Acute cerebrovascular accident what is it

If a person has an acute violation of cerebral circulation, then it is accompanied by a number of characteristic symptoms. Do not ignore these manifestations and write them off to external stimuli. Of course, some manifestations are inherent in a healthy person, but they can signal a pathology.

  • A person can suffer from a headache, and one cannot say for sure why it arose. Migraine worries for a long time and is poorly stopped by drugs.
  • A feeling of nausea that is almost never accompanied by vomiting.
  • Decrease in sight and hearing.
  • Memory problems, a person can forget important events, and even the names of loved ones.
  • Coordination problems.
  • Numbness of the body, most often one-sided.
  • Problems with speech, it may be difficult for the patient to pronounce certain words, letters, or in general he loses the ability to speak.
  • Dark spots flicker in your eyes, or glowing dots.
  • A person constantly wants to sleep, or vice versa suffers from insomnia.
  • There is increased sweating under normal conditions.
  • The muscles of the arms and legs become more complex, a person can hardly perform the usual tasks.

Of course, the farther the acute cerebrovascular accident progresses, the more vivid the symptoms will be. If at first a person can ignore them, attributing them to general overwork, then over time they will not be able to close their eyes. In the situation when the pathology has acquired a chronic form, it will gradually progress.

In the first stage, patients note persistent headache, high fatigue, emotional instability, and memory problems. At the second stage, impaired motor function, constant dizziness, aggression, as well as a decline in performance are added.

If a person does not start treatment, then the third stage begins. In this case, the diagnosis of stroke is characterized by dementia, significant loss of memory, inability to remember information, and also problems with speech.

It is best to consult a doctor immediately if you have problems with cerebral circulation. Then there will be more chances to restore health and avoid serious complications. If the third stage occurs, then a person will practically lose his legal capacity, and it will be impossible to reverse the changes.

With a stroke of this type, the symptoms are divided into the main and focal. The first is manifested almost in full in the majority of stroke victims. The second occurs only with violations in specific areas of the brain and lesions of certain vessels. In some cases, the signs of stroke in the ischemic type may be non-standard. For example, with a lacunar stroke, convulsions occur, while many other symptoms do not appear.

  • impaired consciousness, sometimes coma is possible;
  • severe headaches, dizziness;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • discomfort in the heart;
  • vision problems, double vision, nystagmus;
  • paralysis of part or all of the body;
  • illegibility of speech, aphasia;
  • loss of coordination of movements;
  • distortion of the face.

Focal symptoms are sometimes more severe. It is impossible to determine by it the exact location of the affected area, despite the special manifestations. In some cases, the symptoms may mix, resulting in inaccuracy. For example, if one artery is damaged, symptoms from the second and third will appear, although they are healthy. Much depends on the individual characteristics of the patient and the nature of the stroke.

ostroe narushenie mozgovogo krovoobrashheniya - Acute cerebrovascular accident what is it

Foci and features of symptoms:

  • anterior cerebral artery – paralysis of the leg, which is in the opposite side of the affected hemisphere, uncontrolled urination;
  • middle cerebral artery – inability to perform the desired movements, speech and perception disorders;
  • posterior cerebral artery – inconsistency of muscle work, lack of sensitivity of the body to the left or right, problems with memory and speech;
  • internal carotid artery – paralysis of half of the body or one limb, problems with speech;
  • anterior villous artery – severe weakness and loss of sensation in half the body, speech and vision impairment;
  • basilar and vertebral arteries – paralysis of the left or right limbs, loss of sensitivity, visual impairment, damage to the facial nerve;
  • posterior cerebellar arteries – loss of sensitivity of the face, problems with speech, lack of perception of temperature and pain.

Ischemic stroke is manifested suddenly. Most often this happens in the morning or night. It is very important that at this moment there is someone next to the person who can call an ambulance.

Symptoms of this disease can very often appear sharply or gradually increase. As a rule, the main symptoms of this disease include speech and vision disorders in a patient, disturbances of various reflexes, movement coordination, headaches, disorientation, sleep disturbances, noise in the head, memory disorders, paralysis of the face, tongue, lack of certain limbs, and so on. Further.

In acute cerebrovascular accident, the following consequences are characteristic – cerebral stroke, circulatory disturbance in the cerebral cortex during the formation of blood clots in the vessels and main blood arteries of the head, etc.

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With symptoms of acute cerebrovascular accident, which last more than a day, a stroke is diagnosed. At the first stage of this disease, severe headache, dizziness, nausea, gag reflexes, and so on can also occur. If you do not immediately pay attention to these manifestations, it can cause a person to die.

According to the register of patients with stroke, according to statistics, the main cause of these manifestations may be high blood pressure, which can occur during heavy physical exertion. A sharp increase in blood pressure can cause a rupture of the cerebral vessels, after which hemorrhage and intracerebral hematoma will occur.

In most cases, the above symptoms are observed before ischemia. As a rule, they can last several hours or several minutes. As a rule, with the manifestation of a stroke of the ischemic type, the symptoms constantly become more active. According to experts, with the manifestation of these symptoms, most people become disoriented, as a result of which a person loses vigilance, coordination of movements worsens, therefore many patients simply fall asleep. According to statistics, 75 percent of attacks of ischemic type of infarction occurs in a dream.

