Congenital heart disease bicuspid aortic valve

Many children do not notice problems for a long time and do not complain about the disease. In most cases, they feel good, but it does not last long. Many are still able to engage in sports training. But the first thing that torments them is shortness of breath and an increased frequency of heartbeats. With these symptoms, it is important to consult a specialist immediately.

At first, discomfort is noticed with moderate loads. In the future, aortic valve insufficiency occurs even in a resting state. Disturbing shortness of breath, severe pulsation of arteries located on the neck. Treatment should be of high quality and timely.

Symptoms of the disease can manifest as noise in the area of ​​the largest artery. As for physical development, in children it does not change with insufficiency, but there is a noticeable blanching of the skin of the face.

When considering an echocardiogram, aortic valve insufficiency is expressed as a moderate increase in lumen at the mouth of the artery. There are also noises in the region of the left part of the chest, which indicates the progress of the discrepancy between the lobes of the lunate flaps (more than 10 mm). Strong shocks are explained by the increased work of the left ventricle and atrium in the compensation mode.

A bicuspid valve is the most common heart valve defect. In this type of deformity, the aortic valve has only two leaflets, which are hard points. This condition can lead to impaired blood circulation from the heart to the aorta, which leads to changes in the function of the heart and lungs. Treatment consists of surgical repair or valve replacement.

A valve is a device that allows fluid to flow in only one direction along a specific path, thereby obstructing the reverse flow of fluid.

The heart has four valves that allow blood to flow in the ordered direction of each of the four chambers of the heart and into the largest artery of the body – the aorta.

The aorta, in turn, branches out into other blood vessels in the neck, limbs, organs of the body and supplies the body with oxygen.

The aortic valve separates the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta. This is the last valve before the blood leaves the heart and passes into the aorta. The valve is formed during pregnancy and, as a rule, consists of three separate valves, which look like a tightly closed barrier that prevents the return of blood from the aorta to the heart.

Thus, when the heart contracts, the aortic valve opens and allows blood to flow from the heart to the aorta, and when the heart relaxes, the aortic valve closes and prevents the return of blood from the aorta to the heart.

A triple valve structure is necessary for its proper functioning, which was noted as far back as the th century, when the great Renaissance master, Leonardo da Vinci, reported on his observations of anatomy and blood circulation.

The bicuspid valve does not work properly already during development in the womb; for unknown reasons, two of the three valves remain attached along one edge, resulting in an aortic valve with two valves. A bicuspid valve is the most common valve disease at birth, and many people live a normal life without even realizing it.

Unfortunately, bicuspid aortic valves are not very reliable.

Over the years, conditions such as limiting aortic blood flow (aortic stenosis), backflow of blood from the aorta to the heart (aortic regurgitation or aortic insufficiency), and infection (endocarditis) are often found with corresponding symptoms in adulthood as progressive damage to bicuspid aortic valve.

Other conditions that can occur with a bicuspid aortic valve are: aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection (life-threatening division of the aorta into layers).

Most malformations of the bicuspid aortic valve appear sporadically (i.e., accidental and not associated with hereditary defects) and are not transmitted from parents to the child.

However, there have been several reports that valve disease appears in several members of the same family.

For the purposes of genetic counseling, a bicuspid valve can be regarded as a sporadic condition with an extremely low risk that is transmitted from parent to child.

A bicuspid valve is reported to occur in 1–2% of the general population and is the most common valve defect diagnosed in the adult population, accounting for up to half of cases of operated aortic stenosis.

For reasons that are unclear, a bicuspid valve is 3-4 times more likely in men than in women, although some researchers believe that this condition may simply be more often diagnosed in men because of a higher rate of calcium deposition.

It is interesting to note that the bicuspid valve also occurs in other conditions, including Turner syndrome, or in patients with deformity called aortic coarctation (aortic narrowing).

It has been reported that about 35% of patients with Turner syndrome and up to 80% of patients with aortic coarctation have an associated bicuspid valve. The significance of these associations remains unclear.

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Signs and symptoms

Many people with a bicuspid valve do not experience any symptoms and can live their entire lives without knowing this condition.

