It is necessary to take a pulse measurement in a calm emotional and physical state. The procedure for measuring heart rate should be postponed for 40-50 minutes after drinking tea, coffee, a large portion of hot food, after taking a bath, smoking, intense work or stressful situations. Measurement of heart rate is carried out on the body, with a minimum amount of muscle and fatty tissue, namely:
- on the wrist of the radial artery;
- carotid artery in the neck;
- in the elbow where the brachial artery is located;
- on the femoral artery in the groin;
- in the popliteal cavity.
To measure the pulse on the arm, you must sit with your elbows on the back of the chair, or lie down. At the same time, the hand is released from everything that interferes with the circulation of blood: squeezing clothes, bracelets and watches.
The hand for counting the pulse should be located at the level of the heart. Next, the radial artery on the wrist is pressed with the index and middle finger in order to better feel the pulsation.
It is necessary to calculate the number of arterial pulsations in 1 minute, or in 10 seconds, while the result is multiplied by 6. If a high pulse is observed, then the most informative result is to monitor the heart rate for a minute, while the measurement is carried out 2 times on symmetrical parts of the body (on both wrists, elbows, etc.).
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- Neck measurement
- Where to measure
- Heart rate by age
- In children (table)
- Heartbeat at rest
- 15 years – 165
- 35 years – 145
- 55 years old -125
- 75 years – 105
- Adults – 60-80
- Old – 70-90
- Teens – 70-80
- In men
- Table – Heart rate by age in women and men
- Before 30 years
- After 30 years
- After 50 years
- Causes of deviation in heart rate
- Rapid pulse
- Heart rate
- Measurement rules
- Daily monitoring
- Treadmill Test
- Diseases accompanied by
- Low pulse
- Is it possible to control your pulse
- Yoga Receptions
- In pregnancy
- Myocardial infarction
- Stomach ulcer
- High Pulse Medication
- Interesting v > ”Alt =” ”>
Measurement of the pulse on the neck is performed while sitting or lying down. In this case, the index and middle fingers should be folded, placed in the submandibular fossa on the neck, trying to feel the pulsation of the carotid artery. Next, calculate the ripple for 10, 15, 30 seconds or per minute.
It should also be remembered that the pulse is not measured with the thumb, since the thumb has its own pronounced capillary pulsation, which affects the calculation of heart rate.
You can measure the pulse fluctuations of the arteries yourself.
Where to measure
You can measure in the following places:
- on the elbow of the brachial artery
- on the neck on the carotid artery
- in the groin on the femoral artery
- on the wrist on the radial artery
The most common measurement method is on the radial artery on the wrist.
To find the pulse, you can use any fingers except the thumb. The thumb itself has a ripple, and this can affect the accuracy of the measurement.
Typically, the index and middle fingers are used: they are applied under the bend of the wrist in the thumb area, moving until pulse oscillations are detected. You can try to find them on both hands, but keep in mind that the ripple power may not be the same on the left and right hands.
During training, the heart rate is usually counted within 15 seconds and multiplied by four. At rest, measured for 30 seconds and multiplied by two. If there is a suspicion of arrhythmia, it is better to increase the measurement time to 60 seconds.
When measuring, it should be borne in mind that the frequency of oscillation of the walls of the vessels can depend not only on physical activity. For example, stress, hormonal release, fever, even food intake and time of day can affect the frequency.
Daily measurements are best done at the same time. For example, in the morning, an hour after breakfast.
For independent determination of the number of myocardial shocks, one should know the norms of heart contraction and the features of the procedure:
- in a state of complete rest;
- after eating a few hours later;
- must be satisfactory;
- under normal temperature conditions;
- in a sober state;
- a person needs to be in a sitting or lying position.
To measure the number of myocardial contractions yourself or with the help of an assistant, you must apply the following methodology:
- put your palm to the part of the body bounded by the ribs just below the armpit;
- take a device that can measure time intervals with an accuracy of fractions of a second;
- count strokes in 60 seconds;
- in case of rhythm disturbances, the procedure should be done for 3 minutes and the resulting value should be divided by 3.
Additional methods for determining the frequency of myocardial contractions include:
- calculation of heart rate on the part of the leg from the pelvis to the knee bend, cervical artery, place of the skull from ear to forehead
- the use of modern watches with a heart rate monitor, mobile phone.
Heart rate by age
The ideal heart rate per minute, in which the human heart rate is measured, is considered to be from 60 to 90. If the heart rate (heart rate) is less than 60 beats per minute, and this clinical picture persists for three consecutive measurements with an interval of 3-7 days , the patient is diagnosed with bradycardia.
This is one of the pathologies of the sinus rhythm, in which the pulse can decrease to 30 beats per minute or less. The patient at the same time experiences constant weakness, drowsiness. His working capacity decreases, headaches appear, dizziness often occurs. With a significant slowdown in heart rate (less than 30-35 beats per minute), loss of consciousness and cessation of respiratory function are possible.
