Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

The expansion of one or more cavities of the heart is called dilatation. The main factors leading to an increase in the internal volume of the atria or ventricles are the effect of high blood pressure, lowering the tone of the heart muscle. This condition is not an independent disease and requires clarification of the cause of the appearance. After its elimination, the size of the heart can return to normal. The advanced form of dilatation is accompanied by heart failure.

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The expansion of the chambers of the heart can be:

  • Tonogenic, caused by increased pressure in the cavity. It occurs with narrowing of the valve openings or increased pressure in the aorta or pulmonary artery. May precede myocardial hypertrophy. The tone of the heart muscle and contractility have been preserved; it goes into the myogenic type with progression.
  • Myogenic. The reason is a decrease in the contractility of the heart muscle due to dystrophic disorders. Stable and irreversible process, myocardial fibers are stretched and elongated. It occurs in myocarditis and atherosclerosis.

Changes in each part of the heart occur due to a violation of the outflow paths from it or an increased load by incoming increased blood volume.

Expansion of the cavity can occur with narrowing of the left atrioventricular opening, which impedes the passage of blood into the ventricle.

Increased arterial hypertension may subsequently increase wall tension.

Dilation refers to the expansion of abdominal organs such as the heart, kidneys, stomach, intestines, etc. More often this concept is used to describe the pathology of the heart cavities. Depending on the location of the extension, dilation is distinguished:

  • the right atrium;
  • the left atrium;
  • right ventricle;
  • left ventricle.

Usually one of the heart chambers undergoes dilatation, less often there is an expansion of both atria or both ventricles. The danger of the condition lies in the subsequent development of arrhythmia, heart failure, thromboembolism and other diseases.

There are two forms of pathology:

  • Tonogenic dilatation appears due to high blood pressure and, as a result, the amount of excess blood in the heart chambers. Tonogenic dilatation precedes or is combined with myocardial hypertrophy.
  • Myogenic dilatation develops against a background of heart disease and leads to a weakening of the myocardial contractility. Changes in the cavities of the heart are irreversible.

Stretching of each of the chambers of the heart, as a rule, is preceded by its own causes. So, dilatation of the right atrium is caused by increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation. This is due to:

  • myocardial infectious diseases;
  • obstructive diseases of the bronchi and lungs;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • heart defects;
  • tricuspid stenosis.

Dilatation of the left atrium is the most common type of expansion of the chambers of the heart. The reason is a pathological narrowing of the valve through which blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle. Also, blood from the left ventricle, which is also deformed, enters the left atrium in reverse. As a result of this overload, the pressure in the large circle of blood circulation is constantly increasing, and it becomes harder for the heart to pump blood. Dilatation of the left atrium develops due to the following conditions:

  • heavy physical exertion;
  • atrial fibrillation (can be both the cause and the consequence of the expansion of the left atrium);
  • atrial fibrillation or flutter;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • mitral valve insufficiency.

The left ventricle is the chamber of the heart that receives blood from the left atrium and delivers it to the aorta, which nourishes the entire body. Dilation of the left ventricle occurs due to narrowing of the aorta or aortic valve. Previous violations include:

  • some heart defects;
  • aortic stenosis;
  • heart ischemia;
  • myocarditis;
  • hypertonic disease.

Another condition should be noted – dilated cardiomyopathy. Such a diagnosis is made when the expansion of the left ventricle occurs for no apparent reason, and possible diseases are excluded.

1 182 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

The main cause of dilatation of the right ventricle is stenosis or pulmonary valve insufficiency. Various diseases cause pathology:

  • bacterial endocarditis;
  • rheumatism;
  • pulmonary heart;
  • some malformations (lack of pericardium, arrhythmogenic dysplasia);
  • pulmonary hypertension.

Common causes causing an increase in both right and left cameras include:

  • complications after infectious diseases (scarlet fever, tonsillitis);
  • fungal and viral diseases;
  • parasite infection;
  • intoxication;
  • malignant and benign tumors;
  • pathologies of the thyroid gland;
  • some autoimmune diseases;
  • side effects of medications.

As a rule, moderate dilation does not entail any symptoms. Marked expansion of the chambers, especially dilatation of the left atrium, leads to a deterioration in the pumping function of the heart and the appearance of such phenomena:

  • shortness of breath;
  • arrhythmias;
  • weakness;
  • swelling of the extremities;
  • fatigue.

To determine the presence of dilatation of the heart, appoint:

  • Echocardiography is an ultrasound scan that is considered the most accurate diagnostic method. The method not only shows the sizes of the atria and ventricles and myocardial contractility, but also allows in some cases to identify the cause of the pathology (for example, heart attack, hypokinesia, valve insufficiency).
  • Electrocardiography – as an additional research method.
  • Scintigraphy – to differentiate dilatation with coronary heart disease.
  • X-ray.

The expansion of the chambers of the heart leads to serious consequences: over time, dilated hypertrophy occurs – stretching and thickening of the walls of the heart. The condition provokes the development of:

  • chronic heart failure;
  • chronic infectious heart disease;
  • mitral insufficiency;
  • valve ring expansion;
  • thrombosis, thromboembolism;
  • atrial and ventricular fibrillation.

These complications affect the quality of life of the patient, and in severe cases lead to death. Therefore, treatment should be prescribed and monitored by a cardiologist.

The goal of therapy is to eliminate or correct the primary disease that led to the stretching of the chambers. Depending on the underlying pathology, the following can be prescribed:

  • antibiotics;
  • glucocorticostero >5bfd75bf970015bfd75bf9703f - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

If drug therapy fails, surgical methods are used, mainly the installation of a pacemaker. The device controls heart rate.

Supportive and preventive methods are an integral part of therapy, without which success is almost impossible. Improving blood circulation, strengthening the heart muscle, increasing immunity, alleviating the load on the heart increases quality and prolongs life expectancy. To do this, you need:

  • make the right diet based on plant foods, lean meat, various varieties of fish, seafood, dairy products, nuts and cereals;
  • play sports or just move more, walk, do exercises;
  • get rid of bad habits.

Dilation of the left ventricle is a pathology that is characterized by stretching or expansion of the left chamber of the heart. The main function of this atrium is to pump blood from the lungs. She goes to the left ventricle, which in turn delivers it to the aorta. From here, blood enters the body, supplying vital organs with oxygen and useful substances.

Dilation of the cavity of the left ventricle occurs if it is impossible to transfer blood to it from the atrium. The most common cause of this condition is narrowing of the valve.

Against the background of mitral insufficiency, the atrium on the left is under tremendous strain, trying to push blood through a narrowed hole. Often, dilatation of the left ventricle of the heart occurs due to atrial fibrillation. This form of disturbance is characterized by prolonged atrial fibrillation.

The danger of the pathology lies in the fact that its symptoms may not appear at all or be similar to a person’s condition in heart failure. Sometimes it becomes an unexpected finding while the patient undergoes an ultrasound of the heart.