However, progressive damage or valve infection can lead to three serious conditions:

  • aortic stenosis,
  • aortic regurgitation,
  • endocarditis.

When a person ages, calcium deposition on a bicuspid aortic valve makes it stiff.

In the end, the valve can become so stiff that it does not open properly, which complicates the removal of blood from the heart and into the aorta and leads to aortic stenosis.

In the end, the blockage can become so bad that the blood returns to the heart and lungs instead of going to the rest of the body with oxygen (congestive heart failure). This condition can lead to a thickening of the heart wall, which in turn will lead to a violation of the heart rhythm.

Aortic regurgitation occurs when the valve does not close properly. People with this condition may suffer from shortness of breath. The severity of symptoms experienced by the patient depends on the severity of aortic regurgitation.

Finally, bacteria can settle on an improperly formed bicuspid aortic valve, causing endocarditis.

People with endocarditis may have signs of prolonged fever, fatigue, weight loss, and sometimes damage to the kidneys or spots on the fingers and hands.

Other dangerous conditions associated with a bicuspid aortic valve include aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection.

People with aortic aneurysms usually do not experience symptoms if the aneurysm does not burst, but people with aortic dissection experience back pain.

Rupture of the aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection are very dangerous and can be fatal if attention is not paid in a timely manner and treatment is not started.


Any of the symptoms of aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or endocarditis should prompt a search for the underlying valve defect. Aortic stenosis or regurgitation is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, cardiovascular tests and imaging.

The earliest sign of aortic valve problems is noise (the sound of abnormal blood flow patterns) heard by a stethoscope.

Later signs include a large heart, which can be seen on an x-ray or a special electrical cardiac test called an ECG (electrocardiogram). If these symptoms are present, this suggests that the aortic valve may be damaged.

When diagnosing a bicuspid aortic valve, it is necessary to follow the doctor’s recommendations and undergo treatment at the clinic, try to avoid stress, increased stress, observe sleep patterns and eat right.

Tags: heart, cardiovascular disease, heart disease

Our heart is the size of a fist and is located under the sternum. At rest, it beats about 60 times per minute and pumps about 5000 liters of blood per day through our body – with an athletic load, the volume of pumped blood can be even 10 liters or more.

The heart consists of four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. Their inputs and outputs are equipped with valves that provide blood flow in only one direction. The valve at the exit of blood into the large systemic circle is called aortic. At the exit to the lungs there is a pulmonary valve, and between the atria and ventricles on the left side of the heart is the mitral valve, in the right – tricuspid valve.

In general, each heart valve can be affected by a disease. However, the most common defects are aortic stenosis and mitral valve insufficiency. Aortic valve stenosis is one of the most common heart valve defects in the Western world and is especially common in old age. Other heart valve defects:

  • Aortic valve insufficiency
  • Mitral valve stenosis
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis or insufficiency
  • Tricuspid stenosis or insufficiency

Methods of diagnosis

The most common pathology in which the valve is affected is aortic stenosis. This pathology is diagnosed in older patients. There are several main reasons:

  • degenerative processes;
  • the presence of a congenital bicuspid aortic valve (this is a serious anomaly);
  • a history of rheumatic fever fixation is present.

Often, patients have completely no symptoms of such a pathology. Some patients, when examined by a doctor, complain of shortness of breath, angina pectoris, and the appearance of fainting conditions. If such symptoms occur, then the prognosis is in most cases poor.

Aortic stenosis is mild or chronic. Symptoms can occur sharply or increase gradually. The single most effective treatment is insertion of the prosthesis. Emergency surgery is performed in severe forms of pathology, when the patient is in danger and there is a likelihood of serious complications.

Drug therapy provides an exclusively temporary effect. To eliminate discomfort and shortness of breath, diuretics are prescribed according to the instructions. With angina pectoris, patients need to take beta-blockers, vasodilators. Another effective treatment is balloon valvuloplasty.

Aortic regurgitation is caused by aortic dissection or serious injury. The presence of endocarditis in the anamnesis, which proceeded in an infectious form, leads to a chronic form of pathology. Sometimes the aortic root can expand, degenerative processes, rheumatic fever occur in the body.

