Acquired heart disease what are the causes of symptoms and treatment in adults

Heart disease is an abnormality in the structure of any structure of the heart, leading to heart failure and, as a result, to insufficient blood supply in general.

Defects in the structure of cardiological diseases fall into the first “five”. A congenital heart disease ¾ this is perhaps the most common reason for applying to the department of pediatric cardiology. But it often happens that such a pathology is a “profitable” business that occurs in adulthood and even old age for various reasons.

Classification of heart disease

Causes

Changes in the structural structure of valves, atria, ventricles, or cardiac vessels that cause impaired blood movement in the large and small circles, as well as inside the heart, are defined as defect. It is diagnosed in both adults and newborns. This is a dangerous pathological process, leading to the development of other myocardial disorders, from which the patient may die. Therefore, the timely detection of defects provides a positive outcome of the disease.

The etiology of the disease depends on what kind of pathology is: congenital, or arising in the process of life. The acquired type of disease is characterized by damage to the valve system. They arise due to:

  • infectious lesions;
  • systemic diseases;
  • autoimmune pathologies;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • rheumatism;
  • syphilis;
  • heart ischemia.

In addition, chronic pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, alcoholism, head injuries, liver, joint dysfunctions (arthrosis, arthritis, rheumatism), as well as a hereditary factor, cause such a disease.

The congenital form is diagnosed in 5-8 of 1000 babies. The defect develops due to a woman’s viral diseases during pregnancy, as well as:

Violations can be diagnosed in infants if the woman has any degree of obesity.

The following conditions can act as etiological factors of acquired heart defects in adults and children:

  1. Bacterial endocarditis. One of the outcomes of this disease, manifested by inflammatory processes in the endocardium, is the formation of heart defects.
  2. Rheumatism. An acute inflammatory disease of a systemic nature, mainly affecting the articular and cardiovascular systems. The cardiac form of rheumatism is explained by the toxic effect of streptococcus enzymes (the causative agent of this disease) and the formation of autoimmune reactions affecting the endocardium and myocardium.
  3. Syphilis. One of the manifestations of this systemic disease is damage to the valvular apparatus of the heart and aorta.
  4. Atherosclerosis. Chronic pathology, manifested by the formation of plaques on the walls of blood vessels that cause their narrowing.
  5. Injuries. The result of bruises and wounds of the heart can be formed defects.
  6. Sepsis. Any generalized infection can lead to disruption of the valve apparatus of the heart.

Separately, it should be said about acquired heart defects and pregnancy. In the second and third trimesters, expectant mothers increase the risk of exacerbation of chronic pathologies. Therefore, pregnancy can also be one of the factors that increase the likelihood of formation of valvular lesions.

The most common reason for the formation of pathological changes in the valves and openings of the heart is rheumatism, in particular rheumatic heart disease (an infectious toxic process localized in the heart tissue).

In rare cases, valvular defects are provoked by mechanical injuries of the heart, tumors or parasitoses.

The congenital nature of the pathology is due to a violation of intrauterine development, as well as a genetic tendency to the disease.

Types of Heart Defects

  1. A person abuses various bad habits (the influence of nicotine, alcohol, drugs).
  2. Chronic cardiovascular ailments are also able to affect the formation of the defect.
  3. A predisposition to the disease can develop a history of hepatitis virus.
  4. Heart disease can develop against the background of the consequences after suffering ailments – flu, rubella, HPV.
  5. Due to damage to the body by some dermatological diseases.
  6. The result of infection with sexually transmitted diseases, namely syphilis and gonorrhea.
  7. The consequences of atherosclerosis.
  8. Injury to the neck and spine, damage to the heart muscles.

Etiology of Congenital Heart Disease

With a careful attitude to health and preventive measures under the supervision of a cardiologist, you can significantly reduce the risk of this cardiac pathology. It is very important not to forget about physical education, as well as eliminate heavy physical exertion and completely abandon bad habits. In this case, it is extremely important to pay attention to alarming symptoms and begin timely treatment.

If heart disease is congenital, then its causes are most often violations of the intrauterine formation of the fetus or a genetically predisposed predisposition to this disease.

Causes of heart disease acquired during life:

  • tendency to alcoholism, drug addiction, intense exposure to nicotine (smoking);
  • chronic pathologies of the heart and blood vessels;
  • arthritis rheumatism, a history of hepatitis;
  • complications of viral diseases such as influenza, rubella, human papillomavirus (HPV);
  • atherosclerosis;
  • the consequences of indiv >

Of great importance is the exclusion of bad habits and heavy physical exertion, timely treatment of chronic diseases, physical therapy exercises.