In medical practice, there is such a thing as idiopathic dilatation. This pathological condition can occur with an absolutely healthy heart and lungs of a person. As a rule, in this case, cardiologists advise the patient to lead a correct lifestyle, completely eliminate alcohol. Such recommendations allow the patient to restore their health after 9-12 months. If the cause of the pathology is not the excessive use of alcohol, then it remains only to observe the size of the left atrium.

Understanding what dilation of the right ventricle of the heart is, it is necessary to initially determine the nature of its origin. When a patient has hypertrophic areas in the heart muscle, this entails a thickening of the walls of the myocardium and an increase in the mass of the right heart region. Similar problems lead to volumetric and structural changes in the departments of the myocardium, organ hypoxia, and increased pressure in the right atrium.

In infants, this pathology may be a consequence of congenital heart disease. Hypertrophy in the baby occurs due to a defect in the ventricular septum, as a result of which the blood does not enter the aorta, but is ejected into the right ventricle. This forces the child’s atrium to experience severe stress when pumping large volumes of blood.

Trikuspidalnyj stenoz e1499434090183 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

Dilation of the right ventricle in adults, in particular in professional athletes, is usually associated with a pulmonary heart, namely breathing problems. Against the background of a lack of air in the pulmonary arteries, blood pressure rises, and the right atrium increases in volume.

Dilation can be caused by several reasons. Most often, they are represented by changes in the myocardium and overloads that this department experiences as a result of narrowing of the mitral valve. Pathological conditions are usually caused by an inflammatory process in the heart – myocarditis. Often the cause of the pathology is ischemic disease, hypertension.

Sometimes patients are diagnosed with disorders in the work of the left and right ventricles at the same time. This cardiac pathology is called chamber dilatation of the ventricles. Among its symptoms are:

  • shortness of breath even with little physical exertion;
  • the occurrence of pain that gives to the left under the scapula or in the chest area;
  • fatigue, lethargy, poor performance;
  • a sharp increase in blood pressure.

Development mechanism

The left atrium pumps blood, which is saturated with oxygen, into the left ventricle. Between these cavities is a mitral-type heart valve.

Often, dilatation occurs due to valve pathology – stenosis or insufficiency.

This is a narrowing of the lumen of the valve, as a result of which the blood is pushed hard. This pathology of the valve helps to ensure that blood from the left ventricle returns through the lumen back to the atrium. And this means that the atrium overflows and stretches.

50c35810f5254a30877d09333e51d6ca - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

Atrial fibrillation, i.e., atrial fibrillation and flutter, may be another cause of dilated left atrium. Often this arrhythmia occurs as a result of dilatation.

Cardiomyopathy can also cause dilatation, as it is characterized by dystrophy of the myocardial walls, and hence stretching.

It can be concluded that the risk factors for dilatation may be alcohol abuse, various infectious diseases, as well as the presence of neuromuscular and autoimmune pathologies.

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  • calcification of the left fibrous ring;
  • mitral regurgitation;
  • hypertonic disease;
  • aortic stenosis;
  • congenital heart defects;
  • neoplasm in the left atrium.

It is important to note that dilatation of the left atrium as a result of its development can lead to various diseases of the cardiovascular system. Namely, often it is thromboembolism, heart failure, various heart rhythm disturbances

Dilation of the heart chambers: causes and methods of combating pathology

The use of drugs is indicated for hypertension and secondary hypertension for unloading the myocardium, slowing the frequency of contractions, lengthening the relaxation period (diastole) to facilitate the outflow of blood from the atrium. Use the following groups of drugs:

  • beta-blockers (Concor, Betalok);
  • calcium antagonists (diacordin, isoptin);
  • ACE inhibitors (Tritace, Prestarium).

With the development of heart failure, cardiac glycosides (Korglikon, Strofantin, Digoxin) and diuretics (Lasix, Hypothiazide) are prescribed, in case of a disturbance in the rhythm of contractions, antiarrhythmic drugs (Cordaron, Rhythmorm) and anticoagulants (Aspirin, Warfarin) are indicated to prevent complications. With myocarditis and rheumatic origin of heart disease, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy is performed.

Valvular defects and great vessels, abnormalities in the structure of the heart chambers, subaortic stenosis and the presence of a tumor are indications for reconstructive heart surgery.

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Folk remedies

At the stage of full compensation, infusions and decoctions of plants can be recommended that facilitate the work of the heart and strengthen the heart muscle, normalize the heart rhythm, and remove excess fluid from the body. Their intake helps stop the progression of the disease and the development of heart failure. For this, herbal preparations are prepared from:

  • marshmallow herbs;
  • motherwort herbs;
  • hawthorn fruit;
  • mistletoe white (berries, leaves and twigs);
  • astragalus herbs;
  • berries of aronia.

A tablespoon of chopped plant material (one component or a collection) is poured with a glass of boiling water and infused in a thermos for about 3 hours. After this, the infusion in a warm form is drunk before meals, 1/3 cup three times a day for a month.

To prevent an increase in pressure and the appearance of edema in the patients ’diet, salt is limited to 3-5 g per day and liquid up to 1,5 liters (not including first meals and drinks). Vegetable products – vegetables, fruits, berries, cereals should prevail in the diet. The source of protein can be fish or chicken, cottage cheese and sour-milk drinks. Animal fats are limited, and fried and spicy dishes, canned food and marinades, alcohol are excluded from food.

Meal should be in small quantities 5 to 6 times a day in the form of heat.

The permitted types of cooking are boiling in water or steamed, baking. Useful vegetable salads with herbs and vegetable oil, freshly made juices from berries, fruits, carrots and pumpkins.

03 Ambulance
May 18, 2018/Faina/Iwaovo

. the pulse is large. the result of ultrasound of the heart — dilatation of the cavities of the right and left atria, LV myocardium is thickened, . saved. diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. PV 56% result of the cadiogram — dilatation of the drug, LVH. Eos is not rejected, sinus rhythm, . open

cardiologist
May 18, 2018/Faina/Iwaovo

. the pulse is large. the result of ultrasound of the heart — dilatation of the cavities of the right and left atria, LV myocardium is thickened, . saved. diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. PV 56% result of the cadiogram — dilatation of the drug, LVH. Eos is not rejected, sinus rhythm, . open

pediatric cardiologist
January 16, 2018/Irina/Yoshkar-ol

the child is engaged in swimming 2.5 years. now at 8 years old the results of heart ultrasound are a slight dilatation of the cavity of the left ventricle without impaired contractile function. he is left-handed. what can you advise? thanks open

cardiologist
December 7, 2015/Love/Goose-crystal

. and MK. Pathological flows were not detected. Dilatation of the cavities of the left atrium, right ventricle and atrium. Concentric hypertrophy . Interventricular septum thickened 1,7, posterior wall of the left ventricle thickened 1-4, valve leaflet . open

cardiologist
November 24, 2015/Nadezhda/Berdsk

Good afternoon. Tell me please did the ultrasound of the heart. Both atria are enlarged. Dilation of the left ventricle. Slight left ventricular hypertrophy. LV myocardial contractility reduced. EF 42-45%, . open

cardiologist
December 4, 2014/Julia/Belgorod

. with moderate stenosis and grade 1 insufficiency. pronounced dilatation of the right heart. mitral valve stenosis with myxomatosis . inferior vena cava. right ventricular myocardial hypertrophy. heart hypertrophy mass -30, 5 g. pulmonary hypertension with . open

cardiologist
October 17, 2014/Natalya/Budennovsk

. lying down time. He made an ultrasound of the heart 27.08.2014/8/34. Here are the results: . (mm) – 43, PP (mm) – 21x, aircraft (mm) – .

