a battery that feeds the device with energy and thin wires-electrodes.
There are various types of cardiac pacemakers:
- single-chamber, which are able to stimulate only any one chamber – the ventricle or atrium;
- two-chamber, which can stimulate two cardiac chambers: both the ventricle and the atrium;
- three-chamber pacemakers are required for patients with heart failure, as well as in the presence of ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia and other types of arrhythmias that are life-threatening to the patient.
- Single-chamber, when the impulse goes to only one chamber – the ventricle, a significant shortcoming of which can be considered a violation of the physiological sequence of contractions of the heart;
- Two-chamber – the electrode is placed in the atrium and ventricle, providing a physiological contraction of the entire organ;
- Three-chamber – the most advanced device with three electrodes going to the atrium and separately to each ventricle.
EX implantation operation
In order to perform an operation to install a stimulator, the following indications are required:
- bradyarrhythmias (weak sinus node, atrioventricular and sinoatrial block);
- tachyarrhythmias (fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, etc.).
The device must be used with the following symptoms:
- intracardiac blockade, the pulse is weakly expressed less than 30 beats per minute, the heartbeat is uneven with pauses of 4 seconds;
- with a deadly threat from disturbances in the work of the ventricles, fainting conditions, persistent tachyarrhythmias, provoking the risk of ventricular failure.
A pacemaker is installed without restrictions, there are no contraindications. The operation is postponed under the following circumstances:
- inflammatory processes in the body;
- chronic or exacerbated course of diseases of the stomach or intestines;
- mental health problems, excluding the interaction between the patient and the doctor.
Before performing the operation, it is necessary to undergo the following examination:
- daily monitoring by Holter;
- stress study of the heart;
- chest x-ray;
- ultrasound cardiac examination;
- coronarography, etc.
The device is installed surgically, introducing initially local anesthesia to anesthetize the area for the incision. The operation lasts no more than an hour, is carried out according to the following scheme of actions:
- administer anesthesia. There is a process of anesthesia, an implanted area in the chest cavity;
- conduct electrodes through the veins;
- manually set parameters are checked through an external device;
- cut the chest cell, forming a place for a stimulator;
- the device is installed;
- electrodes are connected;
- a surgical incision in the chest is sutured.
Inpatient recovery lasts no more than two weeks, at which time pain will occur where the operation was performed.
To eliminate pain, the patient must take acetylsalicylic acid, analgesics. These drugs prevent the risk of blood clots. Antibiotics are prescribed for wound healing.
The first problems occur in 5% of cases. The first couple of days after the intervention there are the following complications:
- wound infection;
After a certain time, the following complications may develop:
- the hand swells in the place where the stimulator is implanted;
- there is a risk of inflammation where the electrodes are localized;
- apparatus displacement;
- rapid fatigue, malaise;
- stimulation by impulses of the muscles of the chest or diaphragm.
Subsequent negative consequences occur only in 6% of cases. A negative effect can be avoided with proper rehabilitation, which implies the rejection of physical exertion, sports, sharp exercises, physical education.
As prescribed by the doctor, you can only engage in therapeutic exercises. The patient needs to listen to recommendations regarding other medical procedures, daily and professional life, sports, household and electronic devices.
Personally, they put it on me for free, I went through the quota. They say that the quota can be reached in the first half of the year, while there are still stimulants. For those who are not lucky, the possibility of a paid operation is provided: the amounts are called different each time – I heard in the hospital a figure of 200 thousand rubles for the device. On the network you can find a lot of information with numbers from 20 – 30 thousand rubles to 500 thousand rubles. Operations have risen in price due to changes in the dollar .
Rhythm disturbance is a symptom of numerous disorders in the circulatory system. Most often, the cause of the condition is myocardial infarction, common cardiosclerosis. In practice, cardiac surgeons are not always able to establish the cause of dangerous attacks.
There are the following indications for installing the device:
- taking drugs to maintain contractile function of the heart muscle in case of circulatory failure:
- regular attacks of ventricular fibrillation on the background of atrial fibrillation;
- violation of the electrical impulse from the atrium to the ventricles, accompanied by loss of consciousness;
- weak sinus node.
The installation operation of the device lasts up to 2-3 hours. The duration of installation of a single-chamber device is 30 minutes, two-chamber – 1,5 hours, three-chamber – up to 2,5 hours.
Intervention occurs in stages:
- The surgical field is being prepared for pain relief. Means are administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly.
- Electrodes are inserted into various parts of the heart. The surgeon performs an incision in the clavicle, and then places the electrode in the desired chamber. To accurately perform manipulations, the surgeon needs to take an X-ray of the surgical field.
