The main symptoms of the process of destruction of red blood cells, which patients note in their first place:
- Yellowing of the skin.
- In some cases, pale skin is noted.
- Hypotension (low) pressure.
- Exfoliation of the nail plate.
- Bad hair condition.
It also happens that a person does not suspect that he has such severe pathological processes as hemolysis in his body. The presence of hemolysis of blood is detected upon delivery of a clinical blood test.
With exacerbation in a patient, the following signs of hemolysis are noted:
- Frequent nausea.
- Regular feeling of excessive tiredness.
- Increased body temperature.
Exacerbation of hemolysis may be accompanied by dizziness.
The decay of red blood cells in many cases leads to the development of anemia, a rather dangerous disease, which, in turn, can lead to the formation of stones in the biliary tract (gallstone disease).
Signs of hemolysis differ based on its species. First of all, intravascular hemolysis should be considered. This syndrome manifests itself:
- pain sensations of different localization (in the region of the heart, kidneys, etc.);
- a slight enlargement of the liver, damage to the thyroid gland, resulting in the formation of type diabetes mellitus;
- chills, fever;
- heart attack;
- excitement, euphoria that does not last long;
- darkening of the skin or it may turn yellow;
- discoloration of the urine, they turn red, black or brown.
As for intracellular hemolysis, it has the following symptoms:
- the spleen, liver increases or their simultaneous change occurs;
- skin, sclera turns yellow;
- general weakness, vomiting, pain in the head, etc. appear.
Replaced blood transfusion (with hemolytic disease of the newborn);
The introduction of blood substitute solutions;
The effectiveness of the activities is monitored by ongoing laboratory research.
The uncontrolled process of the destruction of red blood cells must be treated immediately. If the cause of the pathology was an error in a blood transfusion, therapeutic methods are used to stop the infusion processes of red blood cells from incompatible blood.
To prevent the appearance of hyperfusion in the kidneys and hypovolemia, special solutions are introduced. The procedure is blood purification by plasmapheresis, with the introduction of heparin intravenously. The procedure is aimed at removing free hemoglobin from the blood. In the treatment of acute hemolysis, Prednisolone is also used.
Drug treatment of acute hemolysis is prescribed by the attending physician, based on the clinical picture and symptoms of each individual case. It is important to know when exactly in the patient’s body the pathological process began to develop.
In especially severe cases, hemodialysis should be urgently prescribed for treatment, especially in the presence of renal failure.
One of the reasons for the rapid destruction of red blood cell cells is the long-term use of certain medications. These are mainly anti-TB drugs, drugs of the sulfanilamide group and hypoglycemic antibiotics.
In this clinical picture, hemolysis of the destruction of blood cells is not a pathology, and does not indicate the presence of serious diseases – this is just a natural reaction of the body to taking certain drugs, the patient’s condition returns to normal after completion of the course of their administration.
If hemolysis of erythrocytes is not treated, erythropenia is formed in the patient’s body, liver functions are impaired, which leads to its increase and renal failure. In this condition, a laboratory test will show an elevated bilirubin level. Kidney damage will also occur. So, the products of the destruction of hemoglobin clog kidney tissue, which negatively affects the formation of urine.
Therapy for this syndrome is as follows:
- elimination of the cause;
- procedures are being carried out whose actions are aimed at accelerating the elimination of harmful metabolic products from the body. Here, forced diuresis, hemodialysis, gastric lavage, hemosorption, a cleansing enema are used;
- symptomatic therapy;
- drug treatment of kidney, liver.
During therapy, the patient is prescribed hormones, immunosuppressive drugs that inhibit the immune system, plasmapheresis, as well as transfusion of blood components, preserved red blood cells. When a patient has a decrease in hemoglobin to a critical level, he is given a red blood cell transfusion, while paying attention to body weight, since it affects the volume of transfused fluid. For this, a calculation of 10 ml per 1 kg of weight is taken.
If it takes place to be a congenital ailment, the treatment is a little different. A hematologist will make a decision based on the state of neglect, the specificity of the disease.
To learn about the effectiveness of treatment, constant monitoring of the patient’s condition is carried out using laboratory tests.
To treat this condition, they also resort to traditional medicine, where there are many useful recipes. Frequently used should be given:
- Tincture of birch leaves and nettles is made. 2 tbsp. l ingredients that are combined in equal proportions are poured with 1,5 cups of boiling water and let the liquid infuse for an hour. After the drink is filtered, half a glass of beet juice is added to it. Reception is carried out before the meal, the prepared amount of tincture is intended for a day and is drunk 3-4 times. Such therapy reaches two months.