You should immediately consult a doctor if you experience symptoms such as:

  • fatigue;
  • dyspnea;
  • pain in the heart and interscapular region;
  • swelling on the legs and arms;
  • insomnia.

If heart defects are not treated, this pathology is exacerbated by severe complications, most of which significantly reduce the quality of life and can lead to death.

In 90% of cases in adults and children, acquired defects are the result of acute rheumatic fever (rheumatism). This is a serious chronic disease that develops in response to the introduction of group A hemolytic streptococcus (as a result of tonsillitis, scarlet fever, chronic tonsillitis), and manifests itself in damage to the heart, joints, skin and nervous system.

In other cases, rare causes in adults are autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic scleroderma, etc.), atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, especially with the formation of an extensive postinfarction scar.

  1. On the affected valve: mitral, aortic, pulmonary, tricuspid (rarely).
  2. By the number of affected valves: single (simple, or local) ¾ 1 valve is affected; concomitant heart disease ¾ affected by 2 or more valves, as well as other structures.
  3. By time of occurrence: congenital and acquired.
  4. By morphological and functional changes: stenosis, insufficiency, a combination of these two disorders (combined defect).
  5. According to the degree of compensation of hemodynamics: compensated (there are no signs of circulatory failure, the heart copes with the load), subcompensated (symptoms of circulatory failure appear, but more or less adequate blood flow is provided), decompensated (the heart does not cope with the load, there are symptoms of severe circulatory failure).
  6. By causal connection:

6.1. due to internal causes, ¾ occur in childhood and adolescence (genetic predisposition, intrauterine pathologies, including those associated with maternal conditions, hormonal changes);

6.2. due to external causes, ¾ more often in adults (infectious diseases, rheumatism, toxic substances, etc.).

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Some statistics

More often than others (45% of all valve lesions), mitral heart disease occurs – a violation of the anatomical structure of the left atrioventricular valve. In second place is aortic heart disease ¾ anatomical and functional valve defect between the left ventricle and aorta ¾ about 30% of cases. Damage to the pulmonary valve occurs in 10% of cases.

In 90% of cases, valve apparatus abnormalities result from genetic mutations and / or are inherited. It has also been proven that, for example, in children with chromosomal diseases Да Down syndrome or Klinefelter ¾ in 50% of cases, damage to the heart valves certainly occurs.

Also, valve defects during the period of intrauterine development of the baby can occur due to infections transmitted by the mother. Rubella in the first trimester of pregnancy is especially dangerous in this regard: in addition to severe pathologies of the neural tube, it causes dangerous and difficult to correct cardiological diseases.

Congenital heart defects have a bright and difficult clinical picture, which may not appear immediately after birth, but develops rapidly.

  • atherosclerosis of the aorta. The aortic valve is affected ¾ atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta grow and calcify ¾ there is an aortic heart disease (valve stenosis) ¾ there is no adequate ejection of blood into the pulmonary circulation. Such a pathology occurs in adults not earlier than 40 years old, accompanied by coronary insufficiency and hypertension;
  • rheumatism (cause ¾ b-hemolytic streptococcus of serological group A) ¾ causes systemic lesions of connective tissue, including valvular apparatus of the heart;
  • syphilis (the reason ¾ a microorganism of the spirochete species, namely ¾ pale treponema) ¾ fortunately, in the CCI century it gradually disappears. But at the beginning of the CC century, before the era of antibiotics and pyrogenic therapy, this disease was deadly. There was nothing to treat him, because a person literally “rotted” from the inside. In the last 4 decades of the last century, penicillin preparations have been actively used against syphilis. This helped to overcome the infection, but there were residual effects ¾ treponemas managed to destroy the structure of heart valves;
  • systemic diseases of the connective tissue ¾ lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polyarthritis. The immune system malfunctions: the valves are irreversibly damaged by “their own” immune complexes;
  • drug intoxication. On the one hand, severe toxic substances themselves can cause heart disease, seriously damaging valve structures. On the other hand, intravenous drug administration takes place in unsanitary conditions, often with reusable syringes. Therefore, along with the dose, a large number of pathogens are introduced. They enter the heart through the bloodstream, settling on the valve cusps and causing their destruction;
  • inadequate physical activity. It predisposes and accelerates the development of defects, if there is “soil” for them. It happens that there are already initial morphological changes in the valves that do not give clinical manifestations. But excessive stress contributes to further structural and anatomical deformities and the appearance of symptoms. Often this happens, for example, when serving in the army: a conscript with prolapse (insufficiency) of a mitral valve of the 1st degree is sent to the army, and after returning he is diagnosed with grade 3 prolapse.
  • lengthening of cusps or chords (for example, mitral valve prolapse);
  • leaflet shortening (valve insufficiency);
  • partial or complete overgrowth of the valve (stenosis);
  • papillary muscle dystrophy;
  • a combination of the above features.

