When the vessels of the heart are in a state of spasm for a long time, it threatens angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. Arteries blocked by a barrier of cholesterol plaques and blood clots cannot fully pass the blood, which delivers air and nutrition to the heart muscle.
The list of positive aspects of stenting of blood vessels of the heart, according to patients:
- no need to stay in the hospital for a long time;
- simple rehabilitation period;
- use of local anesthesia;
- the operation refers to minimally invasive surgical interventions (without opening the sternum and deep incisions);
- there is little chance of complications;
- budgetary procedure, in cash.
Attention! In difficult cases, when medical cleaning of blood vessels does not bring the desired result, coronary stenting is proposed to save the patient’s life.
Before choosing surgery as the only way to eliminate the problem, the doctor needs to determine the degree of decrease in blood flow in the arteries. The decision made should be an adequate substitute for conservative therapy.
Indications for the installation of a coronary stent:
- the necessary result was not obtained after drug treatment;
- increase in symptoms of angina pectoris;
- beginning of a heart attack;
- the development of ischemic disease after a heart attack in the presence of proper medical support;
- myocardial infarction;
- stenosis of more than two vessels of the heart at the same time;
- ischemia, which poses a threat to life;
- severe narrowing of the left coronary artery;
Carrying out surgical intervention will restore the shape of the vessel and provide unimpeded movement of blood.
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- Techniques for conducting
- Strict diet
- Indications for coronary stenting
- Features of surgical intervention
- Advantages and disadvantages of using stents
- Advantages and disadvantages of using stents
- Indications for coronary stenting
- How long will the stent last?
- Строгая диета
- Этапы операции
- Как ставят стент?
- What is the cause of chest pain after the intervention and what to do?
- Strict diet
- Physical exercise
- Leisure and travel
- What is better stenting or bypass surgery
- Coronary stenting of the vessels of the heart – what is it
- Strict diet
- Preparing for the procedure
- Possible complications after the procedure
- Recovery period
- Classes of exercise therapy
- Is stenting possible during pregnancy?
- Life expectancy after heart stenting and surgery reviews
- Life after stenting and reviews of the procedure
Techniques for conducting
After extensive research and discussion about the appropriateness of this method, it has been successfully used since 1993. The essence of the procedure is to introduce a stent capsule into the inner space of the vessel, in the area of stenosis.
The design, which moves through the vessels to the narrowing area, consists of a miniature balloon and a metal frame (stent) located on top of it. At the site of arterial stenosis, the balloon inflates and aligns the stent with the diameter of the vessel. In the open state, it corrects the deformation and serves as reliable protection for restoring the movement of blood through the damaged area.
Diagnosis – angiography of coronary vessels helps to identify deformed areas. Contrast after filling the arteries allows you to get x-rays, which show the place and degree of stenosis of the arteries. Modern medical technology converts the results into digital format with high quality and image accuracy.
Surgery is performed using x-ray control using local anesthesia at the site of stent insertion. The patient is conscious and can report his feelings to the doctor. He is also able to freely follow the instructions of the surgeon when you need to hold your breath or, conversely, take a deep breath.
A catheter is inserted into a blood vessel on a patient’s arm or thigh. The entire path of movement to the site of stenosis is visible on the monitor. It advances the compressed stent fixed on the carrier capsule to the site of damage. In the focus of the problem, the balloon swells and aligns the stent along the diameter of the vessel. To control the correct fixation of the frame, the balloon is expanded and deflated several times, after which it is removed using a catheter guide.
The material of the frames is made of special alloys compatible with the biochemical environment of the body. Foreign body rejection does not occur.
Stents are made of durable materials that are biocompatible with the tissues of the arteries, because they remain in the body forever. They are divided into two large groups: ordinary, metal (holometallic) and with a polymer drug coating (DES or SLP).
The metal frame of the stent is made of thin thread (its diameter is less than a human hair). They are made of tantalum, an alloy of platinum and iridium, and cobalt compounds. In drug-coated scaffolds, restenosis and thrombosis are less likely to occur.
Options for stent coatings:
Today, stents are made using a laser beam from biocompatible alloys of a single metal tube.
It’s important to know! The fourth generation structures are self-absorbable frames that completely collapse after solving the problem. They are called “scaffold.”
Angina pectoris and myocardial infarction are manifestations of cardiac ischemia, a disease associated with oxygen starvation of the heart muscle. The deterioration of her nutrition is the result of circulatory disorders in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart.
Insufficient blood supply due to narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries as a result of their clogging with cholesterol plaques. No less dangerous are blood clots.
To increase the lumen in the vessel, a stent is placed in it. It is a flexible mesh design that expands the vascular bed, restoring normal blood flow. Today, in specialized cardiological centers, such an operation is performed for all patients with myocardial infarction.
- You can not perform stenting if the patient has a common stenosis, which occupies most of the aorta. In this case, the stent is not enough to cover the entire vessel and restore its patency.
- Putting a stent in the heart is not recommended in old age. There is a risk of developing interventricular artery stent thrombosis in such patients.
- Coronary aortic stenting is prohibited with a significant narrowing of the lumen of several vessels.
- If vascular atherosclerosis has spread to the capillaries or small arteries, the stent is not installed due to significant differences in diameter.
- Refrain from stenting the vessels of the heart if the patient has any obstacles to the operation (even those performed by minimally invasive method).
After stenting of the vessels of the heart, a rehabilitation period is required. It is important to adhere to all the rules. In this case, it is possible to reduce the likelihood of complications that may occur after stenting of the vessels of the heart. The first day after the operation, bed rest is observed. If the patient is in good condition and there are no complications, an extract home can already be issued on the 3rd day.
How many live after the stenting operation is hard to say. Much depends on a person following the principles of rehabilitation. Will he want to change his life, protect his heart and blood vessels, eat right, do not be nervous and normalize the load. That is what we are going to talk about right now.
Each person must adhere to a special diet after stenting the blood vessels of the heart. Thus, you can reduce the likelihood of blood clots and other complications. The essence of the diet is as follows:
- exclusion from the diet of fatty animal products;
- rejection of easily digestible carbohydrates and foods that are a source of cholesterol;
- reduction in daily salt intake;
- the inclusion in the diet of vegetables, cereals, dietary meat and fish.
Physical activity after stenting of the vessels of the heart is contraindicated during the first week after surgery. Only walking on flat terrain is permissible. Further physical activities are added gradually. It is necessary to develop a schedule for adding load so that after a maximum of 6 weeks you can return to your usual lifestyle.
It is advisable to engage in physiotherapy exercises and perform a set of special exercises. Each person should not only know how to behave after stenting the blood vessels of the heart, but also clearly adhere to these rules. At the same time, night work and hard work, as well as strong nervous shocks, are contraindicated for the whole time of life.
For some time after surgery, the state of the body needs to be observed. For this, certain diagnostic methods are assigned.
- ECG, including diagnostics with stress tests not earlier than 2 weeks after surgery;
- blood coagulation analysis and its lipid spectrum;
- planned coronary angiography is performed one year after the operation.
If the doctor has prescribed all of these studies or one of them, it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis without delay. This will reveal the development of complications even at the stage of their origin and quickly eliminate them.