- Take 300 gr. garlic, it is peeled and put in 0,5 l. a container where 96% alcohol is then added. The drink should be infused for 21 days. After this period, the liquid is drunk in 20 drops, along with a 0,5 glass of milk, three times a day. This recipe saves those who do not like to eat pure garlic.
- For broth oats or oat groats are suitable. You need to take 1 cup of oats and fill it with 5 cups of water. After the mass is put on fire and is not removed until then, until you get the consistency of a thick liquid jelly. Then you can proceed to filter the broth and add the same amount of milk to it, approximately 2 cups should come out. It is necessary to put the liquid on the fire again and bring to a boil. The final step will be the addition of 4 teaspoons of honey and boiling again. A drink according to this recipe turns out to be tasty, high-calorie, it should be drunk cooled or slightly warmed up. The prepared volume is enough for a day, it needs to be divided into three times.
- Fresh aloe juice in a volume of 150 ml. must be combined with 250 gr. honey, 350 ml. red wine, preferably Cahors. The drink is recommended to drink three times a day for 1 tbsp. spoon, it is important to do this before a meal.
- In equal proportions take the leaves of birch and nettle dioica. 2 tbsp. tablespoons of the mixture are poured with 1,5 cups of boiling water and infused for one hour, then the liquid is filtered and mixed with 0,5 cups of beet juice. The drink is drunk the day before the meal, evenly distributed up to three meals. The course of therapy should be at least two months.
As a rule, if hemolysis was detected as a result of decoding a blood test, a second blood test is prescribed. This is explained by the fact that red blood cells in the blood could be destroyed under the influence of a mechanical factor – with careless work with test tube material.
Damage to blood cells may be due to the nurse pushing blood too quickly, or due to the use of a too thin needle during the test.
Damage to red cells is often observed with improper transfusion of material from a test tube into a special flask. Breaking against glass walls, red blood cells stain the plasma pink, which makes it impossible to separate it in a centrifuge. Such cases of red blood cell damage are called partial hemolysis. This phenomenon is not a disease, but only an error in the collection of material and incorrect analysis.
Before re-sampling blood from a vein for hemolysis, the patient needs to drink a small amount of plain water. If a repeated analysis again shows the presence of destroyed red blood cells, the diagnosis is made – acute hemolysis.
How to avoid hemolysis when taking blood
In order not to conduct a study again due to the formation of hemolysis, the patient needs to pay attention to such points:
- Sterility. Its observance excludes the entry into the biomaterial of various pathogens.
- Transportation. Excessive shaking, vibration, and prolonged transport of a blood sample is prohibited.
- Storage. The tubes should be located away from instruments that cause vibrations.
- Temperature condition. A sharp decrease and increase in temperature should not occur, for example, direct exposure to the rays of the sun on biomaterial.
To successfully pass the analysis, the patient should follow the rules of preparation. He needs to refuse a meal before the procedure, and the last meal should be the night before. It is forbidden to drink alcohol a few days before the study, and tobacco on the day of the procedure. No need to come for blood donation after a physical overstrain, a stressful situation.
This is a very serious pathological process, acute hemolysis lead to serious consequences.
The scheme of development of acute hemolysis
If the patient, at the time of diagnosing the disease, is conscious, he may complain about a number of symptoms of acute hemolysis:
- Pain in the thoracic region.
- Cramps in the stomach.
- Excessive excitation of the central nervous system.
- Inner heat.
- Cardiopalmus .
- Pain in the lumbar.
The cause of acute blood hemolysis is the erroneous infusion of improperly selected donor blood and the alienation of its red blood cells by the recipient’s body.
With the development of acute hemolysis, during a surgical operation using general anesthesia, the symptoms of the pathological process will be sharp bleeding from the wound, and if there is a catheter with an urine, it will be seen that the urine turns red. Black urine is sometimes noted.
Preventive measures will be required to prevent intravascular hemolysis. These include the introduction of a healthy and active lifestyle, i.e. you need to eat right, give up alcohol and tobacco, play sports, and also avoid stressful situations. It is necessary to treat diseases in a timely manner, special attention should be paid to chronic ailments during their repeated manifestation.
When a hemolytic crisis sets in, when the patient’s well-being worsens and anemia is rapidly gaining progress, it is necessary to urgently seek qualified medical help. Calling an ambulance will help to avoid serious consequences. Take care of yourself!
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