When the attending physician prescribes a diuretic with pressure, the patient should simultaneously abandon salt, alcohol and certain medications. With hypertension, these drugs are prescribed for prolonged use. If a specialist notes that the drug is addictive and stops producing the expected result, then the dosage is increased or another main drug is selected.
The diuretic therapy process is almost never prescribed for patients at a young age, diabetics or people with obesity. Diuretics should be drunk 1 time per day, usually in the morning. In the process of treatment with this group of drugs, it is important to strictly follow all the rules that the doctor has established. Also, once every 1 weeks, a general blood and urine test is required to be taken to monitor kidney function and condition.
A disease associated with high blood pressure is accompanied by the intake of diuretic drugs. They are included in the list of essential drugs to help cope with hypertension.
The course of treatment allows you to develop a cumulative effect in the body, because of which it then begins to independently, without the help of drugs, remove excess fluid in a natural way. So it is possible to maintain the effect for a long time, maintaining blood pressure indicators within normal limits. It is not the diuretics themselves that act, but with their help, the process of weakening the resistance to blood flow occurs in the body.
With proper use, diuretic drugs significantly reduce the likelihood of developing all kinds of complications against the background of hypertension. According to statistical studies, the risks of stroke fall by 40%, and heart attacks – by 15%.
With the help of diuretic drugs for hypertension, it is possible:
- positively affect the renal channels at the cellular level;
- intensify the processes of effective absorption;
- normalize kidney filtering functions;
- reduce the amount of fluids entering the circulatory system;
- reduce the negative effects of substances, due to which the vessels are narrowed.
Use of diuretics for hypertensive crisis is possible only when a person is diagnosed with fluid retention. It is recommended that you take fast-acting medications such as Furosemide.
There are situations when the amount of blood that is in the circulatory system is less than normal. Under such circumstances, diuretic tablets should never be used. Otherwise, this will lead to vomiting, strong vomiting, and delayed release of urine from the body.
It is important to consider that taking a diuretic allows you to fight only against symptomatic manifestations. Diuretics cannot independently deliver a person from hypertension.
To achieve the desired effect, they are taken in parallel with drugs that the doctor selects for the patient against hypertension. Their joint use provides restoration of indicators and prolongs efficiency.
- How to take
- Loop group
- Best diuretic recipes
- Monastic tea
- Mother and stepmother
- Folk remedies
- Milk thistle
- 3. Beta-blockers
- brief information
- Important caution
- 4. Means acting on the renin-angiotensin system
- Operating principle
- Drugs for edema
- Drugs for hypertension
- Heart failure medications
- Drug “Furosemide”
- The drug “Torasemide”
- The drug “Indapam >
- The drug “Triamteren”
- The drug “Spironolactone”
- Doctor’s recommendations
How to take
Diuretics or diuretics are divided into several categories. But only 4 types help to cope with the problem of excessive blood pressure:
- Thiazide. This type of medication allows you to get rid of hypertension by combining it with other medicines to normalize blood pressure. Specialists do this because thiazide drugs have a wide range of side effects. They negatively affect lipid and electrolyte exchanges in the human body.
- Thiazide-like. These drugs are important for use if patients are diagnosed with systolic hypertension.
- Potassium-sparing. They are considered auxiliary medicines. Always included only in the complex treatment of problems of excessive blood pressure. Usually complement the effect of the thiazide group of drugs. Reception of these funds ensures the maintenance of a normal level of potassium.
- Loopback. This type combines potent drugs that provide an active reduction in blood pressure, an increase in which was caused by kidney problems. The use of such drugs helps to normalize the functions of the body and accelerate the withdrawal of salts (potassium, magnesium and sodium salts).
These four types of drugs are used for the complex treatment of hypertension.
It is correct to determine which diuretic will better affect the human body with high blood pressure, only a qualified specialist can. Without preliminary diagnosis, it is impossible to say exactly how and which medicine will affect the patient.
But for people suffering from hypertension and hypertension, it is important to navigate at least a little in the names of medicines and understand which ones are worth buying.
Therefore, we will separately consider representatives of the presented groups of diuretic medications, which are considered the most effective and useful. But self-medicating with their help is strictly prohibited. The diuretic is not completely harmless, because with the wrong selection of medicine, a person may encounter side effects.
All diuretics are released in the form of tablets, capsules and solutions, which are administered by injection. But representatives of the potassium-sparing group are available only in the form of solid dosage forms. Solutions for injection are not provided here.
The drugs included in this list showed themselves well:
“Spironol”. It is characterized by the ability to enhance the natriuretic effect, improve the process of urine excretion and reduce blood pressure. An additional feature is the decrease in ac >Veroshpiron
Tablets and capsules of the potassium-sparing group of diuretic drugs are only an adjuvant. They are not used independently and do not give the desired effect. Therefore, in the absence of concurrent administration of other drugs, it is not necessary to count on special effectiveness.
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.