The causes of bradycardia can be:
In most people, a decrease in heart rate to 40-50 beats per minute is asymptomatic, but in case of pathological signs (asthenic syndrome, flashing flies in front of the eyes, pressure in the chest), you need to seek medical help.
This condition is called tachycardia. Tachycardia can be temporary or take a chronic course. Most often, deviations from the norm of the heartbeat due to attacks of sinus or paroxysmal tachycardia are observed in women. The causes may be disorders in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, diseases of the endocrine system and hemodynamic disorders.
If the normal heart rate in adults is about 70-90 beats per minute, then with any form of tachycardia (including ventricular fibrillation), this figure reaches 100-110 beats. The patient’s condition worsens, shortness of breath, insomnia appear, dull or stitching pains in the sternum can occur. With a long course, tachycardia is dangerous to health, since the blood supply to the heart muscle is impaired and its work deteriorates. If medical correction is not carried out in a timely manner, the development of coronary disease, heart attack and heart failure is possible.
The pulse rate for women and men differs slightly in age, although in women this indicator may be slightly higher due to physiological characteristics (for example, unstable hormonal balance). The table below shows the normal human heart rate by year and age. According to it, you can roughly navigate with an independent assessment of the functioning of the cardiovascular system, but only a doctor can accurately analyze possible deviations and identify their nature.
Age rate of heart rate (no load)
|Age||Minimum heart rate||Maximum heart rate||Normal value|
Heart rate is measured in beats per minute. The heart rate is calculated as the average of the minimum and maximum values.
The increase in heart rate in female patients can also be associated with gynecological hormone-dependent diseases, for example, endometriosis, endometritis, endometrial hyperplasia, uterine fibroids. With these pathologies, the level of estrogen in the female body decreases, which leads to a disruption in the normal hormonal balance and changes in the functioning of the heart and blood vessels. During menopause (45-50 years), the average heart rate in women is approximately compared with men.
In men, changes in heart rate in most cases result from a sedentary lifestyle, alcohol abuse, and smoking. Errors in nutrition (increased consumption of salt, spices, fatty foods) can also affect the heart rate, so with significant deviations from the normal heart rate, the priority is to correct lifestyle and get rid of bad habits.
The heart rate in men involved in sports is always higher than in women of the same age, leading a measured lifestyle, and can reach 100 beats per minute, which is not considered a pathology in the absence of other signs and symptoms.
In children (table)
The baby’s pulse at birth is always high and ranges from 100 to 150 beats per minute. The heart is contracting intensively during this period, so these values are considered a physiological norm and do not require any treatment.
A higher heart rate may be the result of intrauterine or postpartum hypoxia, therefore such children need careful monitoring and examination of specialists of a narrow profile: a pulmonologist, cardiologist, infectious disease specialist, endocrinologist. Signs of postpartum hypoxia can be unnatural pallor of the skin, poor sleep, lack of sucking and other congenital reflexes. By 3-6 months, the child’s pulse can approach the values of 90-120 beats per minute and remain in this range until the age of ten.
Pulse in children: normal
|Age of child||What pulse is considered normal|
(unit – beats per minute)
|Newborns||100 – 150|
|2 weeks to 3 months||90 – 140|
|3 months to six months||90 – 120|
|From six months to 1 year||80 – 120|
|From 1 to 10 years||70 – 130|
In children over 10 years of age and adolescents, the heart rate is the same as in adults, and is 70-90 beats per minute.
If this does not happen, you should consult a doctor, since such a clinical picture can be a manifestation of chronic heart failure, coronary heart disease, and other heart diseases that increase the risk of myocardial infarction.
Due to the physiological differences of the female body, which during life is subject to significant hormonal fluctuations that affect the cardiovascular system, the norm of heart rate for women differs from the norm of men of the same age. The pulse rate in women at rest is usually higher by 5-10 beats per minute.
An increase in heart rate is noted during pregnancy, menstruation, with the onset of menopause. This increase is called physiological tachycardia.
People who exercise regularly have a lower heart rate.
The athlete’s resting pulse can be less than forty beats per minute versus sixty to eighty in an unprepared person. Such a heart rate is necessary for the heart to work during extreme loads: if the natural frequency does not exceed forty beats per minute, the heart will not have to accelerate more than 150-180 beats during stressful moments.
For a year or two of active training, the athlete’s pulse decreases by 5-10 beats per minute. The first noticeable decrease in heart rate can be felt after three months of regular exercise, during which time the frequency decreases by 3-4 beats.
|Age||Number of beats per minute|
average (min / max)
|up to 1 month||140 (110/170)|
|from 1 month to 1 year||132 (100/160)|
|from 1 year to 2 years||124 (95/155)|
|from 2 to 4 years||115 (90/140)|
|from 4 to 6 years||105 (85/125)|
|from 6 to 8 years||98 (78/118)|
|from 8 to 10 years||88 (70/110)|
|from 10 to 12 years||80 (60/100)|
|from 12 to 15 years||75 (55/95)|
|from 15 to 50 years||70 (60/80)|
|from 50 to 60 years||75 (65/85)|
|from 60 to 80 years||80 (70/90)|
In the strong half, the number of heart beats is lower than in women by about 10 units. When measuring the myocardial rhythm parameter, each factor that can provoke an increase or decrease in the rate of contractions of the hollow organ should be taken into account.