Stenting of the vessels of the heart is a necessary operation, which allows the vessels to return to their working capacity and restore blood flow. In some cases, carrying out such an surgical intervention is the only option to save a person’s life. But further well-being and state of health depends solely on the person himself. You can return to a normal lifestyle, or you can nullify all the efforts of doctors.
After the restoration of blood flow in one or several vessels, the problem of the whole organism will not be solved. Plaques on the walls of blood vessels continue to form. The further development of events depends on the patient. The doctor recommends a healthy lifestyle, good nutrition, treatment of endocrine pathology and metabolic diseases. How many patients live depends on how much they perform medical appointments.
Life after a heart attack and stenting includes secondary prophylaxis, which involves the following procedures:
- delivery of laboratory tests, clinical examination 1 time in 6 months;
- an individual plan of physical activity, which was prescribed by a physical therapy doctor;
- diet and weight control;
- maintaining blood pressure;
- treatment of diabetes, blood lipid levels;
- screening for psychological disorders;
- flu vaccination.
Reviews of stenting of the vessels of the heart indicate a faster recovery than after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Indications for coronary stenting
Attacks of ischemic transient attacks, angina pectoris, heart attacks and most complaints from the heart are associated with ischemic processes in the heart muscle – myocardium. The etiological causes of ischemia can be atherosclerotic changes in the coronary vessels, their spasm, the formation of parietal thrombi, impaired tone and elasticity. Against the background of these processes, the lumen of the arteries narrows and the heart loses the necessary volume of blood flow.
To restore patency and lumen of the vessels, an operation of coronary artery stenting of the heart vessels is performed. With this manipulation, a design in the form of a mesh spring is established in the artery with the lesion, which restores the physiological diameter of the coronary vessel and ensures stable blood flow. To date, such a heart operation is performed in a hospital of cardiac surgery for all patients who have had myocardial infarction.
Coronary artery stenting has a certain number of indications, but is performed only when all other methods of treatment of vascular pathology do not have the desired effect. Doctors distinguish the following main indications for stent placement:
- Ischemic myocardial damage on the background of stenotic atherosclerosis, in which atheromatous plaques overlap the lumen of the vessel by more than 50%.
- Acute, difficult to stop angina attacks that occur with minor physical exertion.
- Acute coronary syndrome with a high risk of progression to heart attack.
- The first six hours during a heart attack with stabilization of the general condition of the patient.
- Repeated blockage or stenosis of the artery after angioplasty or other surgical technique.
Despite a whole group of vital indications for this surgical intervention, there are a number of contraindications in which coronary stenting is not performed. These include:
- Lack of stabilization of the patient’s condition – depression of consciousness, shock, variable pressure, the presence of renal, hepatic, or any other insufficiency of one or more vital organs.
- Marked changes in the coagulogram are increased viscosity and blood coagulation.
- Individual hypersensitivity reactions to iodine-containing drugs for contrast.
- The presence of multiple stenosis.
- Malignant neoplasms, resistant to therapy.
- Damage to an artery with a lumen diameter of less than 3 mm.
Intervention is performed under X-ray operating conditions under local anesthesia. In this case, a catheter is inserted into the femoral artery, coronarography is performed.
At the end of the catheter is a balloon with a stent. In the place of stenosis, the balloon swells, crushing an atherosclerotic plaque, the diameter of the vessel immediately increases. The stent is a framework for the vascular wall. After restoration of blood flow, the balloon is deflated, and the stent remains in the vessel.
After stenting the vessels of the heart, the patient is in the hospital for 3 days, receiving anticoagulants and thrombolytics. The first day a bed rest is prescribed, because there is a risk of hematoma formation at the site of the femoral artery puncture. In the presence of complications, the duration of hospitalization may increase.
Possible complications after surgery:
- coronary spasm;
- heart attack;
- stent thrombosis;
- large hematoma on the thigh.
The cost of a planned operation consists of many components and is calculated individually depending on the cost of the operation. The price of stenting for Ukraine and the Russian Federation is approximately comparable. In Russia, a stent can be delivered for 100 – 150 thousand rubles, in Ukraine the operation will cost 30 – 40 thousand hryvnias.
The type of stent is selected by the surgeon. Specialists in the field of cardiology, as a rule, offer patients the best equipment available to them. When choosing a stent, a lot depends on the individual characteristics of the patient, for example, if he has increased blood coagulability, put a better coated type. But if a patient with a heart attack needs an emergency operation, they are given any stent available. In such circumstances, the priority goal is the prompt restoration of myocardial blood supply. Stents are divided into 2 types:
- Without cover. These are tubes made of metal alloys that look like mesh frames. In the right place of a modern stent, an extension of a suitable diameter can be made. The latest generation of medical equipment has a special coating with medicinal substances. Due to this, the risk of re-stenosis inside the delivered stent is significantly reduced. Substances deposited on the tubes prevent the formation of repeated narrowing of the vessel inside the stent, including if there is such a reaction of the artery to an established foreign object.
- Coated with a special polymer. Previously used stents with a monocomponent coating led to negative consequences: the healing process increased, inflammation appeared on the vascular stacks, and the risk of thrombosis increased. Patients with such tubes had to take thienoperidines for life. New stents with a multicomponent polymer coating have a high level of biocompatibility and ensures uniform release of the drug from the tube.
A coronary stent is a medical device that is a skeleton in the form of a metal cylinder, which is installed in bottlenecks in an artery (with cholesterol deposits) to expand them, which ensures normal blood flow.
Stents allow you to fight stenosis of arterial vessels arising from the deposition of atherosclerotic plaques. Cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the arteries and narrows the lumen, thereby preventing the flow of blood. Poor blood flow causes oxygen starvation and a lack of nutrients in the organs. One of several ways to eliminate such bottlenecks in the arterial system is stenting. The installation of the stent is not always shown to the patient, but only in some severe cases, when there are no contraindications, but more on that later.
Stents differ among themselves:
- Long. The size of the stents varies from 8 to 38 millimeters.
- Diameter. There are from 2,25 to 6 millimeters.
- By design. They differ in the form of the elements from which they are created.
- Material. They are made of steel, cobalt-chromium, PLLA polymer and others.
- Plated. Stents are uncoated or drug-coated Sirolimus, biolimus and others.
- Disclosure Method. They can be opened both independently and with the help of a balloon on a catheter.
- By type of drug coating. As a medicine, Sirolimus, Everolimus, Paclitaxel and others are used.
Stents are: 8, 10, 13, 16, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38 mm.
Stents are: 2.25, 2.5, 2.75, 3, 3.25, 3.5, 3.75, 4, 4.25, 4.5, 4.75, 5, 5.25, 5.5, 5.75, 6 mm.
- mesh (woven mesh);
- tubular (from the tube);
- wire (from wire);
- ring (from separate rings).
According to the material of which the frame is made:
- stainless medical steel;
- cobalt-chromium alloy;
- an alloy of platinum and chromium;
- polylactose acid polymer (PLLA).
By type of coating:
- Uncoated with bare metal.
- Medicinally secreting medicine that reduces the likelihood of a narrowing of the artery in the future.
- With a double coating – external and internal, for the healing of the artery itself and prevent the formation of blood clots.
- Covered with antibodies, attracting endothelial cells, reducing the risk of thrombosis.
- Soluble, made from a material that dissolves and releases a drug coating that prevents the re-occurrence of stenosis.