Perhaps you want to know about the new medication - Cardiol, which perfectly normalizes blood pressure. Cardiol capsules are an excellent tool for the prevention of many heart diseases, because they contain unique components. This drug is superior in its therapeutic properties to such drugs: Detonic. If you want to know detailed information about Cardiol, go to the .There you will find answers to questions related to the use of this drug, customer reviews and doctors. You can also find out the Cardiol capsules in your country and the delivery conditions. Some people manage to get a 50% discount on the purchase of this drug (how to do this and buy pills for the treatment of hypertension for 39 euros is written on the official website of the manufacturer.),
Such drugs perform their direct functions better. They are produced in the form of solid tablets or liquid solutions, for the introduction of which injections are used.
The list of the most effective representatives of this group includes:
Britomar. It has a prolonged effect on the body. Effectively copes with the tasks of removing salts and liqu >Diuver
Lasix. It is characterized by a high speed of exposure. With the introduction of the injection, the effect is observed after a few minutes. It is important to take into account such a property of the drug as the excretion of magnesium, potassium and calcium, in addition to salts.
“Furosemide.” One of the most popular and affordable drugs. The tool is able to inhibit highly efficient processes of reverse absorption of salt ions and minimally reabsorb potassium. If used by internal administration, the effect is achieved after 20 minutes.
They are used only as directed by the doctor in an individually selected dosage. Qualitatively and quickly affect the patient’s body, but they have not the highest properties for lowering blood pressure.
Although representatives of this group remove fluids and salts well, they have a more serious list of side effects when compared with the following category of diuretics.
These medicines are available in pharmacies in the form of oral tablets and capsules. No injectable solutions.
Among the popular and popular remedies there are such medicines:
Representatives of this group of diuretics are less effective in terms of excretion of salt and water, but better than others are able to reduce blood pressure.
When treating with diuretic drugs, it will be necessary to completely exclude table salt from the diet. Many diuretics contribute to the leaching of potassium, so they should almost always be consumed simultaneously with special vitamin complexes with minerals. In the treatment of diuretics, hypertensive patients must comply with the following rules:
- do not drink alcohol and do not take sleeping pills;
- constantly monitor the level of blood pressure;
- Follow the recommendations of your doctor;
- drink the medicine in the morning so that it can not affect the night’s sleep;
- systematically donate blood and urine for analysis.
Until now, there is no single system by which all diuretics are divided, since all drugs have different chemical structures and affect the body systems in different ways. Therefore, creating an ideal classification does not work.
Often, separation occurs by the mechanism of action. According to this classification, there are:
- Thiazide preparations. They are great for the treatment of hypertension, perfectly lowering blood pressure. It is recommended to use them in parallel with other medicines. Thiazides are able to negatively affect the metabolism, therefore, such diuretics are prescribed in a small amount. The drugs (a list of only the most popular are given in the article) from this group are Ezidrex, Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlortalidone, Indapamide, Hypothiazide, Arifon.
- Loop means. They remove salt, fluid from the body due to their effect on kidney filtration. These drugs have a fast diuretic effect. Loop diuretics do not affect cholesterol, do not create the prerequisites for the occurrence of diabetes. However, their biggest drawback is the many side effects. The most common drugs are “Torasemide”, “Furosemide”, “Ethacrine acid”, “Bumetanide”.
- Potassium-sparing agents. A fairly extensive group of drugs. Such medications increase the output of chloride and sodium from the body. In this case, the removal of potassium minimizes such diuretic tablets. The list of the most popular drugs: Amiloride, Triamteren, Spironolactone.
- Aldosterone antagonists. These diuretics block the natural hormone that holds salt and moisture in the body. Aldosterone-neutralizing drugs promote fluid withdrawal. In this case, the potassium content in the body does not decrease. The most popular representative is Veroshpiron.
- Diuretics (diuretics)
- Calcium channel blockers
- Means acting on the renin-angiotensin system
- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE)
- Angiotensin receptor blockers (antagonists) (sartans)
- Neurotropic agents of central action
- Means acting on the central nervous system (CNS)
- Alpha blockers
In the initial stage of the disease, the doctor prescribes one drug, based on some studies and taking into account the existing diseases in the patient. If one drug is ineffective, other drugs are often added, creating a combination of drugs to lower blood pressure, affecting various mechanisms for lowering blood pressure. Combination therapy for refractory (stable) arterial hypertension can combine up to 5-6 drugs!
Drugs are selected from different groups. For instance:
- ACE inhibitor / diuretic;
- angiotensin receptor blocker / diuretic;
- ACE inhibitor / calcium channel blocker;
- ACE inhibitor / calcium channel blocker / beta-blocker;
- angiotensin receptor blocker / calcium channel blocker / beta-blocker;
- ACE inhibitor / calcium channel blocker / diuretic and other combinations.
Best diuretic recipes
Diuretics should be used strictly according to the rules. It is advisable to completely abandon the use of salt. And with a low level of potassium in the body, you need to increase it with the help of vitamin supplements and food. If potassium-sparing drugs are used, the use of products containing a high level of K. should be reduced.