The main clinical signs include:

  • severe pain in the lungs, swelling, shortness of breath;
  • in the area of ​​the lower edge of the sternum on the left side, protodiastolic murmur is well heard;
  • increased heart rate;
  • displacement of the upper part of the heart, because there is a load and pressure on the left ventricle.

In the acute form of development, patients feel a sharp deterioration in well-being. They need emergency care. In this condition, pulmonary edema often occurs, in which there is a high probability of a fatal outcome.

After the examination, the doctor decides on the advisability of performing emergency valve prosthetics. The patient is provided with appropriate treatment to maintain the body. The patient is prescribed diuretics, drugs for vasodilation, inotropes.

If the patient ignores the symptoms, then the condition becomes severe. In this case, shortness of breath, pancreatic insufficiency occurs.

The main symptoms include diastolic murmur in the left edge of the chest, a seal in the pancreas. In rare situations, failure, pulmonary hypertension begins to develop sharply. As a result, regurgitation progresses.

In most cases, serious treatment is not required. Doctors prescribe drugs to eliminate the pancreas, the causes of pulmonary hypertension. In severe cases, the patient undergoes a comprehensive diagnosis and examination. As a result, a decision may be made about whether to insert a valve prosthesis into the pulmonary trunk. Specialists will select the appropriate valve size individually.

Tricuspid regurgitation is diagnosed in patients in most cases. Symptoms are often mild and do not affect the patient’s quality of life. The main reasons are dilatation of the pancreas, pulmonary hypertension.

The degree of development of tricuspid regurgitation is affected by the form of development of Ebstein’s anomaly, endocarditis of an infectious form. Surgical intervention is required when the heart valve does not close completely. Treatment in this case is prescribed immediately. The following clinical features can be distinguished:

  • in most cases, the symptoms are minimal and do not cause serious discomfort;
  • exclusively in difficult situations, pancreatic insufficiency develops.

The characteristic features include pulsation of the jugular vein, enlarged liver. If untreated, there is a likelihood of developing peripheral edema, ascites. Acute situations are rare. Heart valve disease can develop into a chronic form.

If the patient was prescribed the use of intravenous drugs, but against the background of such therapy, endocarditis and dysfunction in the tricuspid valve develops. In most cases, it has a staphylococcal etiology. Endocarditis develops rapidly, and the patient requires urgent treatment. Doctors may suggest a mitral valve commissurotomy.

In most cases, treatment is not required for lesions of the aortic valve of this form. The doctor takes into account the features of the pathology, the results of the examination and diagnosis. As the main therapy, antibiotics are prescribed, commissurotomy. They will help eliminate heart valve problems, negative symptoms.

According to indications, such techniques as valvuloplasty, annuloplasty, tricuspid valve prosthetics can be used. The most effective diagnostic method is dopplerometry of the tricuspid valve. It helps to determine the disease, disorders, its nature of development. Dopplerometry will help assess the degree of damage, whether the valve can close.

Heart valve defects can be divided into stenosis and failure. Stenosis of the heart valve is its narrowing due to deposits or scars. As a result, blood can no longer flow unhindered, and the heart must work hard to pump blood through this bottleneck. Valve insufficiency is observed when it no longer closes completely, so blood can flow back.

In rare cases, heart valve defects are congenital. A very small part is already found in the fetus in the womb. The extent to which these malformations are genetically determined or occur during embryonic development has not yet been scientifically proven. Some

heart orcs are not detected immediately after birth, but only in subsequent years. This often happens by chance during a routine examination or when the first symptoms appear.

However, most heart valve defects appear throughout life and have other causes, namely:

  • Age-related valve calcination
  • Expansion of the chambers of the heart or aorta
  • Bacterial infections and chronic inflammation
  • Tumors of the heart

Not every heart valve dysfunction leads directly to certain symptoms. Thus, it can happen that defects remain undetected for a long time, sometimes up to decades, in extreme cases until the heart is finally seriously damaged.