- The electrodes are connected to the body of the pacemaker, which is implanted under the pectoral muscle.
- The device is programmed according to the individual needs of the patient. The doctor sets the basic heart rate at rest and during physical exertion. After this, the edges of the wound are sutured.
Modern devices are tiny, so they are invisible on the human body.
The cost of the operation includes the installation of ECS, diagnostic measures, the price of electrical wires. The price of intervention also depends on the type of device.
|Device type||Price (in rubles)|
|Three chamber||От 300000|
Recovery after installing a pacemaker takes at least a month (sick leave). The terms are increased if the installation was performed after a heart attack. In a hospital, recovery will take no more than 10 days. During this period, specialists will monitor the patient’s well-being and general condition, as the following complications are possible:
- Internal bleeding.
- Hematomas and swelling.
- Infection and fever.
- Pain syndrome.
The chance of these complications not exceeding 7%. Additionally, in the hospital, the patient uses acetylsalicylic acid and painkillers. This is necessary to eliminate the pain syndrome and reduce the risk of thrombosis.
The operation to install a pacemaker for a long time is performed without opening the chest. Use local anesthesia. A cut in the subclavian region, the electrodes are inserted through the subclavian vein into the heart chambers, then the device itself is sutured to the pectoral muscle.
Verification of the installation is carried out using x-ray control, a cardiomonitor. In addition, the surgeon needs to make sure that the pacemaker is working and completely captures the atrial impulses in a given mode.
At the end, a few stitches are applied to the skin and the incision site is closed with a sterile cloth
Replacement of a pacemaker is carried out after the end of the service life of the device according to the same principle as the initial installation.
In the rehabilitation period after stimulator implantation, the patient needs to get used to small restrictions in physical activity, movements involving the muscles of the shoulder girdle, and constant “listening” to the heart.
If the skin at the seam site is inflamed, moderate pain, fever are possible. An increase in shortness of breath, the appearance of pain in the chest, and increasing weakness can signal problems in the adjustment of the device.
It is difficult to predict in advance how long a patient will live with the device installed. You need to use the average dates indicated in the instructions.
Heart pathology is extremely common. This is not only angina pectoris, heart attacks, hypertrophy of its departments, but also serious rhythm disturbances, which occur even with minimal structural changes in the organ, are difficult to treat with medication and can lead to death. In such cases, the installation of a pacemaker (pacemaker, CS, EX) is the only way to preserve the health and life of the patient.
Arrhythmias of various kinds lead to impaired blood movement through the chambers of the heart and blood vessels of the body, and bradycardia, blockades, and dysfunction of pacemakers are of particular danger, since the absence of impulses will also cause the absence of contractions of the heart chambers, and it may stop completely.
Arrhythmias can occur spontaneously, without obvious morphological changes in the heart, and the genetic mechanisms of these abnormalities are not excluded. In a number of cases, they accompany another pathology – defects, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, etc.
The need to install a pacemaker arises at a critically low heart rate, when the right amount of electrical impulses does not enter the heart muscle. Indications are determined by a cardiologist after a detailed examination of the patient.
More than 300 thousand devices stimulating myocardium are installed annually in the world. Operations are literally “put on stream” in cardiology centers, the staff of which has extensive experience in carrying out these manipulations. After treatment, patients return to their usual lives, the manifestations of arrhythmia are eliminated, greatly facilitating well-being.
The installation of a pacemaker is considered a relatively safe procedure, therefore there are not so many contraindications to it, and with the apparent simplicity of the device itself and its implantation, it is very effective and, without exaggeration, it saves millions of lives of patients with a cardiological profile.
Patient review of the implantation procedure of a cardiac pacemaker
The operation itself, although classified as “at heart,” is performed under local anesthesia – in my case, it was performed to music! This indicates its complexity and danger to the patient more eloquently than any assurances. By the way, about the latter – according to the reviews of medical personnel over the past 3 to 4 years, there has not been a single serious case of complications. Of course, the operation has some contraindications, but it is better to ask the doctors themselves about them.
The operation itself is as follows:
- the patient is lying on a couch, a crossbeam (bar) is installed above his head, where a towel is hung to hide the cut from the patient’s sight;
- my head turns away in the direction opposite to the section of the incision – I had a chance to look first at the monitor with indications of the heart, and then, apparently, at the x-ray, when the electrodes were fed through the veins to the heart;
- skin, subcutaneous layer of fat and muscle are cut – I practiced in the gym for a long time and one of my favorite exercises was always bench press, so I cut it for a long time, and I also had to inject painkillers 3-4 times;
- a piece of muscle is cut out – to form a bed for the body of the device (the device itself is small, somewhere 4,5 by 3 cm, and a few mm thick, plus or minus), the device is fixed in the bed and electrodes are attached to it;
- testing of the work of stimulants and electrodes is carried out, and if everything is normal, the wound is sutured (stitches are applied).