Folk diuretics for hypertension can be used as infusions, decoctions or teas. In addition to the hypotonic effect, the drugs have an antispasmodic, sedative, strengthening effect for blood vessels and the heart.
The list of herbs under high pressure is huge, but the most effective and harmless are listed below.
Folk recipes for hypertension include a large number of diuretic infusions and decoctions. One of these is monastery tea. It contributes to the normalization of kidney function, eliminates vascular symptoms and easily removes excess fluid from the body, it is they that cause high blood pressure.
For cooking, you should take:
- elecampane root;
- rosehip berries;
- St. John’s wort;
- plain black tea without additives.
Mix 2 tablespoons of each ingredient in 1 liter of water. First, rosehip berries and elecampane roots are poured with boiling water and left over low heat for 20 minutes, then you need to add St. John’s wort, oregano and tea, leave it for an hour. Then strain. You can also purchase this collection in finished form.
Horsetail is allowed for the treatment of people in old age. Due to the high concentration of protein in the composition, silicon salts, fatty oils, alkaloids and organic acids, it has a beneficial effect on the human body. To prepare a diuretic, 4 teaspoons of dried grass should be poured with 2 cups of boiling water and insisted. Drink the drug a little all day.
Linden tea is not only healthy, but also a very tasty drink. A diuretic broth is prepared from 2 teaspoons of dried flowers per 250 ml of boiling water. Tea must stand in order to brew well; drink it must be warm, not hot. The product is rich in vitamin C and essential oils, characterized by a strong diuretic effect.
To make a diuretic decoction of lemon balm, you need to grind 10 g of grass, pour 250 ml of boiling water and let it brew. Take the drug in 5 ml. It has an excellent diuretic effect, it also calms down and perfectly reduces pressure, while normalizing heart rate. Melissa is prohibited for hypotonics working in the workplace, as it can cause drowsiness and inhibition of reactions.
Mother and stepmother
A decoction with coltsfoot is prescribed for severe swelling, dropsy, and kidney disease. It helps people lose weight through a positive effect on the digestive tract. To prepare, pour a teaspoon of dried leaves of coltsfoot with a glass of boiling water, slowly warm in a water bath.
So, hypertension is a common problem for the treatment of which diuretics are used. They are considered the main treatment for high blood pressure in the elderly. But taking such medicines often provokes a large number of side effects, so treatment is necessarily carried out under the supervision of a doctor with a clear establishment of doses and time, frequency of repetition of the course.
Many patients are interested in the opinions of those people who are already taking diuretic pills. Reviews, as a rule, contain information about the effectiveness, side effects.
People faced with a hypertensive crisis confirm that the drug “Furosemide” can very quickly and effectively help. However, at the same time they emphasize that it is worth using the drug only as prescribed by the doctor and in the recommended doses.
Confirm the effectiveness of the drug and pregnant women who use the drug in the last months of pregnancy. Patients claim that it perfectly eliminated puffiness.
However, abuse of the drug is strictly prohibited. After all, the medicine “Furosemide” is quite addictive enough. In addition, the drug removes potassium from the body. After prolonged use, patients may experience seizures.
The Indapamide preparation is in sufficient demand. Hypertensive patients are often prescribed such a remedy. Among patients, it is believed that the medicine is well tolerated by the body. In this case, the diuretic effect is favorable. Negative opinions about the drug are not observed.
A good effect on the body has the drug “Torasemide.” Patients taking the drug strictly as prescribed by the doctor and under his control say that the drug is very effective. It perfectly eliminates puffiness. In this case, patients do not observe problems in the form of side effects.
Favorable results bring the body and other diuretic tablets. Reviews on the drug “Spironolactone” indicate a strong diuretic effect. However, patients argue that the drug should be used only as prescribed by the doctor and in appropriate doses.
As a result of removing excess fluid from the body, blood pressure decreases. Diuretics prevent the reverse absorption of sodium ions, which as a result are brought out and carry water along with them. In addition to sodium ions, diuretics wash out potassium ions from the body, which are necessary for the cardiovascular system. There are diuretics that preserve potassium.
Diuretics are prescribed in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. Indapamide is the only diuretic used in hypertension alone. Fast acting diuretics (furosemide) are undesirable to use systematically in hypertension, they are taken in case of emergency. When using diuretics, it is important to take potassium preparations for up to 1 month.
After consulting a therapist, perhaps he will not immediately recommend diuretics for high blood pressure, but pay attention to diuretic herbs for hypertension, from which decoctions and teas are prepared. Consultation with a doctor will help to avoid unnecessary complications and allergic reactions. In order to treat hypertension, a large number of recipes have been developed that are aimed at eliminating edema and restoring normal blood pressure levels. The most effective and often used folk remedies include:
- Mix the juice from one lemon, 350 ml of cranberry juice and the same amount of beetroot, 200 g of honey and 200 ml of vodka. Take this tool 3 times a day before meals, 2 sips.
- Mix 500 g of chokeberry, 300 g of sugar. Consume 100 g of the drug 3 times a day.