For a completely healthy man, heart rate should correspond to:
- norm – 70-74 bpm;
- minimum – 66-69 beats / min;
- maximum – 75-82 bpm.
Women are characterized by a higher heart rate, which differs from the male myocardial rhythm by 10-15 beats / min. and corresponds to:
- average: 80-84 units;
- minimum: 76-79 units;
- maximum: 85-93 units.
During the “interesting” situation, hormonal changes occur in women, which entails an increase in the pulsation of the hollow organ pumping the fluid connective tissue through the vessels. This state of the circulatory system is a physiological norm.
The main indicators of heart rate during gestation:
- norm – 90-94 bpm;
- minimum – 86-89 beats / min;
- maximum – 95-103 bpm.
For the child’s body, it is usual to have constant and intense changes due to rapid growth, which greatly affects the rhythm of the heart. Also, children are characterized by changes in myocardial compression with an increase in physiological parameters.
The following values should be attributed to normal indicators of the work of the heart muscle in a young body:
- average: 95-100 units;
- minimum: 60-70 units;
- maximum: 130-150 units.
|Age||Pulse (min-max)||Average value||Norm of arterial pressure (systole. / Diastole.)|
|12 – 15||55 – 95||75||110-120/70-80|
|Until 50||60 – 80||70||116-137/70-85||123-135/76-83|
|50 – 60||65 – 85||75||140/80||142/85|
|60 – 80||70 – 90||80||144-159 / 85||142 / 80-85|
Heartbeat at rest
- at rest – this is precisely the norm of the heartbeat, which is cons >Physical activity can be different in intensity, depending on this, the indicators of normal heart rhythm will also change.
When walking, ripple may increase. The maximum value depends only on the readiness of the body. Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle cause the indicator to reach extreme levels (120 bpm), and for walkers, the value rarely exceeds 100.
To determine the maximum allowable deviation, you can resort to a simple arithmetic method: from 180 you need to subtract your age.
15 years – 165
In adolescents, the body is ready to take on significant burdens. Light running and walking train and increase stamina. At the same time, one cannot ignore one’s well-being after performing even minimal loads.
35 years – 145
The body reaches its peak of development. With a healthy lifestyle, a person does not notice a heartbeat after a short walk. If the indicator reaches the maximum allowable mark – you should adjust your lifestyle and allocate daily time for minimal exercises.
55 years old -125
For a group of people of pre-retirement age, it is necessary to measure opportunities and activity. Serious disruptions can provoke many deviations.
75 years – 105
Older people need to carefully monitor their health. Failures in the rhythm of the pulse in the elderly and exceeding the maximum permissible limit can provoke the most complicated diseases of CVS up to a fatal outcome.
Measuring heart rate is better in peace of mind. To do this, it is preferable to choose the time before noon. Before measuring, it is recommended to take a comfortable pose and rest for 10-15 minutes.
Adults – 60-80
This age category includes the able-bodied population from 16 to 55 years.
Old – 70-90
Activity of the heart is noted among old people from 56 years. It is caused by many concomitant diseases. The normal pulse in older women may deviate slightly from the generally accepted norm in medicine due to hormonal changes, which include menopause and menopause.
Teens – 70-80
Representatives of women and men under the age of 15 are standardly assigned to this group. At the same time, a rather sharp drop in maximum values compared to younger groups is explained by high requirements in schools and colleges, as well as upcoming exams.
After the child adapts to new conditions of life, the phase of active growth and development begins. A small heart performs a tremendous amount of work, supplying all internal organs with nutrients that the blood carries.
A frequent heartbeat still begins in the womb. The fastest is noted immediately after birth. This fact is often explained by addiction to the world.
If the malfunctions are physiological, then there is no reason to worry. As a rule, everything will normalize in the coming minutes, and in the future a negative factor should be avoided. A pathologically conditioned condition needs complex treatment. Depending on the violation, the doctor will pick up medications and give recommendations regarding physical education, adhering to the daily routine and nutritional correction, namely diet.
With bradycardia, drugs that stimulate the work of the heart muscle are prescribed: tablets that include belladonna, caffeinated drinks on a natural basis or herbal preparations. When tachycardia is recommended rest in a cool room, washing with water. Inside, the doctor may recommend a drink of valerian infusion.
If the condition does not stabilize after completing all the points, it is recommended to call an ambulance team. Knowledge of generally accepted norms will avoid many diseases. After all, arrhythmia is often a companion of more serious failures.
The heart rate in men at rest ranges from 60 to 90 beats in 60 seconds.
The indicators are affected by:
- the weight;
- psycho-emotional states;
The normal heart rate in women depends on age indicators and the general condition of the body and varies from 70 to 90 for young girls, and from 65 to 80 for older women.
The norm of heart rate in women when walking is 100-120 beats per minute. Moreover, an indicator of 100 indicates good physical fitness. An increase in reductions to 120 and above indicates the need for more frequent training. Jogging involves a more intense burden on the work of the heart than just walking. Therefore, heart rate will be higher – from 115 to 140 beats per minute.