The clinical picture in children

A compensated form of CHD is distinguished when there are no symptoms, since the body is coping with the pathology itself and the newborn is developing normally. Externally, a heart defect in the child does not manifest itself. A sign of heart disease can be determined later, when by the age of three it is clear that his physical development is behind the norm, he is not active, has breathing problems. The birth of such a baby is always a test for parents.

The baby does not sleep well, shudders in a dream, is excited, the severe form of vices leads to fainting, suffocation.

Classification

In modern medicine, a number of classifications of acquired defects are used. The first sign by which valvular heart defects are divided is an etiological factor. According to the causes, the following defects are distinguished:

  1. Syphilitic. Identified against the background of the tertiary form of syphilis.
  2. Rheumatic Manifest during or after rheumatism.
  3. Atherosclerotic. The violation is caused by changes in the vascular wall.
  4. Traumatic. Appear due to trauma. They are extremely rare.
  5. Endocarditis. They are a consequence of the inflammatory process in the endocardium.

Defects are also distinguished depending on where exactly the violation is observed. According to this, the following forms of the disease are distinguished:

  • Mitral valve disease.
  • Deficiency of the tricuspid (tricuspid) valve.
  • Defective pulmonary (pulmonary) valve.
  • Aortic valve disease.

Depending on the functional impairment:

  1. Prolapse. In the case of this lesion, the cusps are bent into the organ cavity.
  2. Failure. The inability to fully close the valves.
  3. Stenosis. Narrowing of the lumen due to thickening of the valves. Most often, against the background of their sclerosis.

Given the number of affected valves, the following forms are distinguished:

  • Combined. It is exposed in the event that there is a lesion of several valve structures simultaneously.
  • Isolated. Only one valve is affected.
  • Combined. It is exhibited with a combination of insufficiency and stenosis within the same valve.

Depending on the level of circulatory disorders, malformations are as follows:

  1. Blood circulation is not impaired.
  2. Severe circulatory disturbance.
  3. Pronounced circulatory disturbance.

In addition, depending on the general condition of the cardiovascular system, defects can be of the following types:

  • Compensated. Circulatory problems are absent.
  • Subcompensated. Under normal conditions, circulatory disorders are not observed, however, when a load occurs, a temporary malfunction may occur.
  • Decompensated. With this option, the formation of heart failure is noted.

A variety of vices does not allow us to describe them in one article, so only the most common ones will be presented here.

Please note: the human heart is formed by 4 chambers – two atria (left and right) and two ventricles. From the left ventricle, the scarlet arterial blood enters the large circle of blood circulation to supply oxygen to all body tissues, then it collects in the upper and lower vena cava and already saturated with carbon dioxide enters the right atrium.

From it to the right ventricle. Between these two chambers is a tricuspid (tricuspid) valve. From the right ventricle (pulmonary circulation), blood is supplied through the pulmonary trunk (artery) to the lung system, where gas exchange occurs – carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is saturated with blood.

Further, enriched blood enters through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium and through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle, where it again enters the large circle. The task of the valves is to restrain the reverse cast of jerkily moving blood. If the structure of the valves and formations that regulate their functions is violated, vices and heart failure develop, that is, the impossibility of a normal passage of blood.

Video “Circles of blood circulation”:

  • valve insufficiency;
  • combined defects;
  • prolapse;
  • stenosis;
  • combined vices.

In most clinical situations, a bicuspid valve is affected, slightly less often than a lunar valve. The deficiency progresses due to the deformation of the valves, after which their incomplete closure occurs.

Such a defect as stenosis appears as a result of narrowing of the atrioventricular opening. This condition can develop after cicatricial fusion of the valves.