- Prepare 10 partitions from walnuts, 1 kg of onions, 150 g of honey, 150 ml of vodka. All ingredients mix well and insist for 10 days. Take a drink in the morning and before eating at lunch, also the third time before bedtime in a tablespoon.
The use of diuretics based on herbs and berries can be an effective complement to traditional treatment or a mild alternative to therapy in the early stages of hypertension. Preparations of medicinal plants have a weak diuretic effect and stand out in a separate group of diuretics.
Despite the apparent harmlessness, the use of home-made diuretics for hypertension should only be after consultation with a doctor.
Many berry-based infusions and teas have diuretic properties. The most effective of them are:
Due to the high potassium content, the largest berry – watermelon also has diuretic properties.
To prepare a useful diuretic for hypertension, it is necessary to grind 2-3 tbsp. fresh berries (viburnum, cranberries, lingonberries, junipers) or chop dried rosehip berries, put them in a thermos, pour 300-400 ml of hot water and leave overnight. Ready to drink in 3-4 doses.
The following types of herbs have pronounced diuretic properties:
- hibiscus flowers (hibiscus);
- black cumin seeds;
- bearberry leaves;
- horsetail grass;
- Birch buds;
- cowberry leaves;
- stalks and leaves of capitate headwood;
- orthosiphon leaves;
- dandelion root;
- cornflower flowers;
- burdock root;
- elderberry leaves, etc.
The most effective herbal diuretics for the treatment of hypertension are prepared according to the following recipes:
- 1 tbsp juniper berries, birch buds and dandelion roots. To prepare the infusion, pour the resulting mixture into 200 ml of boiling water, warm in a water bath for 10-12 minutes and strain. Infusion take 1 tbsp. 3 times a day.
- 1 part of leaves of lingonberry and nettle, horsetail grass, lemon balm and parsley seeds. To get medicine, pour 3-4 tbsp. mix in a thermos, pour raw materials 500 ml of boiling water and insist for 8-12 hours. Ready to take 100-150 ml 3 times a day after meals.
- 1 part of bearberry leaves, cornflower, burdock root and lingonberry leaves. To prepare the infusion, pour 1 tbsp. vegetable raw materials 200 ml of boiling water, cover and leave for 15-20 minutes. After this, cool, strain and consume 100 ml 2 times a day.
The duration of treatment with medications and folk remedies is determined by the doctor. Strong diuretics are used for several days, and herbal preparations can be used for several months. Weak diuretics should be used in combination with moderate to strong diuretics.
Diuretic herbs for hypertension have been used in medicine since ancient times. The most effective are infusions, tea and decoctions of medicinal plants. There are a number of products that contribute to the removal of excess fluid from the body.
The action of herbal potions does not have a strong effect, they can not be used to stop the hypertensive crisis, with serious forms of the disease. Such drugs are taken in the complex treatment of the disease, in the form of an additional component.
Products with pronounced diuretic properties:
- fresh cucumber;
- fresh parsley leaves;
- strawberry berries;
- celery stalks.
Medicinal plants with pronounced diuretic properties:
- feline mustache;
- birch leaves;
- flax seeds;
- lingonberry leaves;
- dandelion leaves.
From the above herbs and fruits, you can prepare decoctions and infusions that help remove fluid, relieve swelling, and lower blood pressure.
Take one tablespoon of dried nettle and mint leaves, add 2 tablespoons of horsetail, 2 teaspoons of dill seeds.
Pour the ingredients into a porcelain teapot, pour a liter of boiling water, let it brew. Drink tea half a cup warm in the morning and afternoon.
Collect young birch leaves, rinse, finely chop. Five tablespoons of leaves pour 500 ml of hot water. Put in a dark place for several hours. Strain the finished infusion, take 1 tablespoon before meals three times a day.
Although folk recipes are considered natural and harmless, some contraindications are necessarily taken into account when using them.
Using diuretic folk remedies, be sure to follow a few basic rules.
- The use of folk remedies for hypertension is allowed strictly after agreement with the attending physician and under his control. You can not pick up herbs and fees yourself. Self-medication with such drugs is especially dangerous when using pharmacy medicines in parallel.
- Diuretic herbs for hypertension, like other drugs, are used only as a course. If you constantly use them, this will lead to excessive stress on the kidneys, which can turn into unpleasant and dangerous consequences.
- Pathologies such as prostate adenoma, urolithiasis, and decreased potassium levels in the blood are considered strict contraindications to the use of natural diuretics.
Separately, we consider several medicinal herbs that are characterized by an effective diuretic effect and help in combination with the main treatment to help solve the problem of high blood pressure.
It is considered a highly effective plant that helps strengthen the body, restore the cardiovascular system, normalize nerves and tidy up the human liver.
In the preparation of natural home-made medicines, branches, flowers, leaves, fruits, and even viburnum bark are used.
Using viburnum there are several popular recipes:
- The easiest way to use viburnum is to mix its berries with sugar. Such a delicacy should be eaten every day for 20 g. Before meals.
- Juice is squeezed from 1 kg. fresh berries, and the resulting cake is poured 200 ml. water. Boil the broth for 10 minutes, then mix it with fresh juice and add a little sugar. So you get a delicious fruit drink that should be drunk 30 minutes before a meal.