Parameters of systolic function of the left . aortic valves. Dilation of the left chambers of the heart. Systolic function of the left ventricle is satisfactory . open

cardiologist
September 13, 2014/Faina/Katunki

. 2006 and 2012), heart bypass surgery with complications (pleurisy, thoracic osteomyelitis) in 2013. Diabetes . segment. Moderate dilation of the left heart with a moderate decrease in the contractility of the left ventricular myocardium due to . open

cardiologist
July 17, 2014/Love/Komsomolsk-on-Amur

. oval window, differential diagnosis with atrial septal defect. Dilation of the right chambers of the heart (signs of volume overload). The contractile, pumping, and dystolic functions of the left ventricle are satisfactory. Third ultrasound: . open

  • difficulty breathing during physical exertion, and subsequently at rest;
  • asthma attacks;
  • cough, sputum with streaks of blood;
  • cyanosis of the lips, fingertips;
  • swelling on the legs in the evening;
  • pain and heaviness in the right hypochondrium;
  • weakness, dizziness, fainting;
  • memory impairment;
  • atrial fibrillation, extrasystole, impulse conduction blockade.

When diagnosing hydrocephalus, the sizes of the lateral ventricles are determined by their quantitative and qualitative characteristics. There are a sufficient number of special techniques for this. In this case, the direct depth of the lateral ventricles is measured, as well as the size of the cavity of the transparent septum located in the third ventricle.

Normally, the depth of the ventricles is in the range from 1 to 4 mm. With an increase in these indicators by more than 4 mm, as a result of which their lateral curvature disappears, and the shape becomes round, they speak of the beginning of the expansion of the lateral ventricles.

Dilation of the lateral ventricles is considered not a pathology, but a symptom of some disease. It is this reason that specialists have to diagnose.

Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid most often occurs as a result of a disease such as hydrocephalus. It is considered a fairly serious brain pathology. In this case, there is a violation of the process of absorption of cerebrospinal fluid, as a result of which it accumulates in the lateral ventricles, which leads to their dilatation.

Excess cerebrospinal fluid appears with lesions of the central nervous system. In this case, the ventricles expand due to delayed excretion of cerebrospinal fluid.

Violation of the normal circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid occurs due to the appearance of neoplasms in the form of tumors or cysts, as well as as a result of traumatic brain injuries, inflammatory processes and hemorrhages in the brain.

A common cause of dilatation is a congenital malformation of the Sylvian aqueduct. It occurs in 30% of cases of hydrocephalus. Also, the cause of hydrocephalus can be aneurysm of a Galen vein and a subdural hematoma of the posterior cranial fossa.

Arnold-Chiari syndrome causes communicable hydrocephalus. In this case, a shift in the brain stem and cerebellum occurs. Also, this condition can be caused by cytomegaly or toxoplasmosis.

Dilation of the lateral ventricles is the cause of brain defects. At the same time, despite the fact that they do not affect the health of the child, observation by a specialist is still necessary.

Most often, dilatation of the lateral ventricles, not caused by serious diseases, does not lead to serious consequences. It can be a consequence of rickets, as well as appear as a result of the specific structure of the skull.

Dilation and asymmetry of the lateral ventricles is detected by ultrasound of the brain. In case of doubt, after a certain period of time, a second ultrasound is prescribed.

If the patient does not complain, no other diseases have been revealed from the cardiovascular, endocrine and other systems that can lead to dilatation, treatment is not indicated, it is enough to see a cardiologist and control Echocardiography at least 1 time per year. When identifying the cause leading to the expansion of the atrium, it is necessary to directly affect it.

If such causes are complications of infectious diseases leading to inflammation of the heart muscle and a change in its chambers – anti-infection treatment, if the reason is to change the valve apparatus – consult a cardiac surgeon about the advisability of replacing the valve, if dilatation occurs due to consistently high numbers of blood pressure – adequate antihypertensive therapy, if the cause of dilatation lies in endocrine disorders – treatment and normalization of the endocrine glands.

Eliminating the cause inhibits the progression of dilatation. Also, treatment should be aimed at eliminating the complications of the enlarged cavity of the left atrium, which include rhythm disturbances, heart failure, thromboembolism. With a tendency to the formation of blood clots, antiplatelet agents are prescribed, antiarrhythmogenic therapy is carried out when rhythm disturbances are detected. To improve nutrition, oxygenation of the myocardium is prescribed metabolic drugs.

Do not forget that a patient with an enlarged left atrium must observe a healthy lifestyle, give up alcohol and cigarettes forever, monitor body weight and prevent its increase, follow a diet low in salt and animal fats, maintain acceptable physical activity and fully comply with the appointments and recommendations of the attending physician.

Therapies

Heart dilatation treatments have improved significantly over the last decade. Drug therapy can slow the progression of the disease, and in some cases even improve the condition of the heart.

Standard therapy may include:

  • ACE inhibitors;
  • diuretics (diuretics) and digitalis;
  • anticoagulants;
  • salt restriction;
  • avoidance of alcohol.

Operation

Artificial pacemakers can be used in patients with delayed intraventricular conduction and implantable cardioverter defibrillators with severe cardiac arrhythmias.

These methods of treatment stop the symptoms of dilatation, reduce the period of hospitalization, and improve the patient’s quality of life. Patients with advanced diseases that are not amenable to drug therapy are prescribed heart transplantation.

Dilation should be treated when pathology is detected at different stages. With initial manifestations, the size of the atria can be returned to normal and serious consequences can be prevented.

5bfd75bfeb76a5bfd75bfeb7a7 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

Stretching the chambers requires the elimination of the underlying pathology (inflammation, hypertension, mechanical obstruction in malformation). Therefore, antibiotics, diuretics, glucocorticoids, antihypertensive drugs, surgical correction may be required.

The presence of heart failure is treated with cardiac glycosides.

Much attention is paid to restoring the correct rhythm. Antiarrhythmic drugs (β-blockers) are used for this.

In the absence of a therapeutic effect, methods of exposure to cold (cryoapplication), incisions and cutting off the left atrium from the right, other types of surgery with the simultaneous elimination of the defect are used.

