The color index of blood is one of the main indicators of a blood test. Deviation from the norm speaks of pathological processes in the body.
More about blood color index
The color index of blood contains data on the level of saturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin – a necessary component, the function of which is to transport oxygen and contains iron. The calculation of the color index of blood is made according to the formula, if the calculation is made manually. Data can be obtained using a hematology analyzer, which calculates the erythrocyte index. It is impossible to conduct research on your own.
It should be noted that the color indicator is a non-specific way of assessing the percentage of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte, but it is now being successfully replaced by the automatic calculations of a blood analyzer – namely, the average hemoglobin content in an erythrocyte. Therefore, like the thymol test, this type of analysis is a thing of the past, and its presence speaks of a laboratory that is not equipped with modern analyzers. Often it is still used in district and rural hospitals.
Nevertheless, several types of anemias have historically developed – normochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic, and they still define these conditions, despite more advanced diagnostic methods.
The numerical norm of the color indicator, indicating the amount of the hemoglobin protein contained in the erythrocyte, is the same in an adult and in a child over three years of age and is determined by values in the range from 0,8 to 1,1. The indicator in the blood test in women is identical. In the blood of a child under three years old, the norm of the color indicator should be in the range from 0,75 to 0,96.
However, it should be borne in mind that the result obtained during the calculation does not indicate the exact concentration of the protein contained, but the total. There are precedents when a CP norm is observed, but the true hemoglobin protein concentration is below the normal value. In this case, a low color index means the presence of normochromic anemia.
If there is a numerical result that is not within the acceptable range, the doctor prescribes additional studies and tests in order to find out the reason for the lack or excess of protein in the patient’s blood. A deviation from the norm always has a reason.
Reason for deviations
A numerical indicator that goes beyond the permissible norm indicates changes in the human body.
An indicator exceeding the permissible norm indicates the presence of diseases such as:
- B-12 – deficiency anemia,
- polyposis of the stomach,
- neoplasms and tumors,
- low levels of folate.
With an increased content of hemoglobin in the patient’s blood cells, it is not easy to establish the exact cause of the deviations due to the fact that the results of other tests, including a general blood test, do not correspond to the norms.
The phenomenon of a reduced color index is called hypochromia. The color index is lowered in the presence of pathological conditions such as:
- Iron-deficiency anemia,
- cirrhosis of the liver,
- malignant neoplasms,
- hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism,
- anemia caused by lead poisoning.
A reduced level of maintenance can be observed in pregnant women suffering from anemia.
The color index of blood is lowered in a child for the same reasons as in adults. Often, a low blood color index indicates overwork.
There is a classification of anemias that differ from each other in the concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. In total, there are three types:
- hypochromic anemia is diagnosed by a specialist with a numerical indicator of less than 0,8,
- normochromic anemia is diagnosed by a doctor when the color index of the blood is within the acceptable range, but the amount of hemoglobin contained is insufficient,
- hyperchromic anemia is a diagnosis that a specialist makes with an increased protein content in human erythrocytes.
What to do with a reduced color index
With a reduced color index of blood, you need to pay attention to the diet and food consumed. It is necessary to make each intake balanced and exclude junk food from your diet. A balanced fractional diet can normalize the level of hemoglobin in erythrocytes.
It should be borne in mind that at a low level of the content of a complex iron-containing protein, oxygen deficiency is observed in the blood cells, which leads to serious health problems and a deterioration in the patient’s general condition. It is necessary to increase the intake of vitamins B, C, E. An important component of a balanced diet is food rich in vitamin A. It is advisable to exclude fried foods containing a lot of fats and carbohydrates, flour products from the diet.
When the color index of blood is lowered, the specialist recommends the regular use of red juices, for example, pomegranate, a small amount of red wine. You should not abuse alcohol. It is important to take into account that juices must be natural and contain a minimum of dyes and preservatives. For the duration of treatment, it is necessary to give up coffee and get rid of bad habits.
A deviation from the norm of the color indicator is most often treated not with drugs, but involves changing the patient’s lifestyle, getting rid of bad habits and adjusting nutrition. Your doctor may recommend regular exercise to keep your heart working properly.
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