The heart can be compared to a blood pump with an “autonomous” and “central” power supply. Under the “central” apparatus of nutrition is meant a set of nerve plexuses and endings that correct the functioning of the heart muscle, depending on the signals from the central nervous system. “Autonomous” nutrition means the conduction system of the heart, through which a nerve impulse circulates in a certain direction.
Autonomous power supply consists of such structures – the sinus node, the AV node, the legs of the bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers. The sinus node plays a crucial role, because it acts as a pacemaker, independently (by the type of battery) it generates a nerve impulse with a frequency of 60–90 beats per minute (normal variant).
Having arisen in the sinus node, the impulse spreads first from the right to the left atrium, then to the AV node, which is a kind of border between the atria and ventricles. After the passage of the atrioventricular node, the impulse along the legs of the bundle of His (right and left) spreads to the ventricles and causes their contraction. Purkinje fibers are small branches from the legs of the bundle of His that provide
impulse prevalence in all parts of the ventricular myocardium.
With atrial flutter, the mechanism of impulse propagation changes significantly. After formation in the sinus node, the excitation propagates not only to the AV node, but also independently circulates along special alternative paths within the atria.
The frequency of pulse generation is too high to fully reach the ventricles and cause them to contract. At the same time, atrial contraction is incomplete and inconsistent, that is, carried out by individual muscle bundles. The ventricles do not keep up with the frequency of the atria due to the restrictive properties of the atrioventricular node. The load on the atrium gradually increases, which leads to the occurrence of stagnation in the lower and upper vena cava.
If we consider the issue of blood supply, then the atria, which are reservoirs, cannot be completely filled with blood, respectively, the ventricles are very small and the heart pushes out several times less than the volume of blood into the vascular bed. Overload of the atria and ventricles occurs, as a result of which the stroke volume of the heart falls. Hypoxia and often loss of consciousness develops.
- Classification of Atrial Fibrillation
- Atrial flutter
- Symptoms of the disease
- Causes of the disease and genetic aspects
- Diagnosis of atrial flutter.
- Signs on an ECG
- Typical manifestations
- Than flutter is dangerous
- International recommendations
- Surgical and instrumental treatment
- Treatment options
- Radical treatment
- Possibility of relapse
- Prevention: what should the patient know?
- Medical advice
- Clinical case
- Lifestyle & Home Remedies
Classification of Atrial Fibrillation
Currently, there are three classifications of atrial fibrillation used by practicing cardiologists. Pathology is divided by:
- form (the duration of arrhythmia is implied, that is, paroxysmal, constant, persistent);
- the cause of the occurrence, or rather, the factor contributing to its development;
- severity, taking into account the severity of the symptoms that accompany heart rhythm disturbance.
Such a distribution is extremely important, as it allows the doctor to further determine the most effective way to treat the disease and prevent its secondary complications.
The national cardiology guidelines provide 5 forms of atrial fibrillation:
- first identified;
In some patients, the disease has a progressive character, that is, rare short-term attacks of arrhythmia gradually become more frequent and become longer. As clinical experience shows, this situation ends in the development of permanent cardiac arrhythmias. Only 2-3% of patients can “boast” of periodic flickering for 10-20 years.
In the same section, I would like to mention the atypical form of pathology that entered Frederick’s syndrome. The described disease belongs to the category of tachyarrhythmias, which are manifested by an increase in heart rate and different intervals between strokes. But this extremely rare type of pathology, which occurs in 0,6-1,5% of patients, is considered normosystolic, and sometimes bradysystolic. That is, heart rate will be either within the normal range – 60-80 beats/min, or less than 60 beats/min, respectively.
A similar development is possible if the patient has severe organic heart pathologies, for example, ischemic heart disease, heart attack, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy.
It is carried out according to the nature of development and the clinical course of the pathology.
Typical (classical) – the frequency of flutter per minute is 240-340 beats. A wave of excitations circulates in a typical circle in the right atrium.