If surgical treatment is not possible, the result is achieved by a combination of Digoxin, small doses of beta-blockers on the background of taking Warfarin to prevent separation of the thrombus.

The following should be included in dilatation therapy:

  • tissue metabolism enhancers;
  • drugs to relieve ischemic changes in the vessels;
  • ACE inhibitors;
  • antiplatelet agents.

Atrial dilatation should be considered as part of the general pathology of the heart, as well as the influence of other factors requiring myocardial overload.

5bfd75c0448c55bfd75c044905 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

The prognosis for the early treatment of the disease and the elimination (correction) of its causes is favorable: the heart can return to its natural size, or slightly decrease, which will significantly reduce the risk of complications. Treatment should be aimed at getting rid of the underlying pathology, which led to the stretching of the heart chambers.

In addition, for heart dilatation, special therapy is also indicated, which may include:

  • means for influencing the metabolism in tissues;
  • heart failure medications;
  • anti-ischemic agents;
  • medicines to lower blood pressure;
  • diuretics;
  • ACE inhibitors and beta blockers;
  • cardiac glycosides;
  • antiplatelet agents;
  • antiarrhythmic drugs.

As non-pharmacological measures, a diet is indicated with the exception of fatty foods and a restriction of salt in the diet, quitting smoking and alcohol, exercise therapy.

In severe cases with progressive heart failure, only a heart transplant can help the patient.

From folk remedies to improve metabolic processes, you can apply the following recipes:

  1. Pour a teaspoon of chopped valerian root with 150 ml of cold water, leave for 12 hours. Take 50 ml three times a day.
  2. Brew a tablespoon of mint with 300 ml of boiling water, leave for 2 hours. Drink 100 ml three times a day.
  3. Mix the immortelle and chamomile flowers, birch buds, St. John’s wort grass, hawthorn fruits equally. Brew a tablespoon of the collection with a glass of water. Drink ¼ cup three times a day. Herbal treatment is best done at least 30-45 days 2-3 times a year.

This disease is today the main cause of early death of young athletes.

Left ventricular hypertrophy is prone to progression. The risk of thickening the walls of the left ventricle is very high. Sports training in unlimited quantities, anxiety and frequent experiences, inadequate sleep and rest – all this can cause the occurrence of hypertrophy.

Therefore, a person may not be aware of the development of his hypertrophy. One of the rare signs of left ventricular hypertrophy can be fainting, which is caused by a sudden sinking of the heart.

This happens due to a lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscle and oxygen deficiency of the myocardium.

Such a thickening of the muscles of the left atrium in frequent cases can be considered not as an independent disease, but as a symptom of any disease.

The goal of treating left atrial hypertrophy is to normalize the functioning of the heart muscle. First, it is necessary to identify the nature of the origin and feature of the disease.

If patients develop cavity dilatation and systolic dysfunction, heart failure therapy is carried out according to general rules. Another method of operation according to L. Bokeria and K.

Borisov – excision of the area of ​​the enlarged interventricular septum from the right atrium.

The article (link) describes the disease myocardial hypertrophy. As an adjuvant to the main course of treatment, alternative methods of treating left atrial hypertrophy are also included. Treatment of left atrial hypertrophy will be full and effective if the patient completely abandons bad habits, including the use of alcohol.

My mother got to the hospital with hypertrophy and now she is undergoing treatment. The expansion of the cavities of various organs in the human body is called the term dilatation. This expansion can be both physiological and pathological. The four-chamber human heart, consisting of 2 atria and 2 ventricles, is also a cavity organ.

A feature of the work of the left atrium is the pumping of oxygenated blood into the left ventricle. Then the blood goes to the aorta and spreads throughout the body. Between the atrium and the ventricle there is a kind of sash – a valve.

At the same time, in addition to pulmonary blood, blood from the left ventricle enters the left atrium. Dilatation of the left atrium does not have its own symptoms, since this condition is not an independent disease. One of the reasons for the dilatation of LP is cardiomyopathy. The trigger for this can be alcoholism, infections, neuromuscular and autoimmune pathologies.

Ventricular overload with excess blood. From the left atrium, blood is pushed into the left ventricle and further into the aorta – the largest arterial vessel in the body. With aortic stenosis or narrowing of the aortic valve, the ventricle hardly pushes blood and expands from overload. The pathology of the muscle wall of the ventricle itself, as a result of which it becomes thinner and stretched.

This diagnosis is made after the exclusion of all possible causes of dilation.

Sometimes irreversible sclerotic or cicatricial changes can occur in the heart muscle, treatment in this case is aimed at slowing down the development of the disease.

The treatment of moderate dilation may be based on metabolic therapy, which affects the processes of metabolism in cells and tissues, but severe cases still require a more serious approach.

5bfd75c08fd685bfd75c08fda5 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

Dilation of the heart is an expansion of the left, right atrium or ventricles. It can occur only in one chamber of the heart or in several at the same time.

The cause is many diseases, such as coronary heart disease (coronary heart disease), arterial hypertension, rheumatism, endocarditis, obstructive bronchopulmonary pathologies, malformations. Various violations lead to the expansion of a particular camera.

Dilation is dangerous for the development of heart failure, congestion in the pulmonary circulation and large circulation, thrombosis. The most serious complications are heart attack, pulmonary edema, and multiple organ failure.

Dilation of the chambers of the heart is the actual expansion of the walls, which leads to the expansion and increase of the entire structure. The organ consists of 4 chambers: 2 atria and 2 ventricles. Due to their consistent reduction, blood moves throughout the body. But under the influence of various factors there is an overextension of one camera or two at the same time.

The main problem that the body encounters during heart dilatation is that the organ is not able to pump the amount of blood necessary to ensure normal functioning.

Moderate expansion of the chambers leads to hypoxemia and hypoxia, stagnation in the large and small circle, thrombosis.

The following conditions are life-threatening: pulmonary embolism, heart attack of various organs, multiple organ failure.

There are 2 types of dilatation: myogenic and tonogenic.

The first type of expansion occurs due to myocardial damage. The muscle layer of the heart undergoes changes, which leads to its weakness or destruction. As a result, blood flow decreases, there is a threat of heart failure. More often this type is associated with a serious illness – dilated cardiomyopathy.

Tonogenic expansion is caused by increased pressure in the atria or ventricles, due to which blood accumulates excessively in the cavities of the heart, which leads to its expansion without increasing wall thickness.

Distinguish between simple, hypertrophic and atrophic dilation.

With simple expansion, the wall does not significantly decrease in thickness, but the cavities of the heart are enlarged. With hypertrophic walls become thicker, the cavities of the heart expand. When atrophic, the walls become thinner, but the chambers increase in volume. This is the most unfavorable view, as the heart is unable to exert any pressure on the blood in it.

Dilation is not a separate disease, but arises as a result of various pathological conditions.