Very often there are cases when narrowing of the atrioventricular opening and valve insufficiency occur simultaneously in a single valve. This is a heart defect in a combined form. When a combined defect occurs, problems arise in several valves at once. If the valve walls are inverted, then this ailment is called prolapse.

When this defect progresses, there is a reverse flow of blood into the atrium, because the bicuspid valve partially closes the left atrioventricular opening. Relative failure often begins to progress after myocarditis and myocardial dystrophy.

During these diseases, muscle fibers are weakened around the atrioventricular opening. A defect is expressed not in the deformation of the valve itself, but in the fact that the hole that it closes increases. When organic failure progresses, the cusps of the mitral valve decrease and shrink.

If people have valve insufficiency of insignificant or moderate level, then they do not have special complaints about the work of the heart. This stage is called “compensated mitral defect.” Next comes the decompensated stage. Shortness of breath and tachycardia increase, pain intensifies, limbs swell, veins on the neck swell, and the liver enlarges.

Mitral stenosis

Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the left atrioventricular opening. This defect often progresses after infectious endocarditis. The narrowing occurs due to compaction and thickening of the valve walls or their fusion. The valve becomes like a funnel in shape and with a hole in the center.

The cause of this ailment is a scar-inflammatory narrowing of the valve ring. When the disease is just beginning to develop, no symptoms occur. During decompensation, expectoration of blood and interruptions in heart rate, severe cough, shortness of breath and pain in the heart appear.

Occurs when the lunar flaps are poorly closed. From the aorta, blood enters the ventricle again. Initially, the patient does not have discomfort and pain. But due to increased functioning of the ventricle, coronary insufficiency develops, and the first tremors of pain occur. This is due to myocardial hypertrophy. This condition is accompanied by severe headaches. The skin turns pale and the color of the nails changes.

Aortic orifice

Stenosis of the aortic orifice interferes with the pumping of blood into the aorta while contracting the left ventricle. In the case of progression of this type of defect, fusion of the valves of the lunar valve occurs. Cicatricial changes at the aortic opening may also occur.

When stenosis actively progresses, blood circulation is significantly impaired and systematic pain occurs. In turn, headaches, fainting, and dizziness occur. And the symptoms are most pronounced with vigorous activity and emotional experiences. The pulse becomes rare, the skin turns pale.

Tricuspid insufficiency is a failure of the right atrio-gastric valve. An isolated form of the disease is quite rare and is more often combined with other vices.

With this disease, stagnation of blood circulation occurs, accompanied by periodic pain in the heart. The skin acquires a blue tint, the veins on the neck increase. In this case, blood is thrown from the ventricle into the atrium. The pressure in the atrium increases and therefore the flow of blood through the veins is significantly slowed down.

Combined defects are a combination of two problems at the same time: failure and stenosis.

Combined defeat

A combined lesion is the occurrence of diseases in two or three valves. It is necessary first of all to treat the most damaged area.

Heart disease in an adult has two types: congenital and acquired. Each of them has its own specifics and development forecast.

Congenital

This form of heart disease occurs in the early stages of fetal development – 2-8 weeks of pregnancy. It occurs due to the disturbed structure of the blood circulation of the fetus due to a physiological defect.

If the diagnosis and treatment was untimely, then by the time when a congenital heart disease can be recognized, the course of the disease is so progressing that the manifestations of the disease lead to serious consequences. Most often, congenital heart defects occur in the aortic valve.

Pathology of the aortic valve is in third place in the frequency of occurrence among all cases of malformations and is diagnosed in 2% of the adult population.

The essence of this form of the disease is that two of the three valves of the aortic valve fuse together. At first, this defect has almost no effect on the functionality of the heart. However, over time, it progresses, as the wear of the flaps increases.

According to the degree of their influence on the pulmonary circulation, heart defects are divided into groups:

  • malformations that do not alter pulmonary blood flow;
  • defects that create hypovolemia (decrease in volume) of pulmonary blood flow;
    defects that create hypervolemia (increase in volume) of pulmonary blood flow;
  • combined defects with combined disorders of the heart and heart vessels.

Acquired

More than half of acquired heart defects in adults are due to the destruction of the mitral valve. The essence of mitral valve defect is that it suffered from the effects of bacterial vital products during infection. The body starts the process of tissue regeneration in order to restore the mitral valve.