With bradycardia, drugs are used that minimize the effect of the vagus nerve on the work of the heart.
The most effective medications:
- Corvalol is a vasodilating sedative in drops, indicated for use in heart disorders.
- Isadrine is an intravenous drug that increases myocardial irritability and contractility.
- Riboxin is an oral pill-based drug that improves coronary circulation and stimulates metabolic processes.
- Papangin – an agent based on potassium and magnesium for intravenous administration, has anti-ischemic activity.
Heart palpitations are called tachycardia. Such changes in the functioning of the myocardium can have a functional and organic character of disorders in the body.
You should pay attention to the main reasons that cause an elevated level of heart contractions:
- sudden feeling of fear;
- an unexplained, painful attack of anxiety for the patient;
- strong muscular tension;
- sudden changes in blood pressure numbers;
- the exit of blood beyond the vascular bed;
- inflammatory process of various localization and nature, provoked by pyogenic microbial flora;
- accumulation of excess heat in the body with an increase in temperature indicators;
- disruption due to the ingestion of toxins that provoked a painful condition;
- disturbances in the functioning of the endocrine gland, which produces iodine-containing hormones and participates in metabolic processes;
- malignant neoplasms;
- discomfort and pain behind the sternum due to insufficient circulation of the heart muscle;
- changes in myocardial structures that disrupt the movement of fluid connective tissue inside a hollow organ or through the circulatory system;
- emotional restlessness;
- the accumulation of fat in the body, leading to the appearance of excess body weight;
- the use of drinks containing wine alcohol;
- suppression of ovulation, based on the use of synthetic analogues of female sex hormones;
- excessive enthusiasm for biological active additives and their compositions;
- pathological change in the set of processes of water and electrolyte intake in the body;
- the use of drugs to combat excess weight.
The heart rate (the norm in adult men and women is different) can be reduced.
The main causes of bradycardia are:
- pathological changes in the heart muscle responsible for pumping blood, characterized by proliferation of connective scar tissue;
- long stay in the cold;
- increased pressure in the ventricles of the brain;
- malignant neoplasms;
- bleeding inside the skull;
- damage to the autonomic system of the body;
- the use of drugs that block beta-adrenergic receptors;
- improper use of drugs for the treatment of heart rhythm disorders;
- slowing down of metabolic processes due to insufficient production of thyroxine;
- inflammatory pathologies of the brain;
- chemical poisoning;
- prolonged lack of intake of substances necessary to maintain homeostasis;
- penetration of pathogenic microbes and prions into the body;
- pathological changes in the ninth pair of cranial nerves;
- insufficient intake of oxygenated liquid connective tissue in the cells of the body;
- inflammatory liver disease.
- Cholinergic drugs are substances that block the organic compound responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses: Atropine-Darnitsa; Besalol; Sanapuz.
- Means that are competitive blockers of the receptors of the neurotransmitter imidazolyl-ethylamine, which violates the heart rhythm: Pipolfen; Lvovdialik-Promethazine; Kalmaben.
- Anti-Parkinsonian drugs that increase the level of the dopamine hormone that improves motor activity: Akineton; Parkopan; Tryphene.
- Medicines of the group of nitrogen-containing organic compounds of natural origin, which have a stimulating effect on the main part of the nervous system: Peyona; Theotard Unicontin.
- Drugs that provide the process of transmission of impulses in adrenergic synapses – act on the peripheral nervous system: Adrenor; Dobutel; Epinen.
Table – Heart rate by age in women and men
|Age||Minimum maximum beats / minute||Average standard|
|Kids and teens|
|First month of life||110 – 170||140|
|First year||102 – 162||132|
|Before 2 years||94 – 155||124|
|Before 6 years||86 – 126||106|
|Before 8 years||78 – 118||98|
|Before 10 years||68 – 108||88|
|Before 12 years||60 – 100||80|
|Before 15 years||55 – 95||75|
|Before 18 years||60 – 93||75|
|From 18 40 up||60 – 90||75|
|Before 60 years||65 – 85||75|
|Older than 60||70 – 90||80|
|From 18 40 up||68 – 99||79|
|Before 60 years||75-100 (menopause)||80|
|Older than 60||74 – 95||85|
In men, the number of heart contractions is an order of magnitude lower than in women: on average, the pulse rate in men is 62-70 beats per minute at a young age and 70-90 after six years.
|Age of men, years||Minimum||Average value||Maximum|
|20 – 30||50||70||90|
|30 – 40||60||75||90|
|40 – 50||60||70||80|
|50 – 60||65||75||85|
In women, the pulse rate is normally an average of 70-80 beats. per minute, it’s 7-10 more strokes than men, since the female heart is smaller and the body needs more effort to pump the available blood through the body.
|Age of women, years||Minimum||Average value||Maximum|
|20 – 30||60||65||70|
|30 – 40||65||70||75|
|40 – 50||75||75||80|
|50 – 60||80||83||85|
With age, there is an increase in the frequency of heart beats and pulse rhythm disturbances, due to a decrease in vascular elasticity and the development of atherosclerotic processes, an increase in heart rate and pressure. After 50, the pulse rate in women and men is 75-85 beats per minute.