There are the following symptoms of heart valve defects that should be checked by your doctor:

  • Dyspnea
  • Low working capacity
  • Heartache
  • Heart rhythm disturbance
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Stagnant fluid
  • Blue lips (cyanosis)
  • Weight loss

Qualified cardiologists can detect valve defects in the heart already at the stage of listening to tones. The most common diagnostic procedure is examination using the so-called Doppler ultrasound. With it, the doctor can find out the size of the heart and its chambers, as well as the thickness of the heart walls. Check the proper operation and closing of the valves here.

In addition, a cardiologist can display the blood flow in the heart graphically in color and with acoustic noise. Thus, even complex heart valve defects can be accurately diagnosed. In addition, it is well suited to evaluate valve functionality.

. For some more detailed examinations in rare cases, the use of a cardiac catheter is recommended.

Regardless of whether an artificial heart valve or prosthesis is installed, after surgery, strict prevention of endocarditis is always carried out. Scars cause turbulence in the heart. This increases the risk of bacterial deposition and inflammation, which can be fatal to the heart. Therefore, before surgical interventions, oral procedures (such as dental prophylaxis) and bacterial infections, it is necessary to take a prophylactic antibiotic in a timely manner.

If a person needs a new heart valve, he needs better medical care. That’s why the patient wonders where to find the best clinic for heart valve surgery.

Since this question cannot be answered objectively, and a self-respecting doctor will never claim to be the best, you can only rely on his experience. The more operations on heart valves he performed, the more experience in his specialty he has.

Thus, specialists in the field of reconstruction or replacement of heart valves are those doctors who treat heart valve defects. Their knowledge and many years of experience as

, specializing in the treatment of heart valves, make them the right choice for this type of surgery.

Heart Valve Disease Today, Special Volume from the German Heart Foundation, p. 4ff.

When aortic valve insufficiency begins to develop, then the symptoms do not appear immediately. This period is characterized by the absence of serious complaints. The load is compensated by the left ventricular valve – it is able to withstand the reverse current for a long time, but then it is stretched and slightly deformed. Already at this time there are pains, dizziness and a frequent heartbeat.

Classification of aortic insufficiency

Aortic insufficiency is divided into 3 degrees. They differ in the divergence of the valve flaps. At first glance, it looks simple. It:

  • Valsalva sinuses – they are located behind the aortic sinuses, immediately behind the valves, which are often called lunar. Coronary arteries begin from this place.
  • Fibrous ring – it has high strength and clearly separates the beginning of the aorta and the left atrium.
  • Lunar cusps – there are three of them, they continue the endocardial layer of the heart.

Sashes are located in a circular line. When the valve is closed in a healthy person, the gap between the valves is completely absent. The degree and severity of aortic valve insufficiency depends on the size of the gap when converging.

First degree

The first degree is characterized by mild symptoms. The divergence of the valves is not more than 5 mm. Feels like a normal state is no different.

Grade 1 aortic insufficiency is manifested by mild symptoms. With regurgitation, the blood volume is not more than 15%. Compensation occurs due to increased tremors of the left ventricle.

Patients may not even notice pathological manifestations. When the disease is in the stage of compensation, then the therapy can not be carried out, they are limited to preventive actions. Patients are prescribed an appointment with a cardiologist, as well as regular ultrasound checks.

Second degree

Aortic valve insufficiency, which belongs to the 2nd degree, has symptoms with a more pronounced manifestation, while the divergence of the valves is 5-10 mm. If this process occurs in a child, then the signs are hardly noticeable.

If, when aortic insufficiency occurs, the volume of blood that has returned back is 15-30%, then the pathology refers to a disease of the second degree. Symptoms are not very pronounced, but shortness of breath and a frequent heartbeat may appear.

To compensate for the defect, the muscles and valve of the left atrium are involved. In most cases, patients complain of shortness of breath with light exertion, increased fatigue, severe heartbeat, and pain.

During examinations using modern equipment, an increase in heartbeat is detected, the apical impulse is slightly shifted down, the boundaries of dullness of the heart expand (to the left by 10-20 mm). When using X-ray examination, an increase in the left atrium is seen down.