- Pure juice helps with hypertension. They drink it in 50 ml. before each meal.
- Melt the honey, add to it, while it is still hot, 40 g. Crushed berries of viburnum. Such a medicine is taken after a meal.
Keep in mind that with excessive blood clotting, gout and a tendency to form blood clots, viburnum cannot be used to treat hypertension.
A plant that is known to almost everyone. But not everyone knows about its healing properties. Dandelion is easy to assemble on your own, so you don’t have to spend money on it.
Tea is brewed from it using dry or fresh leaves. If you mix the leaves, pre-ground, with vodka in equal proportions, you get a very effective tincture.
The uniqueness of this plant is the diaphoretic and diuretic simultaneous effects.
It is actively used in folk medicine, when it is necessary to remove edema, get rid of seizures, cleanse the body and cope with inflammatory processes.
The plant helps to strengthen the process of production of gastric juice and has a hypnotic effect.
A fairly common medicinal herb that can gently and briefly act as a diuretic.
To achieve the desired result, experts advise using milk thistle regularly, but in small quantities. Reception is not the most convenient, although antioxidant properties and high-quality cleansing of the body open milk thistle from the best side.
Use in the form of a decoction of seeds. You need to take 30 g and pour 500 ml. water, boil and leave over low heat to approximately 250 ml. liquid evaporated. Then you need to insist the remedy for another 15 minutes.
It is considered a good preventive medicine, which is taken for this purpose, 1 spoon twice a day.
Refers to highly effective alternative medicines for the formation of stones in the bladder. Use in the form of a decoction and tinctures.
Tincture is prepared from 25 g of flowers and 100 ml. alcohol. First, the medicine is insisted, after which they drink 30 drops three times during the day.
The broth is made on the basis of 10 g of flowers and 200 ml. boiling water. Boil, insist, cool to room temperature and drink 50 ml.
It is deservedly popular as a diuretic natural remedy. The prepared medicine has a pronounced diuretic effect.
The composition of linden includes a large number of nutrients, vitamins, essential oils. Best used as tea. For this, 200 ml. boiling water take 2 teaspoons of dry linden. Drink only in hot form to ensure the desired effect.
This is only a small part of those folk remedies with which you can supplement or partially replace drugs. But not a single type of medicine is used without first consulting with a specialist.
First you need to find out why a person develops hypertension, what provoking factors exist and what is required to eliminate them. Hypertension requires increased attention, since an advanced disease can cause the development of a number of dangerous pathologies.
Calcium channel blockers (calcium antagonists) are a heterogeneous group of drugs that have the same mechanism of action, but differ in a number of properties, including pharmacokinetics, tissue selectivity, and the effect on heart rate. Another name for this group is calcium ion antagonists.
There are three main subgroups of AK: dihydropyridine (the main representative is nifedipine), phenylalkylamines (the main representative is verapamil) and benzothiazepines (the main representative is diltiazem). Recently, they began to be divided into two large groups depending on the effect on heart rate.
Diltiazem and verapamil are referred to as the so-called “rhythm-reducing” calcium antagonists (non-dihydropyridine). The other group (dihydropyridine) includes amlodipine, nifedipine and all other derivatives of dihydropyridine, increasing or not changing the heart rate. Calcium channel blockers are used for arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease (contraindicated in acute forms!) And arrhythmias. With arrhythmias, not all calcium channel blockers are used, but only pulsating.
- Verapamil 40mg, 80mg (prolonged: Isoptin SR, Verogalid EP) – dosage 240mg;
- Diltiazem 90mg (Altiazem PP) – dosage 180mg;
The following representatives (dihydropyridine derivatives) are not used for arrhythmias: Contraindicated in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina.
- Nifedipine (Adalat, Cordaflex, Kordafen, Cordipin, Corinfar, Nifecard, Phenigidin) – dosage of 10 mg, 20 mg; Nifecard XL 30mg, 60mg.
- Amlodipine (Norvask, Normodipine, Tenox, Cordy Kor, Es Cordy Kor, Cardilopin, Kulchek,
- Amlotop, Omelarkardio, Amlovas) – dosage of 5 mg, 10 mg;
- Felodipine (Plendil, Felodip) – 2,5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg;
- Nimodipine (Nimotop) – 30 mg;
- Lacidipine (Lacipil, Sakur) – 2 mg, 4 mg;
- Lercanidipine (Lerkamen) – 20mg.
Of the side effects of dihydropyridine derivatives, one can indicate edema, mainly lower extremities, headache, redness of the face, increased heart rate, increased frequency of urination. If the swelling persists, the drug must be replaced. Lerkamen, who is a representative of the third generation of calcium antagonists, due to the higher selectivity to slow calcium channels, causes swelling to a lesser extent than other representatives of this group.
There are drugs that do not selectively block receptors – non-selective action, they are contraindicated in bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Other drugs selectively block only beta-receptors of the heart – a selective effect. All beta-blockers interfere with the synthesis of prorenin in the kidneys, thereby blocking the renin-angiotensin system. In this regard, the vessels expand, blood pressure decreases.