Before 30 years
The body of a young woman under 30 years of age under normal functioning is rarely amenable to significant changes. As a rule, the cardiovascular system functions without disturbances.
In the case when there are significant deviations from the indicators, there is a risk of malfunctions in the body.
After 30 years
Heart rate in women tends to slow with age. Therefore, after 30 years, the minimum rates in the norm remain the same – 60 beats per minute. The maximum allowable performance is 85 beats per minute.
After 50 years
In a woman’s body after 50 years, a number of changes occur that affect the heart rate.
- hormonal changes due to menopause;
- slow metabolism;
- loss of vascular elasticity;
- high cholesterol;
- wrong lifestyle.
All this can lead to malfunction of the cardiovascular system and the development of tachycardia or arrhythmia. The pulse rate in women after 50 years averages 65-75 beats in 60 seconds.
|Age||minimum and maximum quantity (bpm)||Average value (bpm)|
|Newborns up to 3-4 weeks||115 – 165||135|
|from 1 month up to 1 year||105 – 160||130|
|1 – 3||90 – 150||122|
|3 – 5||85 – 135||110|
|5 – 7||80 – 120||100|
|7 – 9||72 – 112||92|
|9 – 11||65 – 105||85|
|11 – 15||58 – 97||77|
|15 – 50||60 – 80||70|
|50 – 70||66 – 87||76|
|older than 70||72 – 92||81|
For example, during menopause, women can feel tachycardia and a certain increase in pressure, which is most often associated with changes at the hormonal level.
|Age||The average number of myocardial contractions|
|to 30 days||139 – 145|
|1 month – 12 months||131 – 136|
|from 1 year to 2 years||123 – 127|
|2-4 years||114 – 119|
|from 4-x to 6-summer||104 – 109|
|4-6 years||105 – 110|
|from 6 to 8 years||97 – 103|
|8-10 years||87 – 99|
|from 10 to 12 years old||79 – 90|
|12-15 years||74 – 83|
|from 15 to 50||69 – 80|
|50-80 years||73 – 84|
Causes of deviation in heart rate
The human body reacts differently to different intensity of loads. Fat burning occurs at loads of 65-85% of the maximum.
% Of maximum
|Action on the body|
|90-100%||Extreme loads. The body works to the limit. Only for experienced athletes.|
|80-90%||Anaerobic zone. High loads to improve physical endurance.|
|70-80%||Aerobic zone. Improving cardio endurance and efficient calorie burning.|
|60-70%||The beginning of the fat burning zone. Comfortable loads and good performance for a basic level.|
|50-60%||Easy activity. Adaptation to loads and recovery.|
220 minus your age – we get the maximum heart rate (beats per minute).
For example, if you are 45 years old, the maximum heart rate is 220-45 = 175
Determination of the boundaries of the heart rate zone, optimal for burning fat:
- 175 * 0.65 = 114 – lower bound
- 175 * 0.85 = 149 – upper bound
During exercise, an additional load on the cardiovascular system occurs, causing an increase in pressure, increasing the heart rate, resulting in a pulse increase.
Walking at medium speed is one of the best exercises for the heart, since walking can be practiced for a long time without the appearance of severe fatigue and without a significant increase in heart rate. Also, walking strengthens the heart and blood vessels, is one of the best exercises for the prevention of the cardiovascular system.
During the run, the heart intensively pumps blood for the needs of the whole organism, while the heart muscle strengthens. It should be remembered that running is contraindicated in people with heart disease, with an increased risk of myocardial infarction.
|Age,||Optimal heart rate when walking||Standards for weight loss while running||Standards for increasing endurance while running||Maximum allowable heart rate|
|30||145||155 – 160||110 – 120||170|
|50||125||135 – 140||90 – 110||150|
|70||105||115 – 120||70 – 90||130|
Maximum heart rate (max. Heart rate) = 220 – age.
There is also the concept of pulse zones – these are load categories depending on the intensity, which are determined by the frequency of beats per minute. Three pulse zones, the most optimal for physical exertion, are as follows:
- Therapeutic – 50-60% of the maximum heart rate, – the lowest heart rate, which cannot be exceeded during exercise for beginners and for long workouts (40-50 minutes) in order to strengthen the heart.
- For burning fat – 60-70% of the maximum values. Training with the indicated pulse helps to burn fat mass and strengthen the cardiovascular system.
- For power endurance – 70-80% of max. Heart rate. In the pulse zone with such indicators, short-term loads lasting up to 10 minutes are used.
- tachycardia is a cardiac arrhythmia with an increased heart rate of more than 90 beats. in min .;
- bradycardia – a decrease in the heart rate at rest (below sixty beats per minute);
- paroxysmal heart rhythm disturbances – a sudden and unreasonable increase in heart rate up to 150-200 contractions per minute;
- extrasystole – premature contraction of the ventricles of the heart;
- atrial fibrillation is a pathology in which the atria of the ventricles lose the ability to fully contract, while tachycardia and bradycardia are periodically observed.