With the help of auscultation, you can clearly hear the noise along the sternum on the left side – these are signs of aortic diastolic murmur. Also, in the second degree of insufficiency, systolic murmur is manifested. As for the pulse, it is enlarged and pronounced.

Third degree

The third degree of insufficiency, it is also called pronounced, has a discrepancy of more than 10 mm. Patients require serious treatment. More often prescribed surgery with subsequent drug therapy.

When the pathology is at the 3rd degree, the aorta loses more than 50% of the blood. To compensate for the loss, the heart organ speeds up the rhythm.

Mostly patients often complain of:

  • shortness of breath at rest or at minimal exertion;
  • pain in the heart area;
  • fatigue;
  • persistent weakness;
  • tachycardia.

In studies, a strong increase in the size of the borders of dullness of the heart is determined down and to the left. Displacement also occurs in the right direction. As for the apical impulse, it is reinforced (spilled character).

In patients with a third degree of insufficiency, the epigastric region pulsates. This indicates that the pathology involved the right chambers of the heart in the process.

During research, a pronounced systolic, diastolic murmur and Flint murmur appear. They can be heard in the second intercostal space on the right side. They have a pronounced character.

Emergency non-cardiac surgery

In some cases, after the diagnosis, urgent surgery and surgery are required. This is a serious problem that cannot be ignored and it is urgent to start treatment. The patient is strictly forbidden to select analogues on his own, to prescribe medication.

Severe aortic stenosis, mitral valve, pulmonary table often causes serious difficulties. A moderate form of pathology is dangerous by intraoperative complications. The main problem is the lack of cardiac output. Such patients have a high risk of complications during surgery.

Patients are shown performing prosthetics on a damaged canal. Before surgery, the doctor must take into account all the risks. In most cases, they are associated with a delay of time.

Patient support should be correct and adequate. If something threatens the health or life of the patient, then non-cardiac surgery is performed urgently without taking into account the high risk of developing complications from the heart or blood vessels.

After successful reconstruction of the heart valve, the patient is usually not limited in movement, fully able to tolerate physical activity, and may even participate in sports. However, in order to maintain this result, regular ultrasound checks should be performed.

Even after valve replacement, most patients are fully able to tolerate physical activity. Endurance sports are often even recommended for positive dynamics, but you should refrain from participating in competitions. As far as appropriate, the doctor will determine. Artificial valve patients usually require anticoagulant therapy. In the case of using a bioprosthesis, there is no such need.

Pulmonary regurgitation, causes, symptoms, treatment

  • there is a certain sensation of pulsation of the cervical veins;
  • strong tremors in the heart;
  • increased frequency of contraction of the heart muscle (minimizing reverse blood flow);
  • pressing and compressing pain in the chest area (with strong reverse blood flow);
  • the occurrence of dizziness, frequent loss of consciousness (occurs with poor supply of oxygen to the brain);
  • the appearance of general weakness and a decrease in physical activity.

During a chronic disease, the following symptoms appear:

  • pain in the heart region, even when calm, without stress;
  • during exertion fatigue quickly enough appears;
  • constant tinnitus and a feeling of intense pulsation in the veins;
  • the occurrence of fainting during a sharp change in body position;
  • headache in the front area;
  • pulsation of arteries visible to the naked eye.

When the pathology is in a decompensatory degree, the metabolism in the lungs is disturbed (often the appearance of asthma).

Causes of the disease:

  • congenital malformation of the aortic valve.
  • complications after rheumatic fever.
  • endocarditis (the presence of bacterial infection of the inside of the heart).
  • changes with age – this is due to wear of the aortic valve.
  • an increase in the size of the aorta – a pathological process occurs with hypertension in the aortic region.
  • hardening of the arteries (as a complication of atherosclerosis).
  • aortic dissection, when the inner layers of the main artery are separated from the middle layers.
  • violation of the functionality of the aortic valve after its replacement (prosthetics).

Less common are the reasons in the form of:

  • aortic valve injuries;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • the effects of syphilis;
  • ankylosing spondylitis;
  • manifestations of diffuse diseases associated with connective tissues;
  • complications after applying radiation therapy.