- Metoprolol (Betalok ZOK 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, Egilok retard 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, 200mg, Egilok C, Vazokardinretard 200 mg, Metokardretard 100 mg) ;;
- Bisoprolol (Concor, Coronal, Biol, Bisogamma, Cordinorm, Niperten, Biprol, Bidop, Aritel) – most often the dosage is 5 mg, 10 mg;
- Nebivolol (Nebilet, Binelol) – 5 mg, 10 mg;
- Betaxolol (Lokren) – 20 mg;
- Carvedilol (Carvetrend, Coriol, Talliton, Dilatrend, Akridiol) – basically a dosage of 6,25 mg, 12,5 mg, 25 mg.
Drugs of this group are used for hypertension, combined with coronary heart disease and arrhythmias. Short-acting drugs whose use is not rational for hypertension: anaprilin (obzidan), atenolol, propranolol.
The main contraindications to beta blockers:
- bronchial asthma;
- low pressure;
- sick sinus syndrome;
- pathology of peripheral arteries;
- cardiogenic shock;
- atrioventricular block of the second or third degree.
These agents attach to alpha-adrenergic receptors and block them for the irritating effect of norepinephrine. As a result, blood pressure decreases. The applicable representative – Doxazosin (Kardura, Tonocardin) – is more often produced in dosages of 1 mg, 2 mg. It is used for relief of attacks and long-term therapy. Many alpha-blocker drugs have been discontinued.
Diuretic tablets are used to treat many ailments. The list of effective drugs continues to grow today. Diuretics are also called diuretics.
Their main goal is the removal of excess water, chemicals, salts from the body, which tend to accumulate in the walls of blood vessels and tissues. In addition, diuretics have a positive effect on the water-salt balance.
If a large number of sodium ions accumulate in the body, then subcutaneous tissue begins to be deposited. It very negatively affects the functioning of the kidneys, heart, hematopoiesis system. As a result, the patient has a variety of diseases and disorders.
In addition, diuretics are very popular in sports medicine. Often they are used for weight loss. Very often, diuretics (tablets) are included in complex therapy to combat a variety of ailments.
According to the effects on the body, modern diuretics are divided into two main forms. The first category of drugs affects the process of urination directly in the kidneys. The second form of diuretics is responsible for the hormonal regulation of urine formation.
There is a lot of information that diuretic pills, the list of which is given below, can easily solve cosmetic problems. However, many people believe that such drugs are completely safe. Some women take these funds on their own for weight loss purposes. Athletes make extensive use of drugs before the competition, wanting to lose weight. Even bodybuilders apply them, trying to create artificial dehydration so that the muscles look more prominent.
However, people who take diuretics without medical prescription are very at risk. After all, treatment with diuretics can turn into unpleasant consequences. You should know that diuretics are capable of:
- Remove potassium from the body, thereby increasing human fatigue.
- To provoke the deposition of salts.
- Increase the risk of diabetes, as they contribute to an increase in the level of “bad” cholesterol.
- Frequent urination, causing sleep disturbance.
- Create problems in men with potency.
Quite often, even those patients who understand the risk, believe that the latest drugs “Indapamide”, “Torasemide”, “Arifon” do not have a detrimental effect on metabolism. Such medicines are actually much better tolerated than old-generation medicines. However, they are also harmful to health. But the negative impact of these funds comes to light much later.
It is important to understand that fluid retention in the body is a symptom of a serious illness. Swelling cannot occur on its own. It provokes serious malfunctions in the functioning of the kidneys, heart, and sometimes other reasons. Consequently, diuretics are drugs (their list is very extensive) of exclusively symptomatic action.
4. Means acting on the renin-angiotensin system
The drugs act at different stages of the formation of angiotensin II. Some inhibit (suppress) the angiotensin-converting enzyme, others block the receptors that are affected by angiotensin II. The third group inhibits renin; it is represented by only one drug (aliskiren).
These drugs inhibit the transition of angiotensin I to active angiotensin II. As a result, the concentration of angiotensin II in the blood decreases, the vessels dilate, the pressure decreases. Representatives (synonyms are indicated in brackets – substances with the same chemical composition):
- Captopril (Kapoten) – dosage of 25 mg, 50 mg;
- Enalapril (Renitek, Burlipril, Renipril, Ednit, Enap, Enarenal, Enam) – dosage most often is 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg;
- Lisinopril (Diroton, Dapril, Lysigamma, Lisinoton) – the dosage is most often 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg;
- Perindopril (Prestarium A, Perineva) – Perindopril – dosage 2,5mg, 5mg, 10mg. Perineva – dosage of 4 mg, 8 mg .;
- Ramipril (Tritace, Amprilan, Hartil, Pyramil) – dosage of 2,5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg;
- Hinapril (Akkupro) – 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg;
- Fosinopril (Fosicard, Monopril) – in a dosage of 10 mg, 20 mg;
- Trandolapril (Gopten) – 2 mg;
- Zofenopril (Zokardis) – dosage of 7,5 mg, 30 mg.