Atypical – the frequency is 340-440 beats, the correct rhythm is not observed. A wave of excitations circulates there, but not in a typical circle.
By the nature of the course, pathology is divided into the following forms:
- first developed;
The clinical picture in the form of the pathology is almost identical, therefore, it is possible to establish what kind of violation is only possible by carrying out special diagnostic measures.
Paroxysmal atrial flutter lasts up to one week, stops on its own, persistent – more than this period, the sinus rhythm is not restored on its own. Permanent occurs when the applied therapy did not bring the expected result or when it was not carried out.
Tachysystology leads first to diastolic and then to systolic left ventricular myocardial dysfunction, as well as the appearance of heart failure. With this pathology, coronary blood flow decreases up to 60%.
The most common classification distinguishes between typical and atypical forms.
This separation is justified by different ways of circulation of the impulse and has prognostic value both for treatment and for the further possibility of relapse.
A typical form is the constant circulation of the impulse in the atrium counterclockwise around the tricuspid valve. On the contrary, in an atypical form, the path of propagation of the pulse changes due to organic changes in the heart muscle and quite often occurs after surgical interventions on the heart.
The typical form is prognostically easier for both treatment and drug relief. Catheter ablation contributes to almost 100% cure for atrial flutter. Treatment is considered the gold standard in all foreign clinics.
Symptoms of the disease
In some cases, it is asymptomatic, which does not exclude the onset of death. There are the following signs of atrial flutter:
- pain having a pressing character located in the chest area;
- fainting and loss of consciousness;
- headache and dizziness;
- feeling of weakness;
- pallor of epithelial integument;
- heavy breathing, shallow;
- heart palpitations;
The following factors can contribute to the appearance of symptoms:
- disruption of the digestive tract;
- drinking plenty of fluids, including alcohol;
- transferred emotional overstrain;
- prolonged stay in the heat or stuffy room;
- excessive exercise.
Attacks can occur from a few per week to 1-2 per year and are determined by the individual characteristics of the body.
Causes of the disease and genetic aspects
It is immediately worth saying that this type of arrhythmia can occur in both a healthy and a sick person. Usually its occurrence in a healthy person is associated with the influence of medications, stress, nicotine and caffeine. If an atrial flutter on an ECG is detected in a healthy man or woman, then it is called idiopathic. Often an attack of flutter can occur in response to a stressful situation or significant physical exertion.
Atrial fibrillation and flutter have similar causes. There are factors that can trigger the development of flutter. They can conditionally be divided into factors related and unrelated to pathologies of the cardiovascular system.
The first group includes heart diseases, the symptoms of which provoke the occurrence of arrhythmias: arterial hypertension and hypertension, heart defects of various origins, myocardial inflammation, coronary heart disease and heart failure. Provocateurs that are not related to the heart and blood vessels are usually represented by endocrine diseases (usually thyrotoxicosis and diabetes mellitus), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, various intoxications (both alcoholic and medical), excessive consumption of caffeinated foods and drinks.
Depending on the specific reasons, further treatment is also determined. If these are diseases that have no connection with the heart and blood vessels, then the effectiveness of the cure
high and depends on the completeness of the elimination of the provoking factor. If heart diseases are detected, the symptoms of which provoke the occurrence of arrhythmias, continuous monitoring and monitoring of the organ should be carried out, appropriate pharmaceutical preparations should be taken regularly.
– rheumatism (especially in the presence of mitral stenosis (
– coronary artery disease,
– acute myocardial infarction,
– acute or chronic pulmonary heart,
– non-specific chronic lung diseases,
– obstructive chronic lung disease,
– in adults, an atrial septal defect,
– WPW – syndrome (ventricular pre-excitation syndrome)
– SSSU (sinus node dysfunction) or else this is called tahi-brady syndrome,
– pathological (atypical) atypical desympathization,
The pathogenetic significance of atrial flutter.