It is important to consult a doctor at the first manifestations.

Heart valve failure occurs for various reasons. Regurgitation can be congenital or caused by the following pathologies:

  • the progression of acute rheumatic carditis;
  • endocarditis of an infectious form;
  • syphilitic aortitis;
  • valve leaf degeneration.

The valve begins to grow as a result of damage or excessive stretching of the chord, as well as papillary muscle tissue. It is important to pay attention to these factors in order to prevent a sharp deterioration in health.

Valve stenosis is congenital, rheumatic, or senile. In order for the doctor to prescribe the exact treatment, you need to undergo an examination. Based on the results, the patient will be prescribed appropriate treatment.

Syphilitic aortitis is one of the main reasons for the development of pathology

Emergency non-cardiac surgery

Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common heart disease that has formed in utero. Pathology is established in 20 of the 100 who contacted a cardiologist. In healthy people, the valve has three wings.

They open and close at a certain point. Sashes provide the movement of blood in one direction. A bicuspid valve develops even before birth in the womb. It is considered a deviation from the norm.

Over a long period of time may not appear.

Bicuspid aortic valve is a pathology that develops in utero

Aortic defect “bicuspid aortic valve” occurs against the background of:

  • the transfer by a pregnant woman of one or another infectious pathology;
  • radiation exposure;
  • frequent stressful situations in a pregnant woman;
  • smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages by a girl while bearing a child;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • the presence of one of the parents of any serious hereditary disease.

2-fold aortic valve – a pathology that forms in utero. As a rule, this occurs at 5-9 weeks of gestation. This period is considered the most critical. When interacting with the body of a woman bearing a child, negative factors, the risk of deviations in the work of the heart and vascular system of the fetus increases.

A heart defect may result from a pregnant woman having flu and rubella.

Most often, the formation of two valves is associated with a hereditary predisposition. The risk of a deviation in a child is high if one of his parents encountered a violation.

Women who have had a viral illness during pregnancy are at risk of having a baby with a bicuspid valve.

Congenital heart disease “Bicuspid aortic valve” can occur for a long time without obvious signs. Often patients learn about the presence of deviations at an older age.

Typically, up to 10-20 years, the valve functions as expected and does not provoke the occurrence of any negative signs. Symptoms are manifested gradually. The patient begins to bother:

  • a feeling of throbbing in the head (its intensity may vary);
  • feeling of a strong heartbeat;
  • sinus tachycardia;
  • fainting and periodic loss of consciousness;
  • regular and pronounced dizziness;
  • violation in the functioning of the organs of vision;
  • difficulty breathing even with the most insignificant physical exertion;
  • pain in the chest.

Fatigue, fainting may be signs of heart disease.

With pathology in the patient, blood flow is significantly impaired. Symptoms may be of varying intensity. Bicuspid aortic valve in children for a long time does not cause discomfort. Gradually, intolerance to any physical type of load can occur. Periodically, a small patient may complain of aching headaches.

Bicuspid aortic valve in a child provokes memory impairment.

In infancy, the pathology can manifest itself with a weak sucking reflex, excessive tearfulness and lethargy. The kid is poorly gaining mass and constantly spits up.

Pathology in the absence of treatment becomes chronic. Deviation is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • heart rhythm disorder;
  • the constant presence of difficulty breathing;
  • coughing at night;
  • puffiness.

Coughing is one of the signs of a chronic course of the disease.

Patients are at high risk for additional pathologies. When they appear, all the symptoms become more pronounced.

CHD – A bicuspid aortic valve can be diagnosed with:

  • Ultrasound;
  • standard ECG and daily monitoring;
  • radiographs of the lungs.

First of all, the cardiologist asks the patient and identifies complaints. The doctor identifies possible root causes for the development of the disorder.

Particular attention to the initial inspection. Children with heart disease are significantly behind in physical development from their peers. When diagnosing a violation in a baby, the doctor may notice a blue skin, hypotonic muscles and slow weight gain.