By the method of disclosure:
By drug coverage:
Depending on the manufacturer, stents may differ in their characteristics and price. In Russia, the production of stents is carried out according to GOST R ISO 25539-2-2012.
Features of surgical intervention
A stent is a cylindrical spring made of special metal or plastic. It is introduced into the affected vessel in a compressed form and straightened in the right place with the help of a cylinder into which pressure is supplied. The can is then removed, and the spring remains in place, holding the vascular wall.
The types of stents differ in design as well as in the material from which they are made.
The following designs are used in cardiac surgery:
- Made of thin wire, they are called wire wires;
- Consisting of individual links in the form of rings;
- Representing a continuous tube – tubular;
- Made in the form of a grid.
In acute conditions (during a heart attack or an attack of unstable angina), bare metal stents are more often used. They are used when the narrowing of the coronary arteries does not reach a critical level and the likelihood of further stenosis is small.
There are several types of such stents. They are metal structures with a polymer coating, on which is applied a layer of a drug that inhibits the growth of vessel tissue.
Gradually, this medicine enters the body, and the polymer dissolves. There remains a metal frame supporting the artery walls. Drug-compatible biocompatible stents are widely used in European and Russian clinics.
Terms of resorption of the stand
The atherosclerotic plaque previously destroyed by a special can should heal so that blood clots do not form on it. In the period from 3 to 6 months, the stent “works”, secreting a medicine that heals the endothelium of the vessel (inner membrane) and prevents it from growing pathologically.
A scaffold is made of the thinnest metal mesh (almost 20 times thinner than a human hair) with a bio-soluble polymer coating. After six months, the design is completely covered with endothelium, and the polymer coating containing the drug dissolves. As a result, a normal lumen is maintained in the artery, and its walls remain elastic.
Stenting of the blood vessels of the heart allows you to expand the coronary arteries, which cannot function normally due to the presence of a blood clot, and normalize impaired blood flow. The essence of the operation is the introduction of a stent into the artery, which is a special prosthesis for the wall of the affected vessel. In fact, this is a tube with walls in the form of a fine mesh.
Although such an operation is a minimally invasive intervention, still the walls of the vessel are in an inflamed state. To speed up the healing of the vessel, improve the results of the operation and fix them, it is necessary to undergo a special rehabilitation program. We will definitely talk about this, but first we’ll deal with some more important questions regarding coronary stenting.
Advantages and disadvantages of using stents
One of the common causes of the development of heart pathologies is a decrease in vascular elasticity and angiospasm. Arteries gradually lose their ability to expand, which leads to local disturbances in blood supply. Also, if the process is chronic, it contributes to the accumulation of cholesterol deposits on the vascular walls.
Stenting is a procedure for integrating a special expansion device into the vessel. It is a tube of mesh texture, capable of taking the desired shape upon implantation. The device acts as a frame. As a result, a narrow or spasmodic section of the artery should expand, and the blood flow should return to its previous state.
This treatment method refers to endovascular surgery and is considered minimally invasive. It is carried out exclusively by experienced surgeons of the highest category.
Consider the stenting algorithm as an example of the heart. The catheter on which the element is fixed is inserted through the femoral artery, through the introducer sheath. The conductor must be moved to the designated area where the expander is planned to be installed. As soon as the catheter is inserted, the artificial skeleton is fixed, swelling under the action of a spray, and normalizes the blood supply to the heart muscle.
The operation involves local anesthesia. The average duration is relatively short, from 20 minutes to 3 hours. If necessary, the surgeon installs several devices at once.
Stents are an outstanding invention that can save the lives of many patients. But it is not suitable for all patients with stenosis. Like other medical instruments, stents have advantages and disadvantages.
- Minimally invasive, to eliminate the problem, you do not need to make large surgical incisions on the body, but only a small hole on the body into which a catheter with a stent is inserted. Quick healing. The patient can be discharged as early as 3 days.
- Use of local anesthesia during surgery. No need to immerse a person in a dream. High percentage of successful cure (90%).
- There is a chance of secondary stenosis, the appearance of blood clots and heart attacks. It is observed in 10% of patients.
- The complexity of the operation. The installation of stents in the heart is done only by highly qualified surgeons.
- Some drug-eluting stents are expensive.
- Not all patients can have stenting – there are contraindications.
Advantages and disadvantages of using stents
Coronary stenting solves many problems associated with atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries. It allows you to restore blood circulation, improves the quality of life of patients with coronary heart disease, prevents myocardial infarction. Still, stents are not perfect, along with their advantages, they also have disadvantages.
The benefits of a stenting operation are:
- Low invasiveness compared with open heart surgery;
- Use only local anesthesia;
- Short rehabilitation period;
- High result – more than 85% of operations are successful.
The disadvantages of stenting include:
- The risk of complications and re-stenosis, it is lower when installing drug-eluting stents;
- The complexity of the operation in the presence of calcium deposits in the vessels;
- The presence of contraindications.
Indications for coronary stenting
Restoring blood flow in the vessels of the heart increases the duration and quality of life of patients. Giving preference to a particular method of treatment, assess the severity of clinical manifestations, the degree of decrease in blood flow in the heart, the anatomical course of the affected vessels. At the same time, possible risks are compared, taking into account the effect of conservative therapy.
Indications for stenting of blood vessels of the heart:
- inefficiency of drug therapy;
- the presence of progressive angina pectoris;
- in the early stages of myocardial infarction, urgent surgery is performed;
- the increase in the phenomena of ischemia in the post-infarction period against the background of the treatment;
- myocardial infarction;
- pre-infarction condition;
- significant stenosis, more than 70% of the left coronary artery;
- stenosed 2 or more blood vessels of the heart;
- the risk of life-threatening complications due to cardiac ischemia.
Coronary artery stenting is performed to expand the lumen in the vessel and restore blood flow through it.
Contraindications to stenting can be due to heart disease, or severe concomitant pathology:
- agonizing state of the patient;
- intolerance to iodine-containing contrast agents used during surgery;
- vessel lumen requiring a stent of less than 3 mm;
- diffuse stenosis of the myocardial vessels, when the stent is no longer effective;
- slow blood coagulation;
- decompensated respiratory, renal and hepatic failure.
Angioplasty and stenting of the arteries of the heart and aorta is performed in the conditions of a cardiosurgical operating room, where there is the necessary technical equipment and specialists who know this operating practice. Like other heart operations, this intervention requires constant monitoring of the patient’s condition and high technological equipment of the clinic.
Almost one hundred different types of vascular stents are available on the global pharmaceutical market. Outwardly, they are covered with a special coating – a drug coating (eluting stent), which repels blood clots and prevents blood clotting around the stent. Various types of them are available for sale, depending on the shape and diameter – in the form of nets, rings and tubes, so you can choose the most suitable for a specific clinical situation.
Do not confuse stents with scaffolds – these are absorbable structures that are installed temporarily and are a transitional moment before setting up a real stent.
Regardless of the localization of the pathological process, whether it be the aorta, the permanent pancreas, or PNA (right descending artery), the operation is carried out in several mandatory steps:
- Anesthesia. The operation does not last long, therefore, local anesthesia is performed on the surgical area – the femoral-inguinal one of the limbs.
- The largest femoral artery is punctured, after which a catheter with a stent with a small balloon at the end is inserted into it.