The main pathological factor is the excessively high frequency of atrial contractions and all the symptoms resulting from this.
Against the background of developing tachysystole, contractile diastolic myocardial dysfunction appears in the region of the left ventricle, which subsequently passes into contractile systolic dysfunction. Ultimately, this picture can go into dilated cardiomyopathy and result in heart failure.
Paroxysmal form of atrial flutter.
With this form of the course of the disease, the frequency of paroxysms, that is, seizures, can be from one per year to several per day.
A feature of paroxysmal atrial flutter is that there is no age or gender category. Attacks can occur in both men and women of any age. But of course, most often in people with myocardial disease.
Paroxysms can occur against the background of physical or emotional stress, overeating, drinking alcohol, with a sharp decrease in external temperature (immersion in cold water, going outside in winter, and so on) and even when drinking a lot of water or upset stomach.
The patient often describes the attack of atrial flutter as a sensation of a strong and frequent heartbeat that appears after some event or action. In more severe cases, dizziness, weakness, loss of consciousness, and even short-term cardiac arrest during the episode of atrial flutter during high-frequency conduction in the AV node (1: 1) are observed.
The constant form of atrial flutter.
This is a very dangerous form, since in the first stages of the development of the disease it usually proceeds asymptomatically and manifests itself with the accumulation of the consequences of a decrease in systemic blood pressure and arterial system pressure, which ultimately leads to a decrease in coronary blood flow. Patients usually come to the doctor with already expressed symptoms of heart failure.
There are several possible main causes that increase the likelihood of the onset and development of atrial fibrillation. These include cardiovascular diseases, bronchopulmonary infections, lung diseases, and other diseases, which you will learn about below.
Atrial fibrillation occurs with heart diseases such as:
- Hypertension – high blood pressure.
- Coronary artery disease – also known as coronary heart disease. The occurrence of cholesterol plaques inside the coronary arteries. Using these arteries, the heart muscle is supplied with oxygen-rich blood.
- Congenital heart disease – defects in the heart structure present from birth. These include defects in the internal heart walls, valves, and blood vessels. Congenital heart defects alter the normal flow of blood through the heart.
- Mitral valve prolapse is an abnormal flow of blood passing through the mitral valve from the left ventricle of the heart to the left atrium.
- Cardiomyopathy is a serious condition in which the myocardium becomes inflamed and does not work properly.
- Pericarditis – inflammation of the pericardium – the protective membrane surrounding the heart.
- Heart surgery – heart surgery can be the cause of atrial fibrillation. In a sufficiently large percentage of patients, atrial fibrillation develops after surgery.
Atrial fibrillation is also found in people with the following diseases:
- Hyperthyroidism is hyperthyroidism.
- Sleep apnea is a common disease in which the patient has one or more respiratory arrests or superficial breathing during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea usually causes high blood pressure (hypertension), which greatly increases the risk of heart problems and stroke.
- Atrial flutter – this disease is similar to atrial fibrillation, however, the pathological heart rhythms of the atria are less chaotic and more organized than with atrial fibrillation. Atrial flutter can develop into atrial fibrillation.
- Pneumonia is pneumonia.
- Lungs’ cancer .
- Emphysema is a pathological expansion of the alveoli and the impossibility of their normal contraction, leading to impaired gas exchange in the lungs.
- Bronchopulmonary infections.
- Pulmonary embolism – blockage of the branches of the pulmonary artery and its blood clots.
- Carbon monoxide poisoning.
The cause of atrial fibrillation can also be:
- Alcohol abuse – regular, excessive, prolonged alcohol consumption significantly increases the risk of atrial fibrillation. A study by scientists at the Beth Israel Medical Center showed that the risk of atrial fibrillation is 45% higher among people who drink compared to teetotalers.
- Smoking – smoking can cause a variety of heart conditions, including atrial fibrillation.
- Excessive caffeine intake – Excessive intake of coffee, energy drinks, or cola can cause atrial fibrillation.
