First aid for heart failure

“Mouth to mouth” – the lifeguard pinches the nose
the victim takes a deep breath
firmly pressed to the victim’s mouth
and exhales vigorously. Keeps track of
victim’s chest, which
should rise. Then raises
head and monitors passive exhalation.
If the victim is well defined
pulse, then the interval between breaths should
be 5 seconds, i.e.

“Mouth to nose” – one-handed lifesaver
fixes the victim’s head, another
grabs his chin, pushes
lower jaw slightly forward and tight
closes with the top. Lips clamps big
with your finger. Then it gains air and tight
covers the base of the nose with lips
so as not to pinch the nasal openings and
vigorously blow air. Free
nose, monitor for passive exhalation.

If an hour after the start of the massage and
lung ventilation cardiac activity
does not renew and the pupils remain
wide, revival can be stopped.

Cardiac First Aid Algorithm

The first aid algorithm consists of four stages:

  1. Consciousness test.
  2. Breath test.
  3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
  4. Defibrillator connection.
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Mind test

The first step is to determine whether a person is conscious. To do this, take the victim’s hand and ask simple questions: “Are you all right? Can you hear me? If you hear, squeeze your hand or move your foot. ”

If there is no reaction, lay the patient on his back.

Breath check

First a >- thermal (caused by fire, steam,
metal objects)

– electric (electric shock about
1000. In and above)

– chemical (caused by acids and

1 degree – redness and swelling of the skin

2 degree – water bubbles

3 degree – necrosis of superficial
and deep layers of the skin, bloody blisters

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Grade 4 – carbonization of the skin, damage
muscles, tendons, bones

– with a thermal burn it is impossible to allow,
so that the victim runs away

– do not touch the burned area
skin, lubricate with ointments, fats, sprinkle

– Do not open bubbles, tear off
body clothes, shoes (only cut)

– put on top of the burnt area
sterile dressing

– with a burn of 1 degree, pour over the affected
plot of cold water for at least 10 minutes

– with severe and extensive burns
wrap the victim in a sheet
cover warmly, give 1-2 tablets of analginum,
if there is no vomiting, then give plenty of salt
drink or warm tea.

With a chemical burn – reduce
chemical concentration and
time of exposure.

If acid or alkali gets on the skin
through clothes, wash it off with
clothes and then remove from the victim
clothes. Wash off the skin of the victim with a large
amount of water for 15-20 minutes.

with acid burn – 1 teaspoon
drinking soda in a glass of water

with an alkaline burn – 1 teaspoon
boric acid in a glass of water.

Then dry the affected area and
apply a sterile dressing

Causes of Heart Failure

  • Ventricular fibrillation is a heart rhythm disorder (fast, disorganized, and ineffective ventricular contraction).
  • Ventricular tachycardia is an acceleration of the heart rhythm due to abnormal electrical activity of the heart.
  • The presence of congenital heart defects, heart disease or abnormalities of blood vessels.
  • Heart failure – the inability of the heart to ensure the normal functioning of the body. It begins with shortness of breath, excessive tiredness and swelling of the legs.
  • The consequence of the following factors: diabetes, drug or heart medication abuse, trauma, suffocation, drowning, hypothermia, poisoning, or electric shock.

First a >In case of gas poisoning (carbon monoxide,
natural, gasoline vapors) appears
headache, palpitations,
nausea, vomiting. With severe poisoning
– drowsiness, indifference. In severe
– excited state, expansion
pupils, respiratory failure.

– immediately take the victim to
Fresh air

– lay with your legs up

– give a smell of ammonia

If unconscious
the victim began vomiting, head
turn to the side. If there was a stop
breathing – proceed immediately
artificial respiration. In
all cases of poisoning give a great deal
amount of milk.

Signs of heart failure

  • Before cardiac arrest: dizziness, arrhythmia, shortness of breath, chest pain.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Lack of breathing and pulse.
  • Cold and pale skin.

Typically, signs of acute cardiovascular failure develop suddenly and rapidly, so doctors often do not have time to help a person, 3 out of 10 patients die at the prehospital stage.

But for some people, signs of an approaching catastrophe appear 1-2 weeks before the critical day.

The following symptoms should alert:

  • decreased exercise tolerance, which is expressed in rapid fatigue, the appearance of shortness of breath, a strong heartbeat when performing normal actions;
  • increased and frequent headaches, sometimes accompanied by dizziness and severe weakness;
  • constant feeling of heaviness or periodic aching pains in the region of the heart, extending to the neck and left arm;
  • fainting conditions with physical or nervous loads;
  • the appearance of swelling of soft tissues at the end of the day, which decreases by morning;
  • the formation of irritatingly disturbing emotional background.

The appearance of such symptoms is especially dangerous if a person of middle or old age has suffered a heart attack or has other risk factors for cardiovascular pathology.

Acute heart failure is divided into three forms, depending on the location and extent of the lesion.

With the left ventricular variety, manifestations from the lungs due to stagnation of blood in them come to the fore.

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The following complaints are characteristic:

  • severe weakness;
  • lack of air;
  • difficulty breathing, especially when lying down;
  • dry cough;
  • increased heart rate;
  • chills.

Then the nail phalanges and lips turn blue, the cough becomes wet, and pink foamy sputum appears. The patient dies from pulmonary edema.

The right ventricular form of pathology is less common. In this case, blood stasis develops in a large circle of blood circulation.