- In parallel with the introduction and advancement of the catheter, there is a bolus injection of iodine-containing contrast agent through the arm. Thanks to him, the vessels are clearly visible on x-rays and a team of surgeons can monitor the progress of the catheter.
- After the catheter has reached the desired site in the vessel, stent placement is performed. For this, the balloon, which is located at the very end of the catheter, is pumped with air. Balloon dilatation expands the walls of the affected area and presses the stent to them, restoring the physiological diameter of the artery.
Drainage of arterial lumens and the installation of an expanding scaffold is required if conservative treatment is not possible or ineffective, as well as in the following cases:
- chronic cardiac ischemia with the development of atherosclerotic plaques, blood clots;
- frequent attacks of angina pectoris even with minor physical exertion;
- risk of myocardial infarction along with coronary syndrome;
- repeated artery stenosis after balloon angioplasty;
- advanced atherosclerosis;
- dystrophy of the vascular walls;
- local decrease in elasticity.
Sometimes stenting is urgent, when the patient suffered an acute heart attack. It is important that the operation to expand the blood vessels was carried out no later than 6 hours after the attack – the only way to quickly restore blood flow and save the life of the patient.
Despite the routine and minimally invasive manipulation, stenting has a number of relative and absolute contraindications:
- cardiological instability, acute heart failure on the background of ventricular dilatation;
- allergy to iodine-containing drugs;
- violation of blood coagulation, its expressed density due to the high concentration of platelets;
- multiple foci of narrowing in one or more vessels;
- minor vascular damage (less than 2,5-3 mm);
- malignant tumors, metastases in the heart, blood vessels.
With caution, the operation is performed for persons with a complicated clinical history, with severe chronic diseases of internal organs, multiple organ chronic insufficiency. Relative indications are infectious processes, pregnancy and lactation, organ transplantation.
The cost of stenting the blood vessels of the heart is determined in most cases individually. The calculation takes into account all the costs of the operation, which vary depending on the condition of the arteries and chronic pathologies of the patient. The price also includes preliminary diagnostics and laboratory tests. In Russia, operations of this type are successfully carried out at the Moscow Bakulevsky Center for Cardiology and the Treatment of Cardiovascular Pathologies.
The order of prices varies depending on the economic condition and medical institution:
- in Russia about 150 thousand rubles;
- in Ukraine about 40 thousand UAH .;
- Israel – about 10 dollars .;
- Germany – $ 12;
- Turkey – $ 4
Despite the simplicity of the operation, it is considered expensive due to the materials and highly qualified surgeon. In case of immediate threat to life, in emergency cases, the installation is carried out urgently and free of charge, due to medical insurance.
The installation of coronary stents can be indicated by a doctor in the following cases:
- complete blockage of the coronary artery during or after myocardial infarction;
- narrowing or complete blockage of the arteries with a high risk of heart failure;
- narrowing or complete blockage of blood vessels with a high risk of severe angina pectoris.
Stenting is done only in cases where there are no contraindications to the operation. In another case, a bypass is done.
- If intervention in an artery with a diameter of less than 3 mm is required.
- If the patient has a large number of cholesterol plaques with a length of more than 1 centimeter.
- If the patient is allergic to iodine-containing drugs.
- If the patient has a large number of cholesterol plaques with a length of more than 1 centimeter.
- If the patient has poor blood coagulability.
- If the patient has a serious condition, accompanied by a drop in blood pressure, impaired consciousness, shock, liver, kidney or respiratory failure.
- The patient has malignant tumors that are not treatable.
If stenting is contraindicated for the patient, but at the same time he still wants to perform this operation, in some cases he may insist on carrying out it under his own responsibility.
Not all patients with cardiac ischemia have stenting.
It is carried out only in the following cases:
- Preinfarction condition with a threat of acute myocardial infarction;
- Unstable angina pectoris;
- Progression of angina pectoris with frequent severe seizures, not removable with nitroglycerin;
- Acute heart attack;
- The occurrence of angina attacks in the first 2 weeks after acute heart attack;
- Stable angina pectoris 3 and 4 functional class;
- Repeated narrowing of the artery after stent placement.
These include patients:
- Diabetes mellitus;
- On hemodialysis;
- With repeated stenosis after installing a holometallic stent;
- With the development of shunt stenosis after coronary artery bypass grafting.
There are a number of contraindications for stent placement (even in emergency cases):
- Severe respiratory, hepatic, and renal failure;
- Period of acute stroke;
- Current infectious diseases;
- Internal bleeding;
- Reduced blood coagulation with the threat of bleeding.
Stenting of the coronary arteries can be carried out only after a complete diagnosis, including angiography – examination by x-ray and contrast of the cardiovascular system. This helps to determine the presence of narrowings in the vessels, their localization, extent, and other nuances. Based on the data, the doctor decides whether stenting is acceptable for the patient, and selects the appropriate type of tube.
Surgical intervention is also under the control of radiography. Sometimes coronary angiography and stenosis are performed on the same day. However, the second operation is not suitable for everyone, but only:
- patients with ischemia who are not helped by medications;
- those patients who, according to the results of the tests, were allowed to install a stent in the heart (if atherosclerosis did not affect the main trunk of the artery);
- patients with angina pectoris, whose professional activity is closely associated with serious physical exertion;
- having unstable angina or recently survived myocardial infarction:
- if in the institution where they were taken they can do such an operation;
- and if the patient’s condition allows it.
The installation of a stent on the arteries of the heart has a number of indications. In each case, the doctor assesses the need for such an operation and prescribes only when other methods of treatment without surgery are ineffective. The main indications for stenting are outlined below:
- chronic ischemic disease, which is accompanied by the development of atherosclerotic plaques, covering the arterial lumen by more than half;
- angina attacks that occur with small loads;
- the likelihood of developing myocardial infarction in combination with coronary syndrome;
- myocardial infarction (large or small) in the first 6 hours with a stable condition of the body;
- repeated overlap of the arterial lumen after balloon angioplasty, shunting and stenting.
How long will the stent last?
The service life of stents depends on many factors:
- Stent survival (rejection is extremely rare);
- Compliance by the patient with all prescriptions of the cardiologist for the coming year (in some cases, this is how long special therapy lasts)
- Good tolerance to patients with necessary medications;
- The presence or absence of other serious diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, trophic ulcers or stomach ulcers.
The diet after stenting is aimed at reducing weight by 10% from the original.
- исключить жирное, жареное и соленое;
- употреблять омега-3 жирные кислоты, рыбий жир;
- снизить количество легкоусвояемых углеводов, разрешен хлеб из муки грубого помола;
- разнообразить рацион растительными, белковыми продуктами.
Восстановление спустя операцию делится на несколько периодов. Непосредственный постоперационный этап длиться одну-две недели. После операции, больного переводят в специализированную палату с интенсивным наблюдением. Производится регулярный забор крови на печеночные пробы, липидограмму, различные маркеры. Проводится контрастное МРТ, после чего доктора вносят коррективы в лечение. В идеале, целевые уровни ХС ЛПНП у больных после стентирования составляют lt; 3,36 ммоль/л.
От тактики ведения постоперационного периода часто зависит реабилитация после стентирования, а соответственно, длительность больничного после ургентной терапии. Термин больничного после инфаркта и стентирования устанавливается лечащим врачом организации, в которой было проведено лечение. Законодательно определенных сроков нахождения на больничном не прописано.