Diagnosis of atrial flutter.
– An ECG is performed to determine arrhythmia.
– Holter monitoring allows you to determine paroxysmal atrial flutter, the causes of the attack, track the work of the heart during sleep and determine the strength of paroxysms.
– Ultrasound examination of the heart (echocardiography) allows you to determine the condition of the valves, contractile myocardial function and the size of the heart chambers.
– A blood test will help identify the cause of atrial flutter. For example, with potassium deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and so on.
– In some cases, it is necessary to conduct an EFI (electrophysiological study) of the heart.
Treatment and secondary prevention of atrial flutter, in fact, like primary prevention, practically does not differ from the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Comprehensive therapy is always carried out based on the elimination of the root cause of the development of atrial flutter and situations leading to paroxysms. A diet excluding salty, smoked, spicy and fatty foods is necessarily prescribed. You will have to forever give up alcohol and cigarettes and in general should switch to a healthy lifestyle.
Drug treatment is prescribed exclusively by a doctor. You should especially be careful when stopping paroxysms and use only those medicines that the doctor prescribed.
The prognosis of treatment is generally similar to that of atrial fibrillation.
Cardiologist urgent consultation
The simplest diagnostic method is an electrocardiogram. It captures characteristic changes in the work of the heart and allows you to establish the form of arrhythmia. However, the method will not give result in case of episodic attacks. In this case, daily ECG monitoring is performed – the so-called Holter monitoring.
In some cases, it becomes necessary to carry out a dosed load in the form of bicycle ergometry or a treadmill test to provoke the occurrence of arrhythmia.
Echocardiography (or ultrasound of the heart) allows you to examine the inside of the heart chamber and establish the presence or absence of blood clots. The sizes of the atria and ventricles, the structure and synchronism of the heart valves are also determined. To identify thromboembolic complications, various additional tests are used (fibrinogen, D-dimers, etc.).
To determine the ailment, the following activities are carried out:
- electrophysiological examination of the heart;
- determination of electrolytes;
- rheumatological tests;
- determination of thyroid hormones;
- biochemical and general blood analysis;
- MRI and CT;
- transesophageal echocardiography to detect blood clots in the atria;
- medical history and physical examination of the patient.
Atrial flutter on an ECG demonstrates:
- dynamics of the frequency and duration of paroxysms;
- the appearance of F-atrial waves;
- wrong rhythm.
As a result of the diagnosis, it becomes clear what caused the ailment and how to treat it.
With atrial flutter, a rapid and rhythmic pulse is detected. With a coefficient of 4: 1, the pulse can be 75-85 beats per minute, with a constant dynamics of the coefficient, the rhythm becomes incorrect. With this pathology, frequent and rhythmic pulsation of the cervical veins is noted, which exceeds the arterial pulse by 2 times or more and corresponds to the rhythm of the atria.
With atrial flutter on an ECG, atrial F waves are sawtooth in 12 leads, a regular gastric rhythm, P waves are absent. Ventricular complexes remain unchanged, they are preceded by atrial waves. During massage of the carotid sinus, the latter become more pronounced due to increased AV block.
When conducting an ECG during the day, the heart rate is estimated at different periods and pathological paroxysms are determined.
The most informative method for diagnosing atrial fibrillation is an ECG.
But before that, the doctor will collect an anamnesis. Important information will be information about:
- similar rhythm disturbances in the next of kin;
- concomitant diseases, for example, pathology of the lungs, thyroid gland, gastrointestinal tract;
- the initial manifestations of menopause in women.
If the patient independently noticed an irregular pulse, then the doctor will ask: how long have these changes been observed, and whether attempts were made to eliminate them. This is followed by a physical examination, which will immediately allow for differential diagnosis with flutter. Indeed, with atrial fibrillation, heartbeats occur at different intervals.