What is the health threat in a child and an adult

With far advanced dilatation, signs of circulatory decompensation increase:

  • asthma attacks
  • inability to breathe in a horizontal position,
  • wheezing above the surface of the lungs
  • swelling of the face and limbs,
  • fluid accumulation in the abdomen and chest.

When making a diagnosis, the history of the occurrence of signs of circulatory failure – shortness of breath, tachycardia, wheezing in the lungs, swelling of the extremities, expansion of the borders of the heart with percussion, is taken into account. To clarify the diagnosis, instrumental examination methods are required:

  • ECG – signs of overload of one or more chambers of the heart, rhythm disturbances in the form of atrial fibrillation, conduction blockade.
  • Ultrasound of the heart is the main way to detect the expansion of the atria or ventricles, as well as the presence of intracardiac hemodynamics – reverse blood flow, pressure overload.
  • Radiograph – increased heart size due to one of the cavities.
  • Scintigraphy for assessing changes in the myocardium.
  • MRI and CT to detect the cause of dilatation of the heart.

Therapy for the expansion of the heart involves the correction of manifestations of circulatory failure, arrhythmias.

With decompensation, patients are transferred to bed rest, the intake of water and sodium chloride is reduced. Use the following groups of drugs:

  • ACE inhibitors – Enap, Kapoten;
  • diuretics – Veroshpiron, Triampur;
  • antiarrhythmic – Bisoprolol, Carvedilol;
  • prolonged nitrates (reduce blood flow to the right half of the heart) – Isoket, Nitrogranulong.

Prevention of heart enlargement consists in adequate treatment of rheumatism, endocarditis, viral and bacterial infections that may be accompanied by myocarditis, detection and timely surgical treatment of congenital and acquired heart defects.

It is necessary for diseases that are potentially dangerous in relation to dilatation of the atria or ventricles, to completely abandon alcohol, to ensure a sufficient amount of protein and vitamins in the diet.

Consequences and complications

If it is possible to eliminate the cause of dilatation of the atria, then their volume may gradually decrease and return to normal values. In all other cases, the chambers of the heart gradually increase in volume, which leads to increasing heart failure.

During life, the average person produces no less than two large pools of saliva.

According to WHO research, a daily half-hour conversation on a cell phone increases the likelihood of developing a brain tumor by 40%.

The cough medicine “Terpincode” is one of the leaders in sales, not at all because of its medicinal properties.

The first vibrator was invented in the 19th century. He worked on a steam engine and was intended to treat female hysteria.

74-year-old Australian resident James Harrison became a blood donor about 1000 times. He has a rare blood type, the antibodies of which help newborns with severe anemia survive. Thus, the Australian saved about two million children.

During sneezing, our body completely stops working. Even the heart stops.

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5bfd75c0eba1e5bfd75c0eba5c - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

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Features and classification

One of the known options for cardiomyopathy is dilatation of the ventricles. Cavity expansion occurs in many patients for no apparent reason. As a result, the superficial myocardial function is disrupted, which leads to a rapid increase in its size. The appearance of dysfunction is associated with a decrease in the strength of contractions of the muscle wall of the ventricles.

With tonogenic dilatation, an expansion of the heart cavity is noted due to an increase in blood flow to them and an increase in pressure. The myogenic form is characterized by an irreversible change in the chamber in volume. It appears against the background of fiber elongation and stretching with a simultaneous lack of contractility.

The latter variant of dilatation is most often combined with a decrease in the tone of the wall. It is divided into primary and secondary. The first form develops with myocarditis in the acute or chronic stages, cardiosclerosis caused by atherosclerosis. With primary expansion, a uniform increase in the cavity in size occurs.

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The secondary form occurs already against the background of the formed myocardial hypertrophy. The size of the heart in comparison with the primary is significantly increased.

There are many factors that have a negative effect on the myocardium, but there are certain conditions that contribute to the dilatation of the cavity of the left ventricle:

  1. Pathology associated with damage to the myocardium.
  2. Excessive load.

Some patients are characterized by an asymptomatic course of the disease amid complete health. Over time, if it is impossible to compensate for the condition, signs of the disease appear. This is characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy. Other causes are inflammation, hypertension, which over time makes the muscle wall weak. This condition leads to a loss of elasticity and excessive extensibility, which leads to dilatation of the cavity.

Overload of the left chamber of the heart occurs when the functioning of the valve opening in the aorta is impaired. Narrowing creates an obstacle to the flow of blood, which eventually leads to stretching of the heart tissue and dilatation of the cavity.

This condition is observed in people with defects in which a large amount of blood enters the ventricle.

According to the development mechanism, two types of dilatation are distinguished: tonogenic and myogenic. Tonogenic dilatation is also called compensatory, as at this stage the contractile function of the heart is preserved, and eliminating the cause of increased pressure in the left ventricle leads to the reverse development of the process. The sizes of the atria and ventricles are returning to normal.

At the time of diastole, the volume of blood entering the ventricles is large, which causes the chambers to stretch. But at this stage, the left ventricle is still able to work well, throwing a portion of blood into the efferent vessels with the same strength. However, the myocardium is not an eternal muscle, and it, like other organs, is subject to wear and tear.

If the cause is not eliminated, and the overload by volume and liquid continues, at some certain moment the human “motor” begins to give up. The ventricular myocardium cannot force blood with the same force, muscle fibers are stretched, losing their contractility. Myogenic dilatation develops.

Myogenic dilatation is primary and secondary. Primary can develop against the background of myocarditis, cardiosclerosis and is a uniform extension of the cavity of the left ventricle. The secondary form develops against the background of existing myocardial hypertrophy. With secondary dilatation, the dimensions of the chambers significantly exceed those in comparison with the primary. Dilation can be isolated when only one chamber of the heart is expanded.

The left departments (atrium and ventricle) can expand, both ventricles – the right and left ventricles. The heart, which has all the chambers expanded, is called a bull’s heart. An example of an isolated one is dilation of the right atrium with stenosis of the tricuspid valve or its insufficiency against the background of infective endocarditis.

Causes

Just because an increase in the chambers of the heart does not occur, there are certain reasons.

Dilation of the right atrium appears due to an increase in pressure in the pulmonary circulation. The reasons for this are:

  • myocardial disease infections;
  • obstructive diseases of the lungs and bronchi;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • vices;
  • tricuspid stenosis.

Dilatation of the left atrium appears most often from all types of dilatations of the heart. The reason for this is a pathological decrease in the valve separating the left atrium and the left ventricle, through it the blood is distilled from one to the second part.

In the left atrium, blood sways from the left ventricle of the heart, and it also increases. An overload appears, the so-called tonogenic dilatation, and it becomes difficult for the heart to distill blood due to increased pressure in a large circle.