После раннего послеоперационного периода, наступает время более долгого восстановления. Оно включает медикаментозную поддерживающую терапию, модификацию режима, соблюдение строгой диеты, ограничение физических нагрузок и другие моменты, необходимые для успешного прогноза.
Как для мужчин, так и для женщин, лечащим доктором должна прописываться строгая диета после стентирования. Этим довольно простым способом можно существенно снизить риск тромбообразований, симптоматику атеросклероза, артериальной гипертензии, сахарного диабета и других фоновых патологий. Из рациона питания исключаются излишне копченые, соленые, острые продукты. Кушать жареные грибы, мясо и другие продукты не рекомендуется – лучше приготовить их на пару, запечь или отварить.
- нестабильное состояние, которое сопровождается нарушениями сознания, скачками давления, шоком и выраженной недостаточностью любого из внутренних органов;
- аллергическая реакция на препараты с содержанием йода;
- выраженная свёртываемость крови;
- протяжённые и множественные сужения в артериях, которые могут быть сосредоточены в одном/нескольких сосудах;
- поражение сосудов с диаметром менее 3 мм.;
- неизлечимые злокачественные опухоли.
Некоторые противопоказания носят временный характер, могут быть устранены на время или навсегда. Также есть относительные противопоказания, которые могут не учитываться, если человек сам настаивает на операции и при этом риски осложнений невелики. Аллергия на йодосодержащие препараты сюда не относится.
- Операция проводится в операционной, оборудованной ангиографом, позволяющим врачу наблюдать за артерией и движением катетера на экране монитора. Пациента кладут на спину, вводят ему седативные препараты, чтобы у него было спокойное и расслабленное состояние.
- Врачи накрывают пациента стерильным бельем, обезвреживают место введения стента.
- Делают местную анестезию.
- Через иглу в артерию вводят тонкую проволоку, которая выполняет роль проводника.
- По проводнику вводят интродьюсер, через который в артерию будут заводиться другие инструменты и убирают проволоку.
- Через интродьюсер врач аккуратно заводит тонкий катетер со стентом и баллоном.
- В коронарную артерию вводят контрастное вещество для точной видимости движения стента.
- Стент продолжают аккуратно двигать до нужного места.
- Стент расширяют с помощью баллона на катетере, тем самым нормализуя диаметр артерии.
- После установки стентов интродьюсер и катетер извлекают из пациента.
- На место введения катетера накладывают сдавливающую повязку.
Процедура установки стента требует подготовки больного. На этом этапе проводится коронарография для уточнения локализации закупоренного сосуда и выяснения степени его поражения. В экстренной ситуации дополнительно делаются анализы крови и ЭКГ, В случае плановой операции проводится более тщательное обследование пациента.
- Лабораторные анализы мочи и крови – общий и биохимический, определение свертываемости крови, на гепатит и ВИЧ;
- Исследования сердца – эхокардиографию, суточный ЭКГ-мониторинг, УЗИ коронарных сосудов с дуплексным сканированием и допплерографией.
Как ставят стент?
Доступ к коронарным артериям осуществляется через бедренную артерию или через руку. Второй способ – введение интродьюсера со стентом через лучевую артерию предплечья – применяется чаще из-за более легкого доступа к коронарным сосудам.
Порядок проведения операции:
- Место прокола обезболивается и в него вводится проводник с баллончиком.
- С током крови под контролем рентгена он достигает нужного места в артерии;
- После того, как баллончик зафиксирован в нужном месте, его надувают с помощью шприца;
- Под давлением происходит разрушение атеросклеротической бляшки;
- Проводник с баллончиком извлекается и на его место устанавливается стент с баллоном внутри;
- Катетер вновь вводят в пораженный сосуд, баллон расширяется под давлением и раскрывает стент, прочно закрепляя его на стенках артерии на месте разрушенной бляшки.
Хирургическое вмешательство осуществляется в операционной при помощи ультразвуковой или рентген-диагностики. Тип анестезии подбирается индивидуально, может быть изменен по ходу операции, например, при возникновении непредвиденных сложностей. Алгоритм операции выглядит следующим образом:
- введение в бедренную артерию катетера с баллоном на конце и выполнение коронарографии;
- установка баллона в месте сужения сосуда и его расширение, проведение рентгена;
- установка стента и извлечение катетера после восстановления кровотока.
At the site of vascular lesion, the balloon expands, the vascular plaque disappears, and manipulations to normalize blood flow are performed. After the balloon is deflated, the stent remains in the vascular lumen.
At the end of the operation, the patient is sent to the ward for further observation. The early postoperative period takes place in a hospital to assess heart function, the selection of further drug therapy, and prevention of complications.
What is the cause of chest pain after the intervention and what to do?
No doctor will be able to accurately answer the question of how long patients live after the operation. It all depends on the nature and severity of the disease, which led to the need for stenting, as well as the state of the myocardium after treatment and manipulations. In addition, the postoperative period is affected by the age of the patient and the presence of chronic pathologies.
According to statistics, average data indicate almost 95% annual survival, 91% three-year survival, and almost 86% five-year survival. Reviews of people who underwent this heart operation are positive in almost 100% of cases, because it not only saved and extended their life, but also significantly improved its quality.
Thousands of clinical examples of people who have lived decades after stenting the heart are known to medicine. For successful rehabilitation and a long healthy life after it, the patient must clearly understand how to live after stenting. It is necessary to strictly follow a diet, strictly limit heavy physical exertion, eliminate negative habits and be regularly examined by competent specialists.
Life after surgery must be subject to certain rules. Before discharge, the doctor gives recommendations on taking medication, physical activity and diet.
Subject to a healthy active lifestyle, all medical recommendations and the absence of other serious diseases, the life expectancy of patients with cardiac ischemia increases significantly. This is also evidenced by patient reviews.
Complications are most likely to occur in patients with severe forms of coronary heart disease. Increased blood coagulation and diabetes mellitus require attention. You can reduce the risk of restenosis and speed up the recovery process by strictly observing the doctor’s instructions. As a rule, the expected benefits of vascular stenting exceed the possible risks, so most patients with symptoms of atherosclerosis undergo surgery. Possible complications of vascular stenting include:
- an allergic reaction to a contrast agent;
- thrombosis of a vessel that has been punctured;
- bleeding from a punctured vessel;
- heart attack during stenting;
- punctured artery restenosis;
- early angina after surgery.
After stenting, the patient is transferred to the ward, where nurses monitor him.
If a catheter was inserted through the femoral artery, the patient is prescribed to lie down for 6 hours without bending his leg. If the stent was inserted through the radial artery, then the patient can immediately sit, and after a few hours already walk.
To quickly remove contrast from the body, the patient is prescribed to drink plenty of water.
The patient is discharged after 1-3 days.
The full name of the procedure is percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (CTBA).
Before the intervention, the patient must undergo coronary angiography (X-ray contrasting of the myocardial vessels), according to the results of which the plaque’s vulnerability is determined, a decision is made on the feasibility of installing the stent, its type, diameter and size are selected.
Additionally measure the fractional reserve of coronary circulation (FFR) – the ability of this vessel to provide the heart with blood in sufficient quantities. Sometimes an MRI is required.