Today, an increased pulse is often found among the problems of the cardiovascular system. The causes of tachycardia in adult men and women can be many diseases, as well as physical and emotional conditions:
- stress, neurosis;
- intense load;
- acute vascular insufficiency;
- endocrine diseases (thyrotoxicosis, adrenal gland hyperfunction);
- medicines (corticosteroids, diuretics, caffeine, nicotine, aminophylline).
During an attack of tachycardia, palpitations, pulsation of blood vessels in the neck, shortness of breath, dizziness, lack of air can be felt.
The causes of pulse reduction are disturbances in the work of the heart nodes (sinus, artiventricular) and the conduction system of the heart muscle, which occurs due to the development of the following diseases:
- cardiac ischemia;
- myocardial infarction;
- arterial hypertension;
- kidney disease;
Slowing of the heart and a decreased heart rate are manifested by weakness, dizziness, the appearance of cold sweat, in severe cases, fainting conditions are possible.
Normal heart rate per minute (in women from 60 beats) during sleep differs from normal indicators during wakefulness. This is due to the fact that at night the pressure, metabolism, body temperature decreases and the body plunges into deep relaxation.
During night sleep, the pulse slows down 1,5 times from normal values in the daytime. For women, this figure is from 60 to 70 beats per minute. The lowest heart rate recorded at around 4 in the morning can be from 30 to 50 beats. This is due to the fact that it is at this time that the vagus nerve inhibits the work of the heart muscle.
Deviations of heart rate indicators from generally accepted norms can be a sign of serious violations in the work of the heart and blood vessels. There are two main deviations associated with heart rate – tachycardia and bradycardia.
In medicine, the increased heart rate is called tachycardia. This is a symptom that indicates both the presence of pathological processes and an unstable emotional state. A pulse is considered to be fastened, the indicators of which exceed 90 beats per minute at rest.
Tachycardia develops due to such reasons:
- the presence of heart disease;
- stress, fatigue, nervous irritability;
- reception of energy drinks;
- hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy or menopause;
- metabolic disorders;
- Thyroid gland diseases;
- infectious diseases accompanied by fever;
- intense exercise;
- adverse reaction to taking drugs.
Slow heart rate is called bradycardia. In this case, heart rate is reduced to the number of 45-50 beats per minute.
Bradycardia is considered a concomitant symptom, not a disease, and develops as a result of:
- myocardial conduction disorders;
- malfunctioning of the thyroid gland;
- infectious diseases accompanied by severe intoxication of the body;
- fasting with diet;
- taking drugs that inhibit the work of the sinus node;
- advanced age.
To identify the causes of heart rhythm disturbances, instrumental and laboratory research methods are used, as well as a visual examination at a specialist appointment. When examining a patient, the doctor examines the medical history and medical history to determine the general condition of the body. The number of heart beats per minute and the measurement of blood pressure are calculated.
Instrumental diagnostic methods include:
- ECHO ECG;
- stress test;
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland;
- Holter daily monitoring
Electrocardiography (ECG) allows you to:
- evaluate the regularity of heart contractions;
- count the number of heart contractions;
- determine the source of excitation;
- evaluate the conductivity functions.
The essence of echocardiography (ECHO-ECG) is a study using ultrasound. A special sensor under the influence of the device propagates waves passing through the heart and reflecting from it. Next, the data is displayed on a computer monitor.
Thanks to the method, you can determine:
- thickness and structure of heart vessels;
- condition of the heart membrane;
- condition of heart valves.
The stress test is based on ECG or ECHO-ECG data.
The method consists of several stages:
- The structure of the heart and heart rate is evaluated.
- The introduction of certain medications, followed by physical activity of the patient.
- Taking readings from the heart after exercise.
The research method allows to identify coronary heart disease at the initial stage of development. Daily monitoring is used using ECG data. Several electrodes are attached to the patient’s chest, connected to a recording device.
ECG recording is carried out during the day, after which all the necessary information about the heart rate is read from the device. Ultrasound of the thyroid gland is performed to exclude disorders from the organ.
Normal heart rate per minute does not imply contraindications in physical activity. However, if women have heart rhythm problems, they should be wary of playing sports. With some deviations, any physical activity is strictly prohibited.
- paroxysmal tachycardia;
- myocardial infarction;
- Congenital heart defect;
- atrial and sinus arrhythmia.
In other cases, people with deviations in the heart rate are recommended physical activity in the form of:
- swimming lessons;
- fitness >
The characteristics of the pulse may vary depending on the physiological and pathological causes that affect it. The first include:
- binge eating;
- the use of caffeinated drinks;
- exercise stress;
- slows the pulse deep sleep.
Since this is physiology, the norms can deviate in any direction by no more than 10 beats / minute, otherwise it is a reason to seek medical advice.