After this, the patient is taken to the intensive care unit (or to the corridor next to her), ice is put on the implantation site of the device. In this condition, the patient is left for 2 – 2,5 hours, after which the operation of the device is tested again:
- X-rays are taken to determine the position of the body of the EX and electrodes
- an electrocardiogram is taken;
- pressure is measured.
If doctors conclude that everything is fine, then the patient is transported to the general ward. If not, remains in intensive care.
As for my feedback on the sensations that arise during the operation of installing a pacemaker, then:
- it is practically not felt, however, due to the fact that the doctor had to cut several layers of muscles, each time injecting a new dose of pain medication, I still felt minor painful sensations (acute pain and burning);
- how electrodes are dragged through the veins – it is felt, as well as their very presence in the heart (1–2 days remained, not to say that it caused great discomfort).
You may be interested to know my reviews already about life with a pacemaker after surgery (there are links to stories of other people who also have a pacemaker installed).
There are no absolute prohibitions for installing a COP. The operation is performed even for patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction, which is accompanied by serious cardiac abnormalities or atrioventicular block.
If the patient does not have vital indications for installing the device, then the operation may be delayed for a while. The procedure is postponed:
- in acute viral and infectious diseases;
- with exacerbation of chronic pathologies;
- with psychological disorders in the patient that interfere with productive contact.
Contraindications and indications for surgery
Persistent heart rhythm disturbances have many causes. Most often, severe heart attacks, common cardiosclerosis, lead to failures. These changes are especially severe in old age, when the body no longer has the strength to recover and compensate for losses.
No less often, heart surgeons have to deal with dangerous attacks without a clear reason (idiopathic arrhythmias).
The installation of a pacemaker is recommended for:
- confidence in the weakness of the sinus node;
- the presence of arrhythmias such as extrasystole, paroxysmal tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, if frequent attacks of ventricular fibrillation develop;
- complete atrioventricular blockade with attacks of loss of consciousness;
- the need to take drugs against the background of blockade to support myocardial contractile function in cases of heart failure.
The operation is indicated if it is not possible to cope with medical methods. There are no contraindications for this manipulation.
Pathologies in the heart muscle require serious surgical intervention. One of the ways to support its activity is the installation of a pacemaker. Such operations allow people to lead a normal lifestyle, even with impaired heart function.
A device that supports the work of the heart is indispensable in case of arrhythmia, if the heart rate remains at a sufficiently low level. With rare contractions of the heart muscle, the threat of acute heart failure remains. A sharp deterioration in the condition can occur at any time and lead to cardiac arrest.
The absolute indications for the installation of a pacemaker are:
- pulse less than 40 beats per minute during physical activity;
- bradycardia, which manifests itself in the form of dizziness and fainting;
- AV block with severe symptoms;
- sick sinus syndrome;
- transverse heart block.
When confirming the absolute readings, the operation is carried out in an urgent or planned manner.
Relative indications do not require urgent installation of the device. These include the following symptoms:
- AV blockade of the second or third degree, without symptoms;
- loss of consciousness, cardiac arrest.
The operation to install the device is performed for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly.
Useful article on the site: How to call a period during a delay. All ways and means.
Temporary contraindications for installing a cardiac pacemaker for any age
Risk factors that can cause complications
Note! Complications after surgery appear in the presence of purulent inflammation. It occurs a few days after the intervention in patients of any age. In case of repeated intervention, the risk of purulent inflammation increases.
If the body rejects the pacemaker of the heart, then this becomes a serious contraindication at any age.
Indications for the installation of a pacemaker are considered such types of arrhythmias in which the heart rate (HR) is unacceptably low. Rare heart contractions, long intervals between them, “loss” of individual heartbeats, low activity of pacemakers pose a threat of acute heart failure, the most dangerous consequence of which may be the death of the patient.
Indications for surgery can be absolute and relative. The first group includes:
- Severe bradycardia, manifested by a number of signs (fainting, dizziness, syncope);
- Pulse less than 40 heartbeats per minute during physical exertion;
- Periods of cardiac arrest for 3 seconds or more, recorded on an ECG;
- Persistent AV block, starting from the second degree, especially in combination with difficulty in conducting along all three bundles of the conducting system, after a heart attack;
- Any type of bradycardia when heart rate drops below 60 beats per minute.