The reasons for the occurrence of an increase in the left atrium are:

  • strong physical exertion;
  • atrial fibrillation. It is the cause or consequence of an increase in the cavity of the left atrium;
  • flutter or atrial fibrillation;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • mitral valve insufficiency.

The left ventricle is a cardiac chamber that distills blood from the left atrium to the aorta, saturating the whole organism. Left ventricular dilatation is a consequence of a decrease in the aortic valve or the aorta itself. The harbingers of failure are:

  • certain vices;
  • aortic stenosis;
  • ischemic disease;
  • myocarditis;
  • hypertension.

5bfd75c1040265bfd75c104063 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

There is another position that stands out from the overall clinical picture – dilated cardiomyopathy. This is a special condition when there are no causes in the expansion of the left ventricle, and diseases are completely excluded.

Dilation of the right ventricle appears due to stenosis or valve insufficiency in the pulmonary artery. Harbinger of this are individual diseases:

  • bacterial endocarditis;
  • rheumatism;
  • pulmonary heart;
  • malformations, such as arrhythmogenic dysplasia or lack of pericardium;
  • pulmonary hypertension.

There is a dilatation of both atria. It is an increase in the right heart and left. The causes of LP and PP are:

  • various complications after illnesses, such as tonsillitis or scarlet fever;
  • fungal and viral diseases;
  • helminths;
  • poisoning;
  • tumors are benign and malignant;
  • thyroid abnormalities;
  • certain autoimmune diseases;
  • side effects of pills.

A fairly common occurrence, when a small expansion of the heart is a literally random discovery. Ultrasound of the heart is now the best diagnostic method. The result shows the most important changes in the state of the main organ:

  • camera size;
  • how much the systolic and diastolic function of the heart ventricles is disturbed;
  • whether there is damage to the valves;
  • blood clots in the heart;
  • pathology of the pericardium.

The survey results are compared with normal values ​​by age, height and weight. For example, the normal diameter of the left ventricle is not more than 56 mm, but in tall and people in the body a small expansion will not become a defect. The diagnosis is made when the increase in several or all of the cameras at once is more than 5%.

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Other diagnostic methods that will help identify pathology:

  • ECG. Separation of dilation and other diseases, reveals a type of heart rhythm disturbance.
  • Roentgenography. It reveals signs inherent in cardiomegaly, an increase in heart cavities, if the case is severe – a spherical shape of the heart, an increase in the roots of the lungs, signs of pulmonary hypertension.
  • Coronaroangiography. It is necessary to clarify the structure of the heart if surgical treatment is necessary.
  • Electrocardiogram. An ECG allows you to see the changes that occur with the left ventricle. This method will not help to detect dilatation itself.
  • Ultrasound In the process of conducting this study, you can see the expanded cavity of the heart, as well as structural changes in the walls of the left atrium.

Dilation often causes the development of heart failure and arrhythmias, which are serious diseases that threaten a person’s life. Other complications of this condition include:

  • atrial fibrillation;
  • thrombosis;
  • heart and mitral regurgitation;
  • thromboembolism;
  • arrhythmias;
  • myocardial infections.

In order to prevent the occurrence of such consequences, it is necessary to treat the pathology immediately after its diagnosis. It also increases the chances of a full recovery.

A patient who has found dilatation of the left ventricle requires special treatment. It must be selected, based on the cause of the ailment. In most cases, medical correction helps to restore the patient’s health, but there are also situations where pathology triggers irreversible processes in the heart. It can be fibrosis, scarring or myocardial sclerosis. In such cases, it remains only to prevent further hypertrophy of the left ventricle.

Depending on the situation, the patient may be assigned the following groups of drugs:

  • Anti-ischemic agents. They reduce myocardial oxygen demand, contributing to a decrease in heart rate and suppressing contractility of the left ventricle. The drug “Sustak” is especially popular in medical practice.
  • Diuretics. They have a diuretic effect and help lower blood pressure by eliminating excess water and salt from the body. They significantly reduce the load on the heart muscle, which is caused by excess flu .

In the absence of the proper effect after the drug course, the patient may be shown to undergo surgical treatment. Dilation is corrected by heart transplantation or the introduction of a pacemaker.

For any heart disease, treatment must be combined with a diet. First of all, fatty, fried and other junk food should be removed from the diet. It is also required to limit salt intake. In this case, it is very important to drink a sufficient amount of water (1,5-2 liters per day).

Timely drug therapy, a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition can significantly improve the patient’s condition. All this gives a person a chance for a full recovery and good health.

5bfd75c10fcae5bfd75c10fcec - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

It also negatively affects the heart chamber and vices. They contribute to increased pressure in the pulmonary artery. Such a process ends with dilatation due to a deficit in the compensatory functions of the body.

The expansion of the chamber in the left ventricle often occurs under the influence of several provoking factors. This condition is directly related to the age of the patient, his heredity, the presence of excess body weight. The reasons that negatively affect the myocardium are considered:

  1. Congenital heart defects. Exposure to adverse environmental factors occurs already during pregnancy. If the lesion becomes extensive, then the fetus dies. In the case of a mild lesion, a defect is formed.
  2. Inflammatory diseases that include myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis. The risk group includes children and adolescents, in whom cases of this pathology are often recorded.
  3. Diseases of the cardiovascular system in a chronic form. These include arterial hypertension, angina pectoris, ischemia.
  4. Metabolic syndrome, the basis of which is the patient’s overweight and diabetes.
  5. Chronic pathology of the lung tissue.
  6. Diseases of the kidneys, endocrine and hematopoietic systems.
  7. Genetic predisposition.
  8. Autoimmune disorders.

Side effects from drugs also belong to this group. Of the endocrine pathologies, pheochromocytoma is most common. It represents a benign or malignant form of tumors. It is characterized by excessive formation of adrenaline.

Although in many cases the cause is not obvious, cardiac dilatation is the result of myocardial damage resulting from various toxic, metabolic or infectious agents. This may be due to fibrous myocardial changes from a previous myocardial infarction. Or it may be a late complication of acute viral myocarditis of the heart, for example, with the Coxsackie virus and other enteroviruses

Other causes of heart dilatation include:

  • Pregnancy. Peripartial cardiomyopathy occurs at the end of pregnancy or several weeks before and after childbirth. This is reversible in half the cases.
  • Alcohol. With the abuse of alcoholic beverages, alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs.
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland.
  • Muscular dystrophy.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Autoimmune mechanisms are also proposed as a reason for heart dilatation.

Recent studies have shown that these factors cause premature ventricular contractions with extremely high occurrence (several thousand times a day).

Diagnostic methods for detecting heart dilatation:

  • Generalized dilatation of the heart is visible with a normal chest radiograph.
  • An ECG of the heart often shows sinus tachycardia or atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, an increase in left atrium, and also defects in intraventricular conduction.
  • An echocardiogram shows dilatation of the left ventricle.
  • Cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography often diagnose coronary heart disease.
  • For advanced diagnosis, CT or MRI of the heart is prescribed.