The second group of “provocateurs” includes:
- respiratory diseases;
- tumor growth of different genesis;
- endocrine disruptions;
Any cardiovascular disease changes the heart rate. In the case of pathological causes of heart palpitations, the norm is not discussed.
The number of heart contractions, rhythm and other indicators are not stable and depend on the individual characteristics of the cardiovascular and nervous systems of each person, as well as on lifestyle, physical fitness, etc. The main factors affecting heart rate are as follows:
- muscle load causes an increase in heart rate;
- fitness (the more the body is adapted to a long load, the more the pulse decreases, for example, for professional runners the norm is up to 40 beats per minute);
- emotional state (stress, anxiety, joy increase indicators);
- heart disease, thyroid gland;
- medicines (cardiac drugs, such as beta-blockers, can lead to a decrease in heart rate);
- age (in older people, the rate of pulse beats is higher than in young people);
- temperature (heat and high humidity lead to increased heart rate).
Measurement of heart rate is most often carried out in the wrist joint of each hand for 1 minute. Each strike must be of equal strength and at regular intervals. If no obvious deviations are found, then the procedure lasts 30 seconds. The information received is doubled. If the doctor has doubts, then the time increases to 1 minute. In this case, a study can be additionally assigned using specialized diagnostic equipment.
This method allows you to identify violations during wakefulness under the influence of various everyday everyday factors, as well as in a dream.
Testing will help you identify the changes that occur due to physical education.
The simplest and most convenient is the measurement of the pulse on the radial artery – it is located almost immediately under the skin along the inner edge of the wrist, under the thumb, so there are no problems with how to find it. You need to grope the pulsation with three fingers and count the number of strokes per minute. But there are other areas where pulsation of arteries is obvious:
- carotid artery on the neck;
- popliteal or ulnar fossa;
- groin or inner thigh (connection of the lower limb and pelvis);
These zones are used in urgent cases when the radial artery is damaged or affected by atherosclerosis (rigid).
Diseases accompanied by
The rate or deviation of the pulse from it can help in the diagnosis of various diseases.
Tachycardia or a frequent pulse is characteristic of:
- congenital or acquired heart defects;
- heart failure;
- neurological diseases;
- endocrine pathologies.
The heart rhythm in diabetes is especially important, since it is a natural body signal for the next drug intake.
Only three cases indicate a possible age rate of the pulse in such a situation:
- strong surge of emotions: joy, fear, euphoria, horror;
- physical stress: sport, labor;
- caffeinated drinks.
In all others, this is a symptom of the disease:
- adrenal tumors of any etiology;
- Addison’s disease;
- pathology of the kidneys;
- mental disorders.
Patients with diseases of a neurogenic or vascular nature are at risk.
Pathological bradycardia is common with:
- preinfarction and after it;
- age-related degeneration of blood vessels, heart;
- high ICP;
- ulcers of different genesis;
- arrhythmias of various etiologies;
Often there is drug bradycardia or idiopathic, of unknown origin. It is the most dangerous, because, regardless of the person’s age and acceptable indicators of a normal heart rate, it is fraught with sudden cardiac arrest.
Is it possible to control your pulse
Heart rate is the most important factor in the psycho-emotional state of a person, which sometimes you want to hide from prying eyes. But is it possible to control the rhythm of the heart? It turns out yes. There are three easy ways.
You need to choose a quiet, warm, comfortable room to make your body comfortable. After lunch or a warm bath, or maybe after a jog or other physical exertion (who is easier), you should listen to your heart. It will not let you down; you will definitely hear it.
Then, take a horizontal position, concentrating on the abdomen or throat. No extraneous thoughts, only you and the pulse. Try moving it from one point on the body to another. For example, from the solar plexus to the chin. Fix these sensations in your mind – this will help to easily catch the spontaneously arising pulsation, suppressing it.
Heart rate is affected by respiration. Having mastered the technique of asymmetric, separate breathing, having mastered breathing exercises, you can easily lower your heart rate to the lower limit of the age norm – 60 beats / minute. Along the way, you will gain relaxation skills, and at rest your heartbeat is always less.
You can still consider it in a certain rhythm. This is done this way: there is a pulse on the radial artery, then out loud (you can also silently, but it’s less effective) to start saying numbers, sounds, phrases, gradually slowing down. The rhythm of the heart will follow your words. This is a kind of auto-training.
Using such simple tricks, you very quickly learn to feel and control your heart rate, emotions.
Higher medical education. 30 years of working experience in practical medicine.
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Last Updated: August 22, 2019
It represents jerky movements of the walls of arteries, which are formed due to periodic changes in blood filling.
This is a pulsation of the jugular (i.e., coming from the head) veins on the neck, as well as some other large veins that are closest to the heart. You can explore it by phlebography.
The change in the color intensity of the nail bed, pressed down by the glass of the lower lip and hyperemic skin of the forehead, is associated with an increase in the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure and indicates the development of pathological processes. The movement of blood in the capillaries of healthy people is continuous.