The drugs are available in different dosages for therapy with varying degrees of increase in blood pressure.
The peculiarity of Captopril (Kapoten) is that because of its short duration of action, it is rational only for hypertensive crises.
Bright representative of the group Enalapril and its synonyms are used very often. This drug does not differ in duration of action, therefore, take 2 times a day. In general, the full effect of ACE inhibitors can be observed after 1-2 weeks of drug use. In pharmacies, you can find a variety of generics (analogues) of enalapril, i.e.
ACE inhibitors cause a side effect – a dry cough. In cases of cough development, ACE inhibitors are replaced with drugs of another group. This group of drugs is contraindicated in pregnancy, has a teratogenic effect in the fetus!
These agents block angiotensin receptors. As a result, angiotensin II does not interact with them, the vessels dilate, blood pressure decreases
- Lozartan (Kozaar 50mg, 100mg; Lozap 12.5mg, 50mg, 100mg; Lorista 12,5mg, 25mg, 50mg, 100mg; Vazotens 50mg, 100mg);
- Eprosartan (Teveten) – 400 mg, 600 mg;
- Valsartan (Diovan 40mg, 80mg, 160mg, 320mg; Valsacor 80mg, 160mg, 320mg, Valz 40mg, 80mg, 160mg; Nortian 40mg, 80mg, 160mg; Valsafors 80mg, 160mg);
- Irbesartan (Aprovel) – 150mg, 300mg;
Candesartan (Atakand) – 8mg, 16mg, 32mg;
Telmisartan (Mikardis) – 40 mg, 80 mg;
Olmesartan (Kardosal) – 10mg, 20mg, 40mg.
Just like their predecessors, they allow you to evaluate the full effect 1-2 weeks after the start of administration. Do not cause dry cough. Should not be used during pregnancy! If pregnancy is detected during treatment, antihypertensive therapy with drugs of this group should be discontinued!
If hypertension is caused by prolonged stress, then drugs that act on the central nervous system (sedatives (Novopassit, Persen, Valerian, Pustyrnik, tranquilizers, sleeping pills) are used.
The principle of action of diuretics is based on inhibition of the reabsorption process in the renal tubules.
More than 150 liters of fluid are filtered in the renal glomeruli per day, but most (up to 99%) are absorbed back into the bloodstream through the renal tubules. This process is called primary urine reabsorption. In order to double the amount of secondary urine that is brought out, it is necessary to reduce the volume of reabsorbed liquid by only 1%.
Together with the liquid, ions of several trace elements (sodium, potassium and chlorine) are also absorbed in the tubules. To reduce overall reabsorption, the active components of diuretics reduce the reverse absorption of sodium ions, and the liquid follows a more osmotically active chemical element.
Neurotropic drugs of central action affect the vasomotor center in the brain, reducing its tone.
The first representative of this group is clonidine, widely used earlier in hypertension. Now this drug is dispensed strictly according to the prescription. Currently, moxonidine is used both for emergency care for hypertensive crisis, and for planned therapy. Dosage 0,2 mg, 0,4 mg. The maximum daily dosage is 0,6 mg / day.
Drugs for edema
For a good effect, potent agents can be used. The following diuretic tablets are used for edema:
The above drugs are recommended to be taken in short courses. Be sure to take a break between receptions. This eliminates the addiction of the body to drugs and prevents the pronounced manifestation of the therapeutic effect.
Medium-strength diuretic tablets can also be used for edema:
Such drugs are used for a long time and continuously. The recommended dose is set by the attending physician. As a rule, it is about 25 mg per day.
With small edema, potassium-sparing diuretics such as Spironolactone, Amyloride, Triamteren are more suitable. They are taken in courses (2-3 weeks) at intervals of 10-14 days.
Drugs for hypertension
Diuretic drugs that are used at high pressure are divided into two categories:
- Means that have a quick effect. Such drugs are used for hypertensive crisis, when there is a need to quickly reduce pressure.
- Means for daily use. Medications help maintain an optimal level of pressure.
To stop hypertensive crisis allow potent drugs. The most popular drug is Furosemide. Its price is low. The following remedies are no less effective in a crisis:
The duration of the above drugs can be 1-3 days. After stopping the crisis, from such potent drugs, they switch to drugs that can daily maintain pressure at the required level.
The second category includes medium-impact agents. The most popular drugs are:
These medicines are taken daily as prescribed by your doctor. They perfectly maintain an optimal level of pressure.
Today, elevated blood pressure indicators are found in people of all ages. Improper nutrition, constant stressful situations, a sedentary lifestyle greatly rejuvenated the disease. Increasingly, young people face the problem of periodic pressure increases.
The most common reason leading to an increase in blood pressure is fluid and salt retention in the human body. The increased permeability of the vascular walls in the disease leads to the fact that sodium ions penetrate into the vessels, retaining fluid.
In the vascular system, narrowing occurs, swelling may occur. As a result, blood pressure indicators increase.