1 183 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is itX-ray enlargement of the heart shadow may be a sign of dilatation

Dilation of the atria and ventricles of the heart

If a violation of blood circulation occurs, one of the chambers of the heart expands, the medical term is dilatation of the heart. But there are cases when, due to various diseases, both atria and the ventricle increase.

Reduced heart function can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems.

What’s this

Dilation is a type of cardiomyopathy of the heart – a group of diseases that affect primarily the activity of the heart muscle. Different cardiomyopathies have different causes and affect the heart in different ways.

With cardiomyopathy, part of the myocardium is dilated, often without any obvious reason. The systolic pumping function of the heart is disturbed, which leads to a progressive increase in it.

This process is called dilated hypertrophy of the ventricles of the heart.

Normal heart anatomy and dilatation

Heart dilatation is more common in men than in women aged 20 to 60 years. About one in three cases of congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy. The disease also occurs in children.

Symptoms

Dilatation of the left or right ventricle of the heart may not cause significant symptoms to affect quality of life.

Persons suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy may have:

  • enlarged heart;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • high or low blood pressure;
  • cardiopalmus;
  • enlarged jugular veins.

Causes

Although in many cases the cause is not obvious, cardiac dilatation is the result of myocardial damage resulting from various toxic, metabolic or infectious agents.

This may be due to fibrous myocardial changes from a previous myocardial infarction.

Or it may be a late complication of acute viral myocarditis of the heart, for example, with the Coxsackie virus and other enteroviruses

Genetics

25-35% of individuals have familial forms of dilatation with most mutations affecting the genes encoding the cytoskeleton proteins, and some affect other proteins involved in contraction.

The disease is genetically heterogeneous, but the most common form of its transmission is autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive.

Some relatives suffer from asymptomatic dilatation of changes in the heart muscle.

Hereditary carriers of mutational genes are most often susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias, heart transplants, chronic heart failure, sudden cardiac death.

Progression of heart failure is associated with remodeling of the left ventricle:

  • its gradual increase;
  • wall compaction;
  • the heart chamber becomes more spherical

Such processes occur after myocardial infarction. Death or due to congestive heart failure or ventricular tachy bradyarrhythmia.

Operation

Dilation is an increase in any hollow organs in the human body. Such extensions are not only physiological, but also pathological. The heart is also hollow inside, consists of two atria and two ventricles.

Blood moves in two circles of blood circulation, large and small, due to the sequential contraction of the myocardium. The expansion of one of the chambers can occur due to absolutely any pathologies. Some processes lead to the dilatation of all atria and ventricles at the same time.

With tonogenic dilatation, an expansion of the heart cavity is noted due to an increase in blood flow to them and an increase in pressure. The myogenic form is characterized by an irreversible change in the chamber in volume. It appears against the background of fiber elongation and stretching with a simultaneous lack of contractility.

The latter variant of dilatation is most often combined with a decrease in the tone of the wall. It is divided into primary and secondary.

The first form develops with myocarditis in the acute or chronic stages, cardiosclerosis caused by atherosclerosis. With primary expansion, a uniform increase in the cavity in size occurs.

Myocardial contraction function is significantly reduced. Pulse and heart rate become weak and poorly felt.

Some patients are characterized by an asymptomatic course of the disease amid complete health. Over time, if it is impossible to compensate for the condition, signs of the disease appear.

This is characteristic of dilated cardiomyopathy. Other causes are inflammation, hypertension, which over time makes the muscle wall weak.

5bfd75c114e9f5bfd75c114edc - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

This condition leads to a loss of elasticity and excessive extensibility, which leads to dilatation of the cavity.

Overload of the left chamber of the heart occurs when the functioning of the valve opening in the aorta is impaired. Narrowing creates an obstacle to the flow of blood, which eventually leads to stretching of the heart tissue and dilatation of the cavity.

5bfd75c118aca5bfd75c118b07 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

With a narrowing or insufficiency of the mitral valve, the atrium does not have enough effort to drive the same amount of blood through the narrowed opening, because of this part of the blood accumulates in it.

There is a compensatory thickening of the muscular wall of the atrium. If the narrowing is not eliminated, blood will continue to accumulate, since compensation cannot be long-term.

Dilation of the left atrium occurs due to the accumulation of blood, which it is not able to push into the ventricle.

Another reason for the expansion of the left atrium is atrial fibrillation or fibrillation, atrial flutter. Very often, arrhythmia occurs against the background of dilatation. In a child, the causes of pathology are similar.

Regardless of the etiology of enlargement of the left atrium, it is recommended to undergo a full diagnostic examination by a cardiologist and begin the prescribed treatment.

Dilatation of the left atrium does not have its own symptoms, since this condition is not an independent disease. The patient feels signs of arrhythmia, constriction, or valve failure.

Among these symptoms are shortness of breath, severe pallor and cyanosis of the skin, hemoptysis, a feeling of pain behind the sternum and palpitations.

Very often people who live to be 50 years old do not notice any problems, and only after an ultrasound examination they will find out their diagnosis. Such cases require additional examination of the patient in order to find the cause. It is recommended to be registered with a cardiologist who monitors changes in the heart.

The main causes of dilatation of the left ventricle include:

  • Narrowing or insufficiency of the aortic valve, aneurysm and narrowing of the aorta. Due to these pathologies, there is a direct increase in intraventricular pressure. The increase in pressure in the initial stages is neutralized by partial compensatory myocardial hypertrophy. With a slight increase, the compensatory mechanisms work for a long time and do not show signs of pathology. A person is diagnosed accidentally with a routine examination.
  • Myocarditis, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, rheumatism, infectious diseases in childhood that affect the heart wall, making it flabby.

Left ventricular dilatation

With the exclusion of all of the above causes of expansion, a diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy is made.

5bfd75c11e7d45bfd75c11e811 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

If the dilatation of the department is acute, serious pathologies such as cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema, and the risk of acute heart failure, which is a danger to the patient’s life, may occur.

Blood enters the right atrium from the vena cava, that is, from a large circle of blood circulation. The atrium pushes it through the tricuspid valve, which is located between the right atrium and the ventricle. From the right ventricle, blood flows through the valve of the pulmonary trunk into the pulmonary arteries, then into the lungs and alveoli, where it is saturated with oxygen.

The main causes of dilatation of the right atrium include:

  • Narrowing or insufficiency of the tricuspid valve. The mechanism of development of dilatation is similar to the narrowing of the mitral valve: the atrium is unable to qualitatively push blood into the right ventricle, which leads to its accumulation in the right atrium and its expansion.
  • Bronchopulmonary diseases. In this case, the spasm of the bronchopulmonary arteries occurs in the body, because of which the heart needs to make more efforts to push the blood through the spasmodic trunks of the pulmonary arteries and their lateral branches.
  • Other heart diseases, such as coronary disease, myocarditis, rheumatism, which thin the wall of the right atrium.