- Under local anesthesia, a large artery is punctured (femoral, radial, brachial, ulnar). The most common is femoral access. Below the inguinal fold, a notch of the skin is performed, the vessel is punctured with a needle, a conductor is inserted, and an introducer intended for introducing the instruments is installed.
- The mouth of the coronary artery catheterizes, a special conductor is inserted below the narrowing of the vessel, through which the desired instrument will be delivered to the site of the lesion.
- A catheter balloon is delivered to the lesion site along the conductor, a preliminary expansion of the site with an atherosclerotic plaque is performed.
- The balloon catheter is replaced with a balloon with a stent and, under X-ray control, is brought to the site of insertion.
- The balloon with a stent is inflated under a pressure of 10-14 atm.
- The balloon is deflated and slowly removed from the artery.
- A coronary angiography is done to ensure that the stent is correctly positioned inside the vessel.
- The introducer is removed, a suture and an aseptic dressing are applied to the incision area.
After the procedure, you need to adhere to bed rest for 24 hours. The condition of the puncture site is carefully monitored throughout the day. After this period, the bandage is removed, and for another two days the patient is allowed to move only around the department.
In 95% of cases, endovascular interventions and the installation of stents on the coronary arteries of the heart are successful. The main causes of worsening after the intervention:
- wrong stent selection;
- violation of installation procedures;
- progression of the underlying process and disease;
- premature destruction of the stent.
The most serious and dangerous complication is thrombosis of the narrowed artery in the first hours after surgery. This is evidenced by the fact that after stenting there may be pain in the chest.
The main causes of pain after coronary stenting:
- After stent placement, blood flow resumes. A change in hemodynamics can cause discomfort and discomfort in the chest for the first 2-4 weeks after surgery.
- Small damage to the vessel in any part of it can lead to bruising several days after the intervention.
- Increased blood flow can provoke detachment of the inner lining of the vessel, its tear, the development of postoperative aneurysm of the stented artery.
- A shift of the stent in the vessel and its movement with the blood stream can cause pain due to a violation of normal hemodynamics.
- Repeated narrowing of the area of the installed stent with a blood clot further disrupts the flow of blood to the heart muscle. The most dangerous is postoperative coronary artery thrombosis.
- Disruption of the sinus rhythm and the appearance of arrhythmia due to increased blood flow to the heart and the activation of another focus of the pacemaker.
A month after discharge from the hospital, the patient undergoes outpatient stress tests with the registration of a cardiogram. The degree of permitted physical activity depends on the results of the study.
After leaving the hospital, the person continues to recover in the sanatorium. Rehabilitation after stenting of the vessels of the heart is aimed at expanding motor activity, selecting individual exercises that are performed independently at home, and modifying the lifestyle. Reviews of the procedure are extremely positive – most patients quickly return to their normal rhythm of life and become able to perform all routine activities.
The postoperative prognosis is generally favorable. An increased mortality rate after CTBA is observed only during the first 30 days. The main causes are cardiogenic shock and ischemic brain damage. After a month, mortality does not exceed 1,5%.
Coronary artery stenting is not a reason for disability. But it can be appropriated due to a disability limitation that caused the disease, which became an indication for surgery.
Undoubtedly, ChTBA enhances the patient’s quality of life. But its duration depends on the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, regular medication and compliance with the recommendations of a doctor.
Dosed physical activity supports the tone of the circulatory system and improves the further prognosis of the patient’s life.
Walking, cycling, exercise therapy, swimming slow the progression of atherosclerosis, contribute to lowering blood pressure and normalizing weight.
It is worth remembering that only dynamic loads and aerobic exercises are recommended.
Leisure and travel
After successful rehabilitation, with the permission of the attending physician, a person can travel freely at any distance without any consequences, subject to the recommendations and taking medications.
Not recommended to visit the sauna.
Life expectancy after CTBA mainly depends on the pathology that has become an indication for surgery, concomitant diseases, ejection fraction of the left ventricle, and patient age.
Five-year survival after TBBA is approximately 86%.
Alcohol does not directly affect the functioning of the stent. But its use in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy is prohibited. Also, alcoholic beverages are not recommended for all people with cardiovascular diseases.
After the operation, you need to follow a diet with a low content of animal fats, fast carbohydrates, salty, fried and pickled foods for life, stop smoking, and reduce caffeine intake. Five to six small meals are recommended.
All patients who are offered a surgical solution to the problem want to know how much they live after heart stenting surgery. The procedure provides high quality and normal life expectancy, allowing a person to fully live his biological age. The patient’s condition improves significantly: pain disappears and shortness of breath disappears. In case of improper behavior after surgery, the effect will be unstable and the patient may be given a disability group.
The basic rules for long life after surgery include:
- light physical activity every day; leisurely walking is recommended;
- adherence to a diet with the absence of fatty, spicy food and alcohol;
- keeping a diary of daily pressure measurement and taking antihypertensive drugs;
- periodic examinations by a cardiologist and tests.
Advice! In the first year after coronary artery stenting while taking drugs that reduce blood coagulation, you need to avoid damage accompanied by bleeding. In the case of seeking medical help for other reasons, it is necessary to warn the doctor about the intervention.
According to patients, it becomes easier to live because of the absence of pain, but for this you need to sacrifice bad habits and moderate appetite.
Modern science is constantly improving the quality of stents. Over the past 20 years, from simple metal alloys have come to self-absorbable materials with a certain dose of drugs. When it comes to saving life, it remains to rejoice in the advancement of science in this direction of cardiology. Shunting is being replaced by new stent technology.
What is better stenting or bypass surgery
Both operations are performed to improve blood flow in places where arteries are narrowed due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. The difference between these methods is in the way to solve the problem of stenosis.
The bypass method involves the creation of a section of an artery that bypasses the problem area. Normal blood flow is provided through this new site. As a shunt, a section of the saphenous vein of the femoral, radial, or internal thoracic veins is used. Bypass surgery is performed under general anesthesia.
Stenting involves installing a stent in a bottleneck of an artery and widening it, thereby normalizing blood flow. In this case, a shunt is not used, but the problem area in the artery is simply restored. The stent is inserted into the artery using a catheter with a balloon through a small hole in the body. At the desired location, the stent is expanded with a balloon and the catheter is pulled out. The operation is performed under local anesthesia.
Both methods are now used in medicine. Each patient is better suited to a specific method of operation based on his diagnosis and condition. Stenting is a better way to treat stenosis, but it may be contraindicated to someone.
Both methods have positive and negative sides, so the doctor determines the method of treatment depending on the individual characteristics of the clinical picture. Stenting is often addressed if the patient is young and has local changes in the vessels. The defect can be fixed by installing several tubes. For patients of advanced age with serious lesions of the arteries, shunting is usually used. However, at the same time, the doctor takes into account the severity of the patient’s condition – the load on the body during shunting is much higher.
Coronary stenting of the vessels of the heart – what is it
As with any other surgical procedure, there is no one specific price for stenting. The cost depends on many components – the condition of the patient, the type of stent, the urgency of the operation, individual characteristics, etc.
On average, the price of a planned operation in Russia is about 100–150 thousand rubles. In Ukraine, the average price range is in the range of 30-40 thousand UAH. In Israeli clinics, the cost is from 13 thousand dollars (stent SYFFER).