The reasons for which may occur.

In order to prevent the occurrence of this disease, it is necessary from an early age to pay attention to your lifestyle. For example, the constant exercise of sports can significantly reduce the possibility of the manifestation of stroke. What is it, you already know, some of the causes of this disease will be considered further.

As a rule, this disease does not come suddenly, very often the diagnosis of stroke may be established as a consequence of some diseases. Often the cause of this condition can be:

  • hypertension;
  • obesity is the most common cause indicated by the federal registry of patients with stroke;
  • diabetes;
  • high cholesterol;
  • heart disease;
  • alcohol and smoking;
  • various kinds of medicines;
  • high hemoglobin level;
  • according to the federal registry of ONMK, one more reason is age;
  • craniocerebral trauma;
  • genetic predisposition and so on.

Now it is clear what is ONMK. These are consequences of a wrong lifestyle. Therefore, it is very important to monitor your health and physical condition.

Causes of appearance

There are a number of reasons that lead to the appearance of acute circulatory disorders. Such an ailment often occurs against the background of other pathologies, for example, diabetes mellitus, or anemia. That is why it is important to treat diseases in a timely manner if you do not want to face complications.

It can be noted that pathology appears in two cases: when the vessels are blocked and when they rupture. In the first situation, a cerebral infarction occurs, and in the second, a hemorrhagic deviation. For each situation, a number of reasons can be identified, due to which a pathological condition may appear.

Ischemic type of cerebrovascular accident may occur in the following situations:

  • Atherosclerotic vascular changes.
  • Excessively high blood viscosity.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Blockage of the passage with a blood clot.
  • Stenosis of the large arteries.

If stroke was caused by a hemorrhagic mechanism, then, first of all, people with hypertension can be considered at risk. In addition, anemia, lack of vitamins, toxic poisoning, blood diseases, aneurysms and other causes can cause pathology.

But still, the occurrence of acute cerebral circulatory disturbance most often occurs in the presence of high pressure, when rates are more than 200 per 110.

ONMK is included in the international classification of diseases 10 revision

With these diseases, the functioning of the vessels of the brain is disrupted, which affects the whole body.

“Rejuvenation” of strokes and heart attacks is noticed. It is paradoxical that mortality from them is highest among patients aged 40-50 years.

The entire vascular system of the brain is a balanced mechanism that guarantees constant blood flow. Even with large tides of blood, which are under the influence of physical activity, cerebral circulation is not disturbed.

With the loss of this stability, normal blood supply to the brain ceases.

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Acute phases, or strokes.

  • the unexpected appearance of symptoms;
  • speech impairment;
  • a sharp decrease in visual acuity;
  • short duration of symptoms, about 20 hours.

The acute phase of a stroke can lead to irreversible brain damage.

At the same time, in some part of the brain, blood flow worsens or stops and mass cell death occurs. Atherosclerosis often leads to these processes. The reason lies in the blockage of blood vessels by blood clots or atherosclerotic plaques that impede the movement of blood.

Other causes may include persistent physical exertion or nervous agitation related to stress.

Often an ischemic stroke occurs at night when a person is sleeping.

  • violation of coordination of movements;
  • severe headaches;
  • speech impairment;
  • vision problems.

Ischemic stroke is treated with conservative methods, by introducing special drugs that help restore the vascular system of the brain, as well as lowering intracranial pressure.

Thus there is a rupture of blood vessels, which may be a consequence of excessive physical. load. In this case, a rupture of blood vessels occurs, which may be due to excessive physical exertion. The bursting blood simply seeps into the tissues, completely paralyzing the work of this part of the brain.

Then begins the rapid death of cells. This type of stroke can be triggered by both vascular disorders and congenital anomalies.

Symptoms indicating a hemorrhagic type of cerebrovascular accident are:

  • intolerable headaches;
  • feeling of nausea;
  • confusion;
  • rapid rhythm of the heart;
  • wheezing;
  • decreased sensitivity, accompanied by paresis of the limbs on one side;
  • general weakness of the whole organism;
  • often a slight strabismus;
  • sometimes the pupils become of different sizes.

Most often, the pathology manifests itself in the daytime, with a high level of physical activity.

In the treatment of hemorrhagic hemorrhage, therapeutic and surgical methods are used that reduce pressure and eliminate intracranial bleeding.

Doctors also try to relieve cerebral edema and restore blood circulation.

In this case, the following symptoms appear:

  • one-sided numbness of the body and periubic part of the face;
  • partial paralysis of the limbs;
  • speech impairment;
  • epileptic seizures;
  • the appearance of severe dizziness;
  • difficulty swallowing;
  • manifestations of “stars” or bifurcation in the eyes;
  • slight deterioration or loss of memory;
  • violation of spatial orientation;
  • intolerable headaches;
  • drowsiness and lethargy;
  • stuffiness in the ears;
  • unpleasant nausea;
  • redness of the face.

In the treatment of transient disorders of cerebral circulation, drugs are used that reduce pressure, improve heart function and activate brain function.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.