Sinus node weakness syndrome is one of the absolute indications for implantation of an artificial pacemaker, accompanied by bradycardia and fainting, but with asymptomatic arrhythmia or if it appears when prescribing medications, emergency surgery is not required, it can be delayed for several years, although sooner or later it’s still necessary to carry it out, it’s a matter of time, and the cardiologist informs the patient about it.
In some types of arrhythmias, a pacemaker is installed to prevent sudden death. These include ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. The latter with a combination of tachy and bradycardia does not allow you to adjust the rhythm with medication, therefore, an emergency operation is indicated.
Attacks of loss of consciousness and cerebral ischemia against the background of short-term cardiac arrest or arrhythmia also require prophylactic implantation of a pacemaker, although the risk of sudden death is relatively low.
Complete transverse blockade of the heart, when impulses from the atria to the ventricles are completely disrupted, is accompanied by an extremely high risk of death of the patient, therefore, the installation of a pacemaker is necessary for health reasons and is carried out urgently.
In congenital forms of bradycardia due to genetic mutations, arrhythmia manifests itself already in the embryonic period, and reaches its peak by about 30 years of age, when the pulse drops to 30 or less. This is a critically low level of heart function that requires compulsory surgery, but it is better if it is performed in childhood or adolescence in order to minimize the risks to the life of the child. In some cases, treatment is indicated for infants in the first days and months of life.
If absolute indications for CC implantation are revealed, the operation can be scheduled or urgently, depending on the patient’s condition. If emergency intervention is required, there are no contraindications.
Relative indications for the implantation of a pacemaker make it possible to determine whether the patient really needs such an operation, establish the optimal time for its operation, and conduct a thorough examination. The need for intervention is determined individually.
Relative indications include:
- Atrioventricular (AV) block of the second degree, type 2, when symptoms are absent;
- Asymptomatic AV block of the third degree, in which the pulse is maintained at a load of more than 40 beats per minute;
- Attacks of loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest during three-beam blockade, when it is not possible to establish their cause precisely.
There are practically no contraindications to the operation, if it is justified and appropriate for this type of arrhythmia. KS implantation is not indicated for AV blockade of the first degree and second degree of type 2, which are asymptomatic, as well as for medical impairment of impulse conduction, which can be eliminated conservatively.
The postoperative period usually proceeds favorably, and by the end of the first week the patient goes home. By the 5th day after the intervention, you are allowed to take a shower, and after a week you can start working.
In the first weeks after surgery, it is better not to lift weights of more than five kilograms due to the risk of seam seams, heavy homework should be entrusted to relatives or temporarily postponed. The usual household chores (washing dishes, easy cleaning, cooking) are not prohibited, but at the same time, the first time you return home is to listen to your heart, and if you feel worse, you should consult a cardiologist.
For a month after the operation, walking will be the best type of physical activity, with the rest of the exercises it is better to wait until the doctor allows you to expand activity to an optimal level.
The first follow-up visit to the cardiologist and evaluation of the device is carried out 3 months after implantation, then – six months later. During normal operation of the compressor, control is necessary once or twice a year. If symptoms of trouble suddenly arise, then you should not wait for the next visit to the doctor, but it is better to get to him as soon as possible.
Most patients after surgery return to their usual lives with a minimum of restrictions, can travel, work and even engage in certain sports.
Patients with pacemakers may need certain examinations, therefore MRI is replaced with CT or another type of X-ray diagnostics, ultrasound is safe without direct contact with the device body.
A lot of questions arise in patients at home, because we are surrounded by a variety of household appliances powered by electricity. There are no significant limitations in this regard, but safety precautions must be observed. So, it’s better to turn off the appliance with your hand opposite to the implantation site of the COP, the mobile phone should be kept at a distance of at least 30 cm from the pacemaker.
Hard physical work. in which the displacement of the casing of the CS is possible, it should be excluded, as well as independent displacement of the apparatus under the skin or impacts in this area. It is better to entrust lawn mowers, drills, punchers to specialists, and if there is an urgent need for their use, then the electric wires should be well insulated.
Sports with heart pathology are welcome, but this does not apply to those in which there is a risk of injury or severe overload. Easy running, walking, swimming, restorative gymnastics are possible, it is better to refuse weightlifting, barbell, football and other popular activities.
For many, modern life is unthinkable without computer technology. Patients with a pacemaker can be calm: using both a desktop computer and a laptop is safe for their heart.