Right atrial expansion

The main causes of dilatation of the right ventricle are as follows:

  • narrowing or insufficiency of the valve of the pulmonary trunk;
  • pulmonary hypertension;
  • diseases that affect the heart.

The main clinical signs:

  • swelling of the veins on the neck;
  • enlarged liver;
  • swelling of the subcutaneous tissue;
  • ascites;
  • hydrothorax;
  • hydropericardium;
  • general edema of the body, or anasarca.

The cause of narrowing of the heart valves is most often a congenital malformation. In newborns or infants, only surgical treatment is possible.

Such diseases as rheumatism, bacterial endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, and pericarditis lead to valve insufficiency.

The main causes of sagging muscle walls include the above disorders, as different degrees of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, obstructive bronchopulmonary pathology, and the different genesis of arrhythmia. Improve the risk of dilatation, malnutrition, decreased immunity, which leads to frequent infections.

The expansion of the heart chambers is diagnosed by a cardiologist on the basis of an anamnesis and objective research methods.

Moderate expansion of one or two chambers in the heart for a long time may not manifest itself. Often, the pathology is detected by chance, during a routine examination or treatment of another disease. Severe dilatation of the cavity leads to a decrease in pumping function, which leads to the appearance of signs of heart failure or arrhythmia. These include the following:

  • Palpable palpitations.
  • Dyspnea.
  • Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, lips, earlobes, fingertips.
  • When aggravating the severity of the course, cyanosis spreads to the skin.
  • Swelling on the arms and legs.
  • Memory impairment
  • Fatigue and weakness persisting after rest.
  • Discomfort when lying down.
  • Dizziness.
  • Headache.
  • A feeling of heart failure.

Evidence

Moderate dilatation has no signs, with it there is only a very slight tachycardia during walking, with physical exertion and unrest. Cardiac dilatation has symptoms similar to heart failure. At the same time, it is impossible to detect special disorders that only atrial dilatation has.

Doctors may be suspected of having an arrhythmia on a full examination. Special attention should be paid to:

  • for shortness of breath during conversation and movement;
  • with auscultation, cardiac arrhythmia is present;
  • swelling of the legs and feet.

In this case, patients with dilatation of the left atrium complain of:

  • drowsiness, sudden weakness;
  • fatigue;
  • decreased performance.

The initial stages of hypertrophy do not have pronounced clinical manifestations. This is due to the fact that the atrial muscle copes with the increased load and compensates for circulatory disorders in the cardiac cavities. The first signs occur with the development of contractility deficiency:

  • increased fatigue and low tolerance of physical exertion;
  • difficulty breathing at first when exerted, then at rest;
  • heart palpitations;
  • irregular heart rhythm;
  • a change in the timbre of the voice due to compression of the recurrent nerve.

As the hemodynamic disturbances increase, pain in the heart, severe asthma attacks, heaviness in the liver, swelling on the extremities, and swelling of the cervical veins appear. The reason for this is increased pressure in the left atrium, it does not allow the free flow of blood from the lungs.

The resulting stagnant processes and hypertension in a small circle lead to a decrease in venous outflow from the vena cava, an increase in the liver and fluid accumulation in the chest and abdominal cavity.

5bfd75c123e035bfd75c123e40 - Dilation of the right ventricle of the heart what is it

Depending on the cause of hypertrophy in patients, additional signs characteristic of a particular pathology are noted.

CausesEvidence
High blood pressureHeadache, dizziness, blurred vision, flickering points in front of the eyes.
Mitral valve constrictionBlush of cheeks, pale skin, cough with streaks of blood.
Aortic valve narrowingFainting, dizziness, low diastolic pressure.
Coarctation of the aortaHigh pressure on the upper and low on the lower extremities, a well-developed shoulder girdle, headaches, and congestive wheezing in the lungs.

Forecast

Each patient with dilatation of the left ventricle, already knowing what it is, must follow all medical recommendations. With such a diagnosis, early diagnosis and treatment initiation are important. In advanced forms, the likelihood of developing heart failure is high. In these patients, the valve apparatus is deformed, which leads to mitral insufficiency. This diagnosis significantly violates the quality of life and reduces its duration. The prognosis for patients is poor.

It is important for each patient to remember that the first symptoms are not considered normal and require a set of diagnostic procedures. Timely treatment will reduce the risk of complications, and treatment will extend life for many years.

3 Reasons for dilatation

There are many reasons that can lead to the development of dilatation. If it is not possible to establish which pathological factor affects the heart muscle, leading to its distension, they speak of dilated cardiomyopathy. In other cases, the reasons for the development of dilatation of the heart chambers may be as follows.

Dilation of the left atrium can be observed with:

  • with heart defects (stenosis, insufficiency of the left atriventricular valve),
  • infectious diseases of various etiologies,
  • endocrine pathology,
  • drinking a lot of alcohol
  • excessive physical activity,
  • tumor formations in the cavity of the left atrium,
  • rhythm disturbances, autoimmune diseases,
  • rheumatic heart disease,
  • rupture of tendon chords.

Causes of dilatation of the right atrium:

  • pulmonary hypertension
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
  • valve stenosis
  • infectious endocarditis with damage to the chords and valves of the tricuspid (tricuspid) valve,
  • heart defects (tetralogy of Fallot),
  • portal hypertension.

Isolated dilatation of the right atrium is much less common than the combined expansion of the right atrium and right ventricle. Not only the atria, but also the ventricles, and even more often the former, are able to undergo dilation. The reasons for this may be a great many.

To the expansion of the cavity of the left ventricle can lead to:

  • narrowing (coarctation) of the mouth of the aorta,
  • aortic valve stenosis,
  • coronary artery disease,
  • myocarditis,
  • arterial hypertension.

Isolated expansion of the cavity of the left or right ventricle is rare. Most often, the atrium is dilated with the right ventricle.

The causes of such dilatation may be those indicated for the right atrium and also listed below:

  • pulmonary embolism (pulmonary embolism)
  • atrial septal defect,
  • ventricular septal defect,
  • open ductus arteriosus,
  • congenital absence of the pericardium,
  • arrhythmogenic dysplasia of the right ventricle,
  • tumors of the right heart,
  • right ventricular myocardial infarction.

4 Clinical manifestations

Infinitely, the human heart is not able to cope with increased stress. The tonogenic dilatation is replaced by myogenic, signs of circulatory failure appear. If the left parts of the heart are overloaded, they speak of left ventricular failure, if the overload falls on the right chambers, right ventricular failure develops.

The main manifestations of left ventricular failure are shortness of breath during physical exertion, pain in the heart, a feeling of interruptions and palpitations, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, swelling of the legs and feet.

In case of insufficiency according to the right ventricular type, patients complain of heart palpitations, shortness of breath, swelling of the cervical veins, low blood pressure, heaviness in the right hypochondrium, edema of the extremities.

Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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