The following symptoms are rapidly growing:

  • dyspnea;
  • swelling of veins on the neck;
  • a sharp drop in blood pressure;
  • severe tachycardia, arrhythmia;
  • acrocyanosis;
  • enlargement and soreness of the liver and spleen;
  • pronounced edema of the lower extremities.

With total damage to the heart muscle, the patient’s condition is regarded as critical from the very beginning. It combines all of the above symptoms and usually leads to death.

A mandatory sign of any form of the disease is severe pain in the heart, the appearance of profuse cold sweat and a pronounced fear of death. People often lose consciousness.

First a >Drowning – disruption
organism as a result of filling
airway fluid that
obstructs or stops gas exchange
organism with an air environment. At
affected skin and mucous membranes
become pale from the mouth and nose
foamy sputum is secreted.

If the victim is without
consciousness, but he still has breathing
and the pulse is felt, – lay on your side
head bow let the couple inhale
ammonia and then twitch
for the language.

If the victim is in
unconscious with signs
respiratory and circulatory disorders
need to clear the airways
and stomach from water. Injured
turn on its side and palm or
fist vigorously press on
epigastric region, following
the outflow of water from the mouth and nose. Later
lay on your back and proceed to
mouth-to-mouth breathing and
from mouth to nose.

If the victim does not have a pulse
and dilated pupils – after removal
fluids from the respiratory tract and stomach
together with artificial respiration spend
heart massage. After breeding
death if his body temperature is lower
30-32,5. C, conduct warming.

Infectious diseases and first a >Infectious diseases (from late late.
– infection), infectious diseases, diseases
human, animal birds related
the introduction of pathogens into their bodies
microorganisms in the presence of
macroorganism susceptibility to a given
infections. The main common feature
Infectious Disease – Opportunity
transmission of infection from the infected
organism (carrier of infection) healthy.

Pathogenic microorganism – strong
irritant as a result of action,
which arises a very complex
process. From the very beginning, two
the leading link is the pathogen and
physiological state of the body.
In each case, the ratio
between these links may be different
depending on the period, phase, stage
development of the infectious process.

Infectious disease is accompanied by
general malaise, feeling of overwhelming,
headache, slight increase
temperature. Disease rise period,
with a consistent appearance
specific to each disease
signs. At the height of the disease
manifest more or less all
characteristic symptoms.

After infectious
diseases the body is usually
acquires varying degrees
development and duration
immunity (immunity) to
the causative agent of this disease.

Widely used in treatment
infectious disease antibiotics.
Measures aimed at
elimination of violations of certain functions,
arising from pathological
process. Used for this
cardiovascular, diuretic, laxatives,
antipyretics as well
vitamins. Treatment must be combined
in compliance with the personal hygiene of the patient.

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It is important to know

The use of a defibrillator for children and infants is performed using appropriate electrodes or an energy reducer, which reduces the energy supplied during discharge. If there are no “children’s” electrodes, the defibrillator is used with “adult” electrodes. Electrodes are placed according to the scheme indicated on the package. When using adult electrodes for a child or infant, one electrode is placed behind, between the shoulder blades, and the other in the middle of the chest.

If the patient has a pacemaker (you can notice it by the characteristic scar and bulge under the collarbone) – the electrode is glued 5-8 cm below the pacemaker.

The presence of flammable substances (butane, gasoline vapor) or explosive equipment may cause a fire or explosion during an electric discharge. Remove the victim from a toxic or flammable environment and continue resuscitation when the victim is in a safe place.

If the victim lies on a metal surface or easily conducts electricity, the efficiency of the electric discharge is reduced, therefore, any contact of the victim with such a surface must be immediately eliminated.

Safety in emergency situations.

Emergency – violation
normal life and activities of people
at the facility or a specific territory,
caused by accident, disaster, natural
or environmental disaster, epidemic.
Emergency characterized
uncertainty, stress
population, significant socio-environmental
and economic damage, above all
human casualties and as a result
this need quick
large human response
material and time costs
for rescue

Emergency concept related
with concepts like “danger” and “risk”.

Plane crash, train is not
emergency because stressful
only relatives experience the condition
or survivors and the rest
the population continues to use
by vehicles. Such
disasters do not entail chains
heavy secondary, tertiary, etc.

– of artificial origin (or

– mixed origin
(natural and man-made)

Intentionality includes oneself
socio-political conflicts

Inadvertence – natural disasters,
technological (technological) disasters
and combined emergencies.

Important characteristic of emergency
situations is the pace of development and
duration. And they can be divided
to “explosive” and smooth. “

Emergency development duration
situations from a few
seconds to several hours (accident
large nuclear power plants, thermal power plants, gas, oil pipelines.

The duration of other emergencies may
for decades. Such
situation arose in the USA (Niagara Falls
) in 1978 From 1942 to 1953, the petrochemical
corporation buried
hazardous waste. After a quarter century
they leaked to the surface and hit
into the water supply network. Carter announced
“National emergency”
– The population of the city was evacuated.

Largest nuclear accident occurred
April 26, 1986 in Chernobyl. Zone
significant contamination of the area
amounted to 3000km2. Numerous marked
radiation sickness diseases.

Technological disaster in Chernobyl
technical and economic criterion can
attributed to local emergency
economic situation – to
national, and socio-environmental
– to global emergencies.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.