Pacemaker installation operations can be performed free of charge or on a paid basis. Free implantations are carried out according to the quota. The patient undergoes the necessary examinations, the cardiologist determines the availability of indications and the approximate duration of the operation, after which you may have to wait his turn. Cost recovery is undertaken by the state.
Complications after installing a pacemaker
The likelihood of complications is not higher than 5%. The following pathologies occur several months after installation:
- Offset pacemaker.
- Swelling of the hands in the area of the pulse generator.
- Discomfort due to penetration of electrical impulses into the chest and diaphragm.
- A significant reduction in stamina during physical exertion.
- Inflammation of the heart muscle.
In the remote time after installing the device, you may experience:
- Swelling of the hand from the side where the pulse generator is located.
- The inflammatory process in the heart at the site of attachment of the electrode.
- Displacement of the device from the bed in which it was installed.
- Fatigue during physical exertion (often develops in the elderly).
- Stimulation by an electric impulse of the diaphragm or muscles of the chest (possible with improper installation of the device, as well as due to its malfunctions).
The risk of developing these complications is 6–7%.
It is worth knowing that complications after installing a pacemaker are found in no more than 3-5% of cases, so you should not be afraid of this operation.
Early postoperative complications:
- violation of the integrity of the pleural cavity (pneumothorax);
- violation of insulation, displacement, fracture of the electrode;
- infection of the area of the surgical wound.
- EX syndrome – shortness of breath, dizziness, decreased blood pressure, episodic loss of consciousness;
- EX-caused tachycardia;
- premature malfunctions in the work of EX.
An operation introducing a pacemaker should be performed by an experienced surgeon under X-ray control, which helps to prevent most of the complications that arise at an early stage. And in the future, the patient should undergo regular examinations and be registered at the dispensary.
In the event of complaints of deterioration in well-being, the patient should immediately consult a doctor.
The pacemaker works up to 7-10 years, it all depends on the battery capacity. At the next inspection, the device will give a sound signal indicating the need for its replacement.
After the battery has reached the end of its life, it will be replaced with a new one. How many live after installing a pacemaker? People with an implanted stimulant live longer than without it. The opinion that the COP can harm a person is erroneous.
A pacemaker has been serving for over 10 years. The warranty on the device lasts no more than 5 years. A complete replacement is required after a low battery or breakdown (recovery takes too long). If, after a breakdown, the electrodes connected to the heart muscle are perfectly preserved, then only the electric pulse generator is replaced. You can replace the device 100% free if during the warranty period it has broken due to manufacturing defects.
The effectiveness of electric pacemakers is very high and makes up 80-100% of cases, depending on the pathology.
The guaranteed service life of pacemakers is from 3 to 5 years, depending on the manufacturer. The service life of the device’s battery is 8–10 years. After the battery is exhausted or the device malfunctions, a pacemaker needs to be replaced.
Often, electrodes drawn to the heart are still in good condition. In such cases, they are not touched, but only the main part of the device, the electric pulse generator, is replaced. If the device fails before the expiration of the warranty period, a free replacement under the warranty is possible, unless the device is broken due to your fault.
Pacemaker is very effective in eliminating bradyarrhythmias. As for tachyarrhythmias, the device copes with attacks of supraventricular tachycardia in almost 100% of cases, and with atrial flutter, flutter or ventricular fibrillation in 80–99% of cases.
Reviews on the cost of installing a pacemaker
The cost of installing EKS in the multidisciplinary clinic CELT is 60-125 thousand rubles.
The cost of a pacemaker is 150-800 thousand rubles (depending on the type of device).
Basically, since the implantation of EX is paid for by the compulsory health insurance fund, the installation of a pacemaker usually has a cost of zero.
But sometimes patients themselves pay for it and additional services (this applies to foreigners and people who do not have compulsory health insurance).
In Russia, the following rates apply:
- pacemaker implantation – from 100 to 650 thousand rubles;
- implantation of electrodes – at least 2000 rubles;
- surgical procedures – from 7 500 rubles;
- staying in the ward costs at least 2 rubles per day.
Most of all, the EX-model and the rates of the selected clinic affect the total cost. For example, in a provincial cardiology center, simple implantation of an obsolete domestic model of EX can cost a minimum of 25 rubles. In large vascular clinics that use modern imported devices and provide additional services, the cost jumps to 000 thousand rubles.
Reviews for Providers – Pacemaker
People living with a cardiac pacemaker got rid of the unpleasant symptoms associated with pathologies of the muscular organ. This is confirmed by patient reviews about the device and statistical data. Installation of the device does not have contraindications for age and state of health, in rare cases it gives complications in the postoperative period.
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