Preparing for the procedure
Coronary stenting of the heart does not require specific preoperative preparation, however, some diagnostic methods are still necessary. In the case of an urgent state (for example, with myocardial infarction), a general blood and urine test is taken from the patient, blood coagulation, liver tests, electrolyte balance, markers of necrosis of the heart muscle, ECG, chest x-ray are examined.
If the operation is prescribed to the patient in a planned manner, then the preoperative examination is performed on a more detailed scale. The doctor gives a direction for daily monitoring of blood pressure, coronary angiography, detailed biochemical blood tests, lipid profile. During the surgery itself, with a certain periodicity (at least every hour), the main samples and analyzes are recruited. Thus, a team of surgeons individually makes up the course of the operation and makes in-line adjustments.
Before stenting, the patient is examined. They take basic tests, do echo and electrocardiography. Coronarography is performed by introducing contrast into the circulatory system and performing an x-ray examination. A coronary artery map is obtained. The location of the stent insertion is determined.
As a rule, to prepare for surgery, doctors may require:
- Refuse food and water 8 hours before surgery.
- Exclude the use of hemorrhage drugs 3 days before stenting.
- Shave the groin and wash.
- Exclude or reduce the intake of hypoglycemic drugs 2 days before surgery.
Possible complications after the procedure
With the correct operation, as well as with an adequate assessment of the need for stenting, the risks of early postoperative complications are negligible. Among the main complications are:
- the formation of a hematoma in the area of catheter insertion (passes after 2-3 weeks);
- coronary artery injury;
- impaired cerebral or renal circulation;
- the development of chronic renal failure;
- risk of hemorrhage.
When using old models of expanding scaffolds, the risks of re-formation of blood clots increase, which is why lifelong use of medications is recommended. The longer the stent’s life, the higher the risk of thrombosis.
Basically, stenting helps restore blood circulation in the cardiac structures, but it is not a panacea for the root cause of the pathological process – ischemia, heart failure, atherosclerosis. The prognosis after stenting in 95% of cases is favorable, provided that all medical recommendations are followed.
In most cases, the operation stops the symptoms of coronary heart disease, and life after stenting of the vessels of the heart improves. After surgery, 50% of patients noted a significant improvement in health. Stenting of the vessels of the heart in Moscow and other regions of our country is carried out in many cases for free under the insurance policy when providing a quota for treatment.
In some cases, complications may occur after stenting. The reason may be an incorrectly performed operation or the patient’s body characteristics, how he reacts to the installed stent.
- The formation of a blood clot at the site of stent placement is the most common complication. To reduce the likelihood of blood clots, the patient is given blood thinners.
- Bleeding with a hematoma. It occurs due to the introduction during the operation of drugs that reduce blood coagulation. It is rare.
- Infection of the incision site into which the catheter is inserted.
- An allergy to a radiopaque substance or drug stent coating.
- Repeated narrowing of the artery in another place, as plaques with blood flow from a previously problematic place can come off and clog another place in the artery.
- Restenosis is the body’s reaction to the installed stent, which is manifested in an excessive increase in the inner lining of the vessel in the area where the normal lumen was restored.
- Heart attack during stenting.
There is a greater risk of complications in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, kidney pathology, and bleeding disorders. To eliminate a number of complications, the patient is thoroughly studied before surgery and adjustments are made to the treatment, medically adjusting blood coagulability, selecting a stent with the necessary drug coating. Closely observing the patient’s condition after surgery.
The stenting operation today is considered routine and fully technically proven. Therefore, complications after it is a rarity.
However, they are and are as follows:
- During surgery, this may be an allergy to the drugs used, bleeding (not more than 1,5% of cases), the occurrence of arrhythmias, the development of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction;
- Postoperative – this is a hematoma at the entrance to the femoral or radial artery (common), aneurysm, arrhythmia, thrombosis;
- Distant – thrombosis, repeated narrowing of the artery.
The likelihood of developing early complications after surgery, as well as during its conduct, is no more than 5%. These situations include the following conditions:
- hematoma in the thigh;
- coronary artery damage;
- disturbances in the blood circulation of the brain and kidneys;
- blood clots on the stent;
Every year, the number of complications from the procedure decreases. This is due to improved tools, new drug support regimens and the accumulation of experience by doctors.
- Cardiac (often develop during CTBA):
- coronary artery spasm (CA);
- CA dissection (ruptures of the internal and / or muscle membrane of the artery);
- acute vessel occlusion;
- the phenomenon of non-resumption of blood flow;
- perforation of the operated vessel.
- transient disturbance of cerebral blood flow;
- allergy to contrast medium;
- hematoma, infection, thrombotic occlusion, bleeding at the site of the puncture of the vessel;
- lower limb ischemia;
- retroperitoneal bleeding;
- contrast-induced nephropathy;
- lactic acidosis;
In the postoperative period, rhythm disturbances, heart failure are possible, in 1,1% of cases – thrombocytopenia, bleeding.
The first day after surgery requires bed rest and the development of respiratory gymnastics. Inflating balloons is considered an excellent exercise. For 3-4 days, the patient is allowed to move more, visit the physiotherapy exercise room – the range of gymnastic exercises is expanding.
The duration of rehabilitation is individual, ranging from several weeks to six months. Recovery is complicated after a heart attack. To speed up recovery, a protein-carbohydrate diet is indicated. The basic principle of postoperative nutrition is to reduce the digestive load, so food is often served in small portions.
Classes of exercise therapy
The restoration of blood flow as a result of stenosis of the arteries is considered a relatively safe operation on the heart, however, the success of its implementation is determined by consistent preparation, conduct, recovery. An important role in successful rehabilitation is played by physiotherapy. Rules for the preparation of physical activity:
- breathing exercises in the early postoperative period;
- light gymnastics in the morning, provided the heart rate is less than 100 beats per minute;
- a return to normal life and physical activity with persistent maintenance of normal blood flow after 3-4 months.
The doctor writes exercises for long-term use, taking into account the individual characteristics of the body. With excess weight, a low-calorie diet is shown, the development of a weight loss program. The diet after stenting the blood vessels of the heart should be enriched with calcium, magnesium, potassium.
In addition to directed physical exercises, it is recommended that an adequate diet be observed, timely treatment of concomitant chronic diseases. In the first months after stenting, long walks in the fresh air, spa therapy will benefit. Recovery exclusion of bad habits, visiting baths, saunas, a solarium, suggests a healthy lifestyle.
Physical therapy plays an important role in successful rehabilitation.
To improve the patency of arteries after stenting and reduce the risks of secondary formation of atherosclerotic plaques, blood clots, long-term drug therapy is indicated:
- anticoagulants for blood thinning (Plavix, Trombonet, Clopidogrel, Warfarin – rarely);
- aspirin-containing drugs or “cardiac aspirin” (Lospirin, Magnikor, Cardiomagnyl);
- statins to reduce the risks of atherosclerosis (Atorvastatin, Atoris);
- nitrates and beta-blockers to prevent heart pain, hypertension.
Atorvastatin – a drug to reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis
Taking medications can be lifelong with a predisposition to thrombosis, after a heart attack and other conditions that caused acute heart failure. The course and treatment regimen are prescribed by the attending physician, if necessary, adjusted.
After stenting of the vessels of the heart, disability is prescribed with a combination of laboratory and instrumental studies, clinical history, and complications.