When listening, the inefficiency of the abbreviations of our “engine” is revealed. This means that the heart rate determined in this case will differ from the pulse rate palpable on the wrist. The “floating” volume of the first tone will also attract attention. No matter how informative the physical examination is, nevertheless, in a number of cases with severe tachycardia, the doctor cannot figure out the cause of the disease and give an opinion on the irregular rhythm. Then a cardiogram comes to the rescue.
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Signs on an ECG
Examination of the patient, especially in old age, with the help of an ECG should be carried out during each visit to the doctor. This can significantly reduce the number of consequences of atrial fibrillation (ischemic stroke, acute heart failure) and improve the diagnosis of latent (asymptomatic) and its paroxysmal forms.
But all of them are still inferior in terms of informativeness to the traditional cardiogram, on which the following changes are detected during atrial fibrillation:
- there is no P wave;
- RR intervals, responsible for the rhythm of the ventricles, have different lengths;
- there are ff waves, considered the main sign of the disease.
I draw your attention to the fact that in order to diagnose a paroxysmal form of pathology, one should resort to either a daily short-term recording of an ECG or round-the-clock Holter monitoring.
The photo below shows examples of films of people with atrial fibrillation.
Atrial arrhythmia can manifest itself in different ways. If this is an episodic attack, then the patient may not even notice any changes. Sometimes slight excitement, interruptions in the work of the heart can be noted. The degree of flutter depends on the time, age and condition of the heart muscle.
Older people usually notice symptoms somewhat similar to coronary heart disease – interruptions in the heart, dizziness, slight weakness, shortness of breath with little physical exertion. Seldom aching or stitching pain is rare enough. If significant changes in the blood supply to the vascular bed occur, then loss of consciousness is possible.
It is possible to correctly recognize that there was atrial flutter, an experienced hypertonic or core, who over the years has studied his body and knows its characteristic manifestations. For an average person, heart rate rarely can indicate the true cause of poor health.
Emergency medical care is provided by the use of low power current. Antirrhythmics are administered at the same time.
In normal cases, the treatment of atrial flutter involves taking the following drugs:
- potassium products;
- cardiac glycosides;
- beta adenoblockers
- antiarrhythmic drugs;
- calcium channel blockers.
With an attack lasting no more than 2 days, use electrical pacemaker with the following drugs:
Anticoagulants are administered to prevent thromboembolism.
In addition, the following activities are also carried out:
- installation of a pacemaker;
- radiofrequency ablation.
With irregular flutter, drugs are used to thin the blood.
A course of drug therapy is prescribed after the operation.
Treatment of atrial flutter should be performed when the first clinical signs appear. However, to completely eliminate the pathology today is impossible. Only the probability of their occurrence is minimized if the patient takes all the drugs prescribed by the doctor.
Than flutter is dangerous
Atrial flutter, which is not corrected with medication in time, can have serious and sometimes tragic consequences for the body.
First of all, it is worth noting the changes in hemodynamics that occur due to a violation of the pumping function of the heart. The nervous system and the heart muscle are most pronounced for such a change. As a result, a person may lose consciousness or an angina attack is possible.
Thromboembolic complications occur due to impaired blood movement. Atria play the role of a kind of reservoirs for the formation of blood clots. Subsequently, the thrombus comes off and clogs the arterial trunks of various organs. Especially often this situation is observed in patients with heart failure.
World experts suggest the use of the following drugs for the implementation of antithrombotic therapy, depending on the level of risk of thromboembolic complications:
- in the presence of a thrombus in the atrium, a history of thromboembolism, artificial heart valves, mitral stenosis, arterial hypertension, thyrotoxicosis, heart failure, 75 years of age and older, with ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus – from the age of 60 – oral anticoagulants;
- in case of failure to reach 60 years of age and the presence of cardiac pathologies that do not imply the presence of congestive heart failure, arterial hypertension – Aspirin (325 mg/day);
- for the same age in the absence of heart ailments – the same medicine in the same dosage or the absence of treatment.