If a bicuspid valve is suspected, an ECG of the heart is mandatory

Laboratory studies are necessary to determine the general condition and identify concomitant abnormalities.

The main diagnostic method is ultrasound. This is the only way to confirm the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve. Other studies are required to clarify the degree of damage and the selection of therapeutic measures.

Bicuspid aortic valve does not always need treatment. Therapy is selected individually, so the patient needs to undergo annual diagnostics for prevention.

Surgery is considered severe, therefore, it is only performed if there are negative symptoms

There is no need for treatment if the patient does not have negative symptoms. The condition is normal. At the advanced stage of deviation, surgery is prescribed – the installation of a prosthesis. After the procedure, it is required to use medicines. Varieties of implants are described in the table.

Type of prosthesis
BiologicalIt is made of animal tissue.
MechanicalIt is made of metal compounds.

The operation is considered difficult. May cause:

  • severe impairment of blood flow;
  • destruction of biological processes;
  • arterial thromboembolism.

The patient should take medications in courses. The cardiologist prescribes:

The 2-leaf aortic valve cannot be treated independently. Medicines should be prescribed only by a doctor.

Proper nutrition, frequent walks and giving up bad habits are the main recommendations for detecting a pathology

If the heart valve has 2 wings, the patient must completely change his lifestyle. A balanced diet should be preferred. Special mixtures are recommended for babies. Regularly required to walk outside.

The patient is recommended to sign up for a swim. Daily shown therapeutic exercises. Physical activity should be moderate. The patient may be referred for dissection of the bicuspid aortic valve.

A doctor can make a decision about surgery only after a thorough examination

The prognosis for the future with a bicuspid aortic valve in children is individual. In the absence of a clinical picture of deviations and worsening conditions, pathology may not cause any discomfort. The patient will live a normal life.

After surgery, people live 12-17 years. It directly depends on the lifestyle and individual characteristics of the body. Subject to all doctor’s testimonies, life expectancy will be long.

In other words, the prognosis of life with a bicuspid aortic valve is often favorable. The main thing is moderate physical activity and regular diagnosis.

Most patients with a bicuspid valve have a normal lifestyle.

Preventive measures are necessary to maintain well-being and reduce the risk of complications. They include:

  • maintaining the right lifestyle;
  • the use of healthy foods with a lot of essential vitamins;
  • playing sports in the fresh air;
  • regular walks on the street;
  • alternation of physical activity with mental.

The patient should avoid stress. Strongly do not overwork. It is important that the load alternates with rest. It is required to abandon bad habits. The diet should include as many fruits and vegetables as possible. The 2-leaf aortic valve is not dangerous and, following the recommendations of the doctor, the patient will not experience any discomfort.

Medications can help improve or maintain the pressure-flow ratio of the blood. This removes the burden from the heart. However, the cause of the valve defect, however, cannot be remedied.

Only surgery is helpful here. Today, some heart valve defects can already be corrected without extensive cardiac surgery with cardiac catheterization or minimally invasive. Some surgical procedures for treating heart valve defects are briefly described below.

  • Heart valve reconstruction

    : here, during surgery, a damaged heart valve is restored. Details on heart valve reconstruction can be found here.
  • Heart valve replacement: here the damaged valve is replaced with a new one. There are mechanical and biological valves of the heart.
  • Balloon valvuloplasty: this procedure can be used with a heart catheter for pulmonary and mitral valve stenosis. The constriction expands with a balloon and deposits are removed.

  • Replacing the aortic valve with a catheter:

    to replace the aortic valve with a catheter, access is either through the groin or the apex of the heart. This procedure can be used in elderly patients for whom serious heart surgery will be too risky.
  • Mitraclip with mitral valve insufficiency: Mitraclip placement is a minimally invasive reconstructive procedure for

mitral valve insufficiency

. Using a catheter, a special clamp is delivered through the groin to the left side of the heart to restart the mitral valve.

It is necessary to treat heart valve defects as early as possible; even if they do not cause any discomfort. The goal is to avoid permanent damage to the heart and extend life expectancy. In recent years, advances in heart valve repair and replacement of failed valves have grown dramatically.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.