Rehabilitation after stenting includes a set of measures that will help a person recover faster and reduce the risk of relapse. Immediately after surgery, the patient must observe strict bed rest in a hospital (1-2 days). The attending physician at this time constantly monitors the condition of the person.
Rehabilitation after stenting involves taking medication prescribed by a doctor. With the help of drugs, the risk of developing myocardial infarction is significantly reduced, and indicators such as the duration and quality of life with coronary heart disease are increased. The duration of the course is on average up to six months. The list of prescribed drugs after vascular stenting include:
- lowering the amount of cholesterol in the blood;
During the rehabilitation period, it is important to follow a diet. Fatty foods should be limited in the human diet. With hypertension, it is worth giving up salt. If the patient suffers from diabetes, his diet should contain exclusively products of the ninth table according to Pevzner. Obese people should minimize the calorie intake of food.
A person who has undergone stenting of heart vessels should perform regular physical therapy (physiotherapy exercises) 1-2 weeks after surgery. Rules:
- Hiking is ideal. Light homework shown.
- The duration of the load should be limited to 30-40 minutes and be carried out daily.
- Terrenkur is considered to be an excellent rehabilitation tool – limited in time, angle of inclination, and ascent distance along specially organized routes.
- Classes contribute to the soft training of the heart and gradually restore its function.
From the second day after stenting, respiratory gymnastics and physiotherapy exercises are prescribed. First they are carried out in bed.
A week after the operation, physiotherapy exercises are carried out under the supervision of a doctor, head of exercise therapy.
The duration of the recovery period depends on the severity of atherosclerotic lesions of the blood vessels of the heart, the number of stented vessels and the presence of myocardial infarction in the past. Rehabilitation after myocardial infarction and stenting takes longer and harder.
The duration of inpatient treatment and bed rest is longer, the duration of exercise therapy under medical supervision lasts about 2,5-3 months.
Myocardial revascularization is one of the safest heart surgeries. She saved lives and brought thousands of patients back to work. But its success depends on the fulfillment of a certain condition – competent and consistent rehabilitation after stenting is required:
- the first month recommended the restriction of physical activity, hard work;
- light physical exercise in the morning on the pulse of no more than 100 beats per minute;
- blood pressure should not be higher than 130/80 mm RT. Art;
- it is necessary to exclude hypothermia, overheating, insolation, bath, sauna, pool.
It’s better to live quietly, walk on foot and breathe fresh air.
Rehabilitation after surgery, in addition to dosed physical activity, proper nutrition, treatment of somatic diseases includes medical treatment. Accustoming to a permanent healthy lifestyle should begin in the first days after surgery, when the motivation for recovery is still very strong.
During this period, a set of measures is formed for the patient that will help him recover faster and reduce the risk of complications and the reappearance of the disease.
After the operation, the patient lies in bed 1-3 days in the hospital. At this time, doctors are closely monitoring the patient. After this, the person is discharged home, where he must also be in emotional and physical peace and observe bed rest. He should not take a bath and shower, physically burden himself.
During the recovery period, medication is prescribed for six months, designed to reduce the risk of re-stenosis, thrombosis and heart attack. And increase the duration and quality of life.
During the recovery period, the doctor prescribes everything necessary in order to:
- Improve a person’s physical abilities.
- Restore the functionality of the heart.
- Slow down the process of ischemia.
- Bring laboratory parameters back to normal.
- Prevent possible complications after surgery.
- To form the correct lifestyle for the patient, ensuring longevity.
- Provide psychological comfort.
Is stenting possible during pregnancy?
The installation of stents is not recommended for pregnant women, since during the operation, an x-ray is performed, which can be harmful during pregnancy. The operation can cause stress, a pregnant patient is given contrast, anesthesia and other drugs, which can also have a negative effect on the fetus. Some drugs may cause allergic reactions.
The operation is prescribed to pregnant women only in extreme cases, the surgeon informs the patient in advance about the possible risks and consequences and performs the operation only with her consent.
Life expectancy after heart stenting and surgery reviews
Marina Sergeevna, 58 years old, Kemerovo
Mikhail Mikhailovich, 60 years old, Voronezh
Atherosclerosis is a common disease, the main sign of which is an impaired metabolism. Unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, harmful substances in the atmosphere, other factors provoke the disease. With atherosclerosis in the blood, the level of cholesterol and other harmful lipids that are deposited in the walls of blood vessels increases.
Stenting of the vessels of the heart is a common operation that is performed for many pathologies. Often, such treatment is the only option that can save a person’s life. After the operation, a special rehabilitation is required, which allows you to consolidate the result, save the patient from complications and reduce the time required for recovery.
After installing the stent, the patient is usually prescribed the following drugs:
- Antiplatelet, reducing the risk of blood clots. (Aspirin, Aspicard, Aspinat, Thrombogard, Acetylsalicylic acid, Clopidogrel, Detromb, Trombeks and others. Prescribes a doctor to each patient individually.)
- Statins that lower cholesterol and reduce the likelihood of re-stenosis. (Simvastatin, Pravastatin, Pitavastatin, Lovastatin, Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin and others. Prescribes a doctor to each patient individually.)
- Drugs that reduce the risk of heart attack.
The set of prescription drugs depends on the condition and characteristics of the patient’s health. It is necessary to strictly take in full all the drugs that the doctor prescribed for the treatment period. After the stenting operation, it is strictly forbidden to self-medicate and drink medicine at your discretion.
The selection of therapy, its duration and start time depends on the specific clinical situation. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic drugs are prescribed, which are prescribed by a doctor.
The purpose of their appointment is to prevent the development of thrombosis in the vessels. The risk of bleeding, ischemia is taken into account. Life after stenting involves taking certain medications, which depend on the nature of the surgery.
The following drugs are used:
The dosage and combination of drugs after stenting is determined by the attending physician.
Life after stenting and reviews of the procedure
As a rule, an incorrect lifestyle leads to atherosclerosis, and in order to fully recover from the operation and avoid arterial stenosis in the future, it is necessary to change the lifestyle to a healthy one.
The transition to a healthy lifestyle is:
- Engage in morning exercises, move and calmly walk for 30 minutes – 1 hour about 3-4 days a week.
- Completely exclude smoking active and passive.
- You can safely enjoy swimming, skiing, use an exercise bike or a treadmill evenly and measuredly up to 6 hours a week.
- Exclude alcoholic beverages.
- Refuse fatty, fried and salty foods.
- Do not consume more than 4 grams of salt per day.
- Instead of coffee, drink tea.
- Attend visits to your doctor.
- Eat more vegetables, fruits, fish, rye and bran bread.
The diet and exercise program are the attending physician. For a successful recovery, you should fully adhere to his schedule.
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Unstable angina without stenting in 30% leads to myocardial infarction during the first 3 months from the moment of occurrence. After stenting, a heart attack does not develop.
An operation performed in time, which led to the restoration of adequate blood flow in the heart, improves quality and increases life expectancy. However, surgical treatment without sufficient reason involves an unjustified risk for patients. More often, stenting is justified in patients with acute coronary syndrome, against the background of a complicated course of heart attack.
Surgical treatment in patients with an asymptomatic course of the disease is permissible only with poor performance tests. Currently, this method of treatment is considered unreasonable.
Stenting of the vessels of the heart improves the prognosis of the future life of patients by tens of times.