Diuretic drugs for hypertension are prescribed for the following reasons:
- diuretic drugs have the ability to quickly reduce blood pressure;
- they remove excess fluid and salts, removing puffiness from the vessels;
- significantly reduce the burden on the heart, alleviating the condition of the patient;
- many drugs have light vasodilating properties;
- with prolonged use exclude the development of diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, persistent hypertension.
Heart failure medications
Due to this pathology, fluid retention in the body often occurs. This phenomenon creates blood stasis in the lungs. The patient has many unpleasant symptoms, such as shortness of breath, swelling, enlarged liver, and wheezing in the heart.
For people with heart failure, the doctor must introduce a diuretic into the therapy. It perfectly prevents the most serious consequences in the form of pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock. At the same time, diuretics increase the tolerance of physical exercise by patients.
For patients with the first and second degree of illness, a good diuretic is a thiazide drug. With a more serious pathology, the patient is transferred to a powerful tool – a loop diuretic. In some cases, the drug “Spironolactone” is additionally prescribed. Especially relevant is the administration of such a drug if the patient has developed hypokalemia.
With the weakening effect of the use of the drug “Furosemide” cardiologists recommend replacing it with the drug “Torasemide.” It is noted that the latter remedy has a more beneficial effect on the body in severe forms of heart failure.
The medicine refers to high-speed diuretics. Its effect occurs after administration for 20 minutes. The duration of exposure to the drug is about 4-5 hours.
Effectively, this tool is not only for stopping a hypertensive crisis. According to the instructions, the medicine helps with heart failure, swelling of the brain and lungs, chemical poisoning. Often it is prescribed for late toxicosis during pregnancy.
However, the tool also has strict contraindications. The drug is not used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Do not use it for patients with renal failure, people who have hypoglycemia, urinary tract obstruction.
Low cost of the drug “Furosemide”. The price is approximately 19 rubles.
The drug “Torasemide”
The medicine is a fast-acting remedy. The drug “Furosemide” undergoes biotransformation in the kidneys, so it is not suitable for all patients. A more effective medicine for people suffering from kidney ailments is the drug “Torasemide”, since it passes through the liver in biotransformation. But with the pathologies of this organ, the medicine can cause serious harm.
After 15 minutes, the effect on the body begins (according to the instructions for use attached to the drug “Torasemide”). The price of the product varies from 205 to 655 rubles.
Long-term studies have confirmed the high effectiveness of the drug in heart failure. In addition, the drug perfectly removes salt and liquid. In this case, the loss of potassium by the body is insignificant, since an effective agent blocks the hormone aldosterone.
The drug “Indapam >
The medicine is very effective for hypertension (severe and moderate). The tool perfectly reduces pressure and maintains its optimal level throughout the day. In addition, it prevents an increase in this indicator in the morning.
You need to take the medicine once a day for 1 tablet, as indicated by the instructions enclosed in the drug “Indapamide”. The price of the product on average varies from 22 to 110 rubles.
Before taking, you should familiarize yourself with the contraindications, since an excellent remedy is not suitable for all patients suffering from hypertension. The drug is not intended for people who have revealed abnormalities in the work of the kidneys, liver. It is forbidden to take medicine for pregnant and lactating mothers. In case of cerebrovascular accident, anuria, hypokalemia, the drug is contraindicated.
The drug “Triamteren”
The medicine is a mild diuretic. It is recommended to use it in combination with another diuretic, Hydrochlorothiazide. Thanks to this combination, it is possible to reduce the loss of potassium by the body. The beneficial effect is given by the drug “Triamteren”. The instruction positions it as a potassium-sparing agent.
The medicine should be used strictly considering the prescribed dosage. People with impaired kidney function may experience an unpleasant side effect – elevated potassium levels. Sometimes the remedy can lead to dehydration. When interacting with folic acid, the drug helps to increase red blood cells.
The cost of the tool is 316 rubles.
The drug “Spironolactone”
The medicine is a potassium and magnesium preserving agent. It effectively removes sodium and chlorine from the body. After the start of the drug, the diuretic effect occurs approximately 2-5 days.
The medicine can be prescribed for hypertension, a chronic form of heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. Effective use of “Spironolactone” for swelling in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy.
The drug is not intended for people who are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, anuria. It is forbidden to use the drug in the first trimester of pregnancy. With hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, the drug is contraindicated. It should not be introduced into therapy for people with Addison’s disease.
Side effects may also occur when taking the medicine. In some cases, the drug provokes the occurrence of urticaria, itching, drowsiness, headache, diarrhea, or constipation.
The cost of the tool is about 54 rubles.
Before taking a diuretic, be sure to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking. In addition, the presence of chronic ailments is an important factor in the selection of the necessary medicine. You should not arbitrarily take such funds. It is necessary to strictly follow the doctor’s prescription. Take the drug at the appointed time (this will avoid unpleasant awakenings at night) and only at the dosage that has been prescribed to you. Such simple truths will not allow you to feel the grave consequences of taking diuretics.Ask a Question