Recommendations for atrial flutter include control of indirect coagulants at the beginning of treatment – from once a week and more often if necessary, in the future – once a month.
Surgical and instrumental treatment
Possible treatment with electric current when using a defibrillator. In many cases, stabilization of heart rhythms and improvement in the well-being of patients are observed. Sometimes such a method of treatment does not bring the expected results, the rhythm is broken again after a while.
In addition, carrying out this procedure can lead to the development of strokes, so before it is possible, intravenous and subcutaneous injections are prescribed to dilute blood.
If conservative treatment does not help and relapses of arrhythmia are observed, then the doctor prescribes:
- radiofrequency ablation;
They are carried out in relation to the conductive paths along which the pulse is circulated during the attack.
With the onset of various complications and a severe course of the pathology, an operation is performed. It is necessary in order to:
- Stabilize your heart rate and heart rate
- improve the general condition of the patient;
- suppress the focus of pathology.
Typical paroxysms are controlled by transesophageal pacing.
Treatment can be divided into 2 large groups:
If atrial flutter is detected on an ECG (paroxysm), then this eliminates the symptomatic treatment. Various groups of antiarrhythmic drugs are used that block the circulation of the pulse in the atria and restore normal
Such therapy has a temporary effect and is used to eliminate atrial flutter in young people and patients with provoking pathologies. In the case of arrhythmia, which is not amenable to drug relief, instrumental methods for regulating heart rate are used. We are talking about electropulse therapy, which can be carried out either in the form of cardioversion or as esophageal stimulation.
Usually, one to three digits of the apparatus are enough to effectively establish the right rhythm. After electropulse therapy, the patient should be under medical supervision for several days to prevent possible repeated attacks.
For young patients, it is important to identify and timely eliminate the factor that causes the pathology, which in turn will lead to a complete cure. If there is a hormonal disorder, chronic obstructive disease of the lungs or various types of intoxication, they must be cured immediately or transferred to a state of remission. Only in this case, it is possible to quickly eliminate atrial flutter. Treatment is carried out in the form of courses for several years.
The disease is characterized by resistance to therapeutic treatment against arrhythmia, a tendency to relapse, and persistence of paroxysms.
The long-term outlook is unfavorable. Hemodynamics are disturbed, the work of the cameras becomes inconsistent, cardiac output is reduced by 20% or more. There is a mismatch between the capabilities and needs of the body for the implementation of metabolic processes, which leads to chronic circulatory failure. Atrial flutter, the prognosis of which is disappointing, can lead to expansion of the cavities of the heart muscle, which can provoke a fatal outcome.
In the chronic form of the disease, parietal thrombi form in the atria. In the event of their separation, catastrophic conditions in the vessels can be observed. The consequences of the disease can occur in the small and large circle of blood circulation, causing heart attacks of the intestine, spleen, kidneys, gangrene of the extremities, strokes.
Radical treatment involves the organic removal of areas of the atria through which pathological arousal can circulate. The only and quite highly effective method is called catheter ablation.
Preparation, as for any other operation, requires additional analyzes and examinations. Laboratory tests of blood and urine, ECG monitoring, various types of echocardiography are performed to determine the state of the heart cavities.
Catheter ablation is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, the essence of which is radiofrequency burning of areas of pathological circulation of excitation. A special radiofrequency catheter is inserted through a small incision in the vessel and moves along the inferior vena cava to the right atrium. Several radiofrequency ablation procedures are underway in this area. The progress of the catheter is monitored by a doctor through an x-ray machine. An operation in uncomplicated course lasts an average of 30 to 60 minutes.
In cases of an atypical form of arrhythmia, an additional atrial reconstruction of the atrium is performed for electrical mapping of points that should be affected by a hardware pulse and completely eliminate atrial flutter.
In the postoperative period, all doctor’s recommendations should be strictly observed. Moderate and intense physical activity is limited, an anticholesterol diet is prescribed, and blood thinners are taken.