In pregnant women starting from 20-22 weeks, an increase in the heart rate is recorded. This is due to the increased volume of circulating blood. Often, changes do not go beyond the maximum permissible limits. For example, in 3-5 months, the number of strokes increases by 10-15, then up to 8 months reaches the maximum marks. By the time the pregnancy is completed, it is stabilizing.
This condition is characterized by a decrease in the frequency of contractions to 55 beats / min or less. Physiologically determined causes are not dangerous and stabilization occurs independently:
- while we sleep, the temperature drops, metabolic processes slow down. Deviation within 10% is considered acceptable;
- stimulation of reflex zones, namely the eyeballs or carotid artery;
- walking in frosty weather affects the fact that the body is rebuilt to protect from adverse environmental conditions, saving its resources;
- athletes 40-45 beats / min – the norm. This fact is due to the fact that the heart gets used to heavy loads.
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle that is formed due to various infections, taking medications, toxins, or immune processes that lead to cell damage. This can be both the root cause and the result of arrhythmia.
Tissue scarring, degenerative and fibrous changes in the sinus node cause impulse conduction impairment, which leads to the development of sinus bradyarrhythmia. That is, beats are rare, but the rhythm is maintained. A severe degree of damage is characterized by a failure of the automatism function.
The most common group of medicines designed to lower blood pressure are diuretics. ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors are distinguished as the second. They hold up potassium. This component ensures the stable operation of the cardiovascular system, but exceeding its normal concentration is harmful.
Blockades that occur in the conduction system of the heart block incoming impulses. They do not reach the ventricles and reduce the frequency of pulsation. If the patient’s well-being is critical, then a pacemaker is implanted.
A decrease in the level of thyroid hormones is an indicator for receiving substitution therapy with levothyroxine. If the appointment is ignored, then worsening will lead to hypothyroid coma. This is extremely dangerous. Drowsiness, disorientation are expressed, body temperature drops to 34-35 degrees. Coma is accompanied by pathological changes in the central nervous system, which violate the rhythm of the pulse. This condition is reversible if you achieve euthyroidism.
A decrease in the frequency of contractions is most often accompanied by an increase in blood pressure. This is due to the activation of the compensatory mechanism. With a decrease in both indicators, weakness, malaise, and general weakening of the body are felt much more clearly.
The proximity of the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract often cause many diseases. So, the generality of innervation in ulcers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, pathologies of the esophagus can cause arrhythmia.
Hypertension in the skull occurs due to an increase in the volume of fluids that ensure the normal functioning of the brain, namely cerebrospinal fluidity, blood, tissue fluid caused by edema. Often the problem is caused by mechanical injuries to the head or the development of tumors.
Normal heart rate per minute in women during pregnancy is slightly different from generally accepted indicators. During the period of gestation, the body pumps more blood, the volume of which increases by 1,5-2 liters. The load on the heart increases, it begins to work with greater intensity. This causes a rapid heartbeat.
|1 trimester||average indicators – 80-95 strokes;|
the most permissible – 110-120 strokes at rest.
from 25 weeks – 100-120 strokes in 1 min
permissible norms – 120-150 strokes in 1 min.
High Pulse Medication
With increased heart rate, drugs that normalize the heart rate are used. They will be conditionally divided into sedative and antiarrhythmic.
|Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (relax the walls of blood vessels and allow you to better tolerate physical activity)|
|Calcium channel inhibitors (used to reduce muscle tone and improve blood flow)|
|Tranquilizers (used when the cause of an increased heart rate is increased anxiety)|
|Potassium blockers (help slow down the electrical processes in the heart)|
|Cardiac glycosides (improve blood flow and slow heart rate)|
|ACE inhibitors (reduce heart rate by expanding the walls of the arteries)|
Sedatives are represented by synthetic, homeopathic and combination drugs that calm the central nervous system.
- Valerian extract (tincture, capsules, tablets);
- Motherwort tincture;
Combined drugs are used to achieve the fastest effect with psychomotor agitation:
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- A decoction of hawthorn. Hawthorn strengthens the heart muscle and normalizes heart rate. For cooking, you need to pour 50 g of berries, pour 200 ml of boiling water and insist for 8-10 hours. Drink 50 ml before meals.
- Tincture of Valerian root. The plant lowers heart rate. To prepare the tincture at home, you need to take 20 g of the crushed root of the plant and pour 200 ml of hot water. Insist the solution for 12 hours, take 3 times a day for 20 ml.
- Tea made from lemon balm. It is necessary to use with a rapid heartbeat. To make tea, you need to pour 20 g of dried plants, pour 200 ml of hot water, keep on fire for 5 minutes. Insist 30 minutes and consume 100 ml 3 times a day.
- Lemon and garlic mixture. It is used at a reduced heart rate. Squeeze juice from 1 lemon, mix with 1 minced clove of garlic and pour 20 ml of linden honey. Consume 40 g in the morning on an empty stomach.
- A mixture of dried fruits. For cooking, you will need 100 g of dried apricots, raisins, walnuts, ½ lemon and 4 tbsp. l honey. Grind dried fruits with nuts and lemon using a meat grinder or blender. Mix the resulting mixture with honey and consume 30 g at breakfast.
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