Blood thinners are represented by heparins, which are administered subcutaneously during hospital treatment, then they are replaced by the so-called indirect anticoagulants, which are presented in tablet form (preparations “Warfarin”, “Sincumar” and others). The latter are taken at least a month after surgery in doses prescribed by the attending physician.
If the postoperative period proceeds without complications, the patient should visit the doctor in a planned manner. Usually, the first visit is planned in a month, then in two months in order to dynamically monitor the state of the heart and blood vessels.
Possibility of relapse
Symptomatic therapy eliminates paroxysm of atrial flutter and does not affect the true cause. Therefore, the likelihood of relapse is very high.
The radical method effectively eliminates atrial flutter. Treatment limits the likelihood of relapse to 5–10%. This can usually happen after suffering an irregular form of arrhythmia. In relapse, a repeated catheter ablation procedure is recommended to eliminate additional sources of circulation of pathological impulses.
Prevention: what should the patient know?
Unfortunately, there is no specific prevention of atrial fibrillation, because preparations and technologies capable of combating genetic mutations have not yet been developed. Therefore, all that remains is to prevent, as far as possible, the appearance of diseases that provoke the development of arrhythmia.
I think there is no need to talk about lifestyle modifications that can reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes and hypertension. But many forget that, having a family history of arrhythmias, it is necessary to treat all diseases of the lungs and bronchi on time, to choose a profession correctly, avoiding working with high levels of dust in the air (for example, mining). This will reduce the risk of fibrillation associated with COPD.
Patient A., 25 years old, was brought to the admission department with complaints of lack of air, inability to breathe fully, palpitations, dizziness, sharp general weakness. The patient was engaged in semi-professional powerlifting, and with the next approach he lost consciousness. In the family, grandmother and mother were diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. Objectively: the skin is pale, shortness of breath at rest, Blood pressure 90/60 mm Hg, heart rate during auscultation 400 beats/min, also the first tone is heard louder than normal, the rhythm is wrong, the pulse on the radial artery is 250 beats/min . Preliminary diagnosis: “First detected atrial fibrillation.”
To confirm the diagnosis used: clinical blood and urine tests, determination of the level of TSH, ECG, Echo-KG. The patient underwent pharmacological cardioversion “Dofetilide”, after which the sinus rhythm with heart rate was restored within 60-64 beats/min. During the hospital stay, -hour ECG monitoring was performed, and paroxysms of fibrillation were not observed. The patient was recommended to limit physical activity.
With the congenital form of the disease, special preventive measures do not exist. The expectant mother should eliminate bad habits and rationally build her diet.
General preventative recommendations include the following:
- timely treatment of various ailments to exclude their transition into a chronic form;
- moderate physical activity;
- balanced diet;
- rejection of bad habits.
Lifestyle & Home Remedies
You may need to make lifestyle changes that improve the overall condition of your heart, especially to prevent or treat conditions such as high blood pressure and heart disease. Your doctor may suggest several lifestyle changes, including:
- Eat healthy foods. Eat a healthy diet low in salt and hard fats and rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Exercise regularly. Exercise daily and increase your physical activity.
- Quit smoking. If you smoke and cannot quit on your own, talk with your doctor about strategies or programs to help you break the smoking habit.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases your risk of developing heart disease.
- Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control. Make lifestyle changes and take medications as prescribed to correct high blood pressure (hypertension) or high cholesterol.
- Drink alcohol in moderation. For healthy adults, this means that every day for women of all ages and men over 65, and up to two drinks per day for men 65 and under.
- Support follow-up care. Take your medicine as prescribed and meet with your doctor regularly. Tell your doctor if your symptoms worsen.
From the diet exclude:
The intake of fluid is limited, the number of meals should be large, while it is taken in small portions. Do not eat foods that can cause flatulence and bloating. The diet is almost salt-free.
The patient should be disciplined, take prescribed medications and avoid the influence of factors that can cause an exacerbation of pathology.