Some statistics

What changes in the heart occur as a result of a developing defect

Narrowing (stenosis) can occur by the formation of connective tissue fibers in the valve cusps and scar processes in tendon chords that regulate the synchronous operation of the valve apparatus.

The insufficiency of valve structures is the result of the destruction and replacement of the valve apparatus with scar tissue. Valves altered by pathology disrupt the physiological blood flow. The problem is that of the main volume of blood that has passed into the next chamber, part comes back. This is due to the fact that the valves cannot close completely, and a gap or other defect is observed between the valves.

A portion thrown back is added to the normal blood volume. This process leads to the adaptive expansion of the heart chamber, then to a thickening of the muscle wall (hypertrophy). Over time, the heart muscle “gets tired” from constant overload and its weakening occurs, which leads to sagging (dilatation). As a result, chronic heart failure is formed with the inability to normal “pump” blood.

The clinical picture in children

Heart defects in children are diagnosed at birth (if symptoms are visible) or established by the age of three, when pathologies of development, respiration, and cardiac activity are observed in the child. To eliminate heart disease, only the surgical method of treatment is used. But the operation is not always carried out immediately.

With a minor defect in the interventricular or atrial septum, children can live without feeling discomfort, grow normally and lead an active lifestyle. If the size of the hole does not change with the growth of the baby, then the operation is not performed. There are clinical cases where, as children grow older, the disease worsens.

A teenager may feel unwell during physical work, enhanced sports. Manifestations of the defect in this case are observed if it was asymptomatic, as well as after an operation to correct the heart mechanism performed in infancy. In the adolescent period, a combined type of defect can develop, which includes the corrected old as well as the newly formed one.

Such children often require repeated operations. Modern cardiac surgery practices minimally invasive intervention, so as not to injure the psyche of the child, and also to avoid the formation of an extensive wound surface and large scars on the body.

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Adult heart disease has symptoms of heart failure:

  • weakness;
  • pain in the heart region and under the scapula;
  • swelling of the extremities;
  • labored breathing;
  • problems with sleep.

Adults may suspect cardiac abnormalities in:

  • hemoptysis;
  • dry cough;
  • cardiac asthma;
  • a blush on the face;
  • feeling of fullness of the chest;
  • swelling of the limbs.

In this case, the person needs an urgent consultation with a cardiologist to establish an accurate diagnosis.

The symptom complex depends on the severity and type of heart disease. For example, the detection of pathology can occur immediately upon the manifestation of symptoms. But, sometimes the disease is not detected in a newborn child, and subsequently develops asymptomatically. Congenital pathology is characterized by the following symptoms, which can occur in both older children and adults:

  1. Persistent shortness of breath.
  2. Heart sounds are heard.
  3. A person often loses consciousness.
  4. Atypically frequent acute respiratory viral infections are observed.
  5. No appetite.
  6. Slowing growth and weight gain (a characteristic characteristic of children).
  7. The appearance of such a sign as the turning blue of certain areas (ears, nose, mouth).
  8. A state of constant lethargy and exhaustion.

Valvular stenosis and valvular insufficiency

Symptoms of congenital pathology can be divided into 4 groups.

SyndromeManifestation
CardiacA person suffers from constant shortness of breath, notices frequent pains in the heart, palpitations, heart rate, unhealthy pallor, sometimes blue skin and even mucous membranes
Heart failureThe main manifestation of this syndrome is cyanosis and tachycardia. Obvious shortness of breath that interferes with normal life
Chronic hypoxiaMost often manifested in children in the form of developmental problems. A characteristic feature is the deformation process of the nails, as well as the phalanges of the fingers noticeably thicken
RespiratoryIt is expressed in respiratory disorders. The pulse becomes too slow or too fast. There is a protrusion of the abdomen. There may sometimes be a delay in breathing, but more often breathing is excessively rapid

Symptoms of the blue species are found in the first years of life. Pathology makes itself felt with a sudden attack, which is characterized by the occurrence of shortness of breath, overexcitation, cyanosis, and sometimes fainting. Signs of a white type of pathology are also manifested in childhood, but a little later (after 8-9 years), it can be determined by a clear developmental delay, this is especially noticeable in the lower body.

Dietary nutrition for cardiac pathologies performs several functions: stopping inflammation and allergic manifestations, providing departments of the heart with material for replenishing energy and tissue regeneration. The basis of medical nutrition is a cardiographic diet.

  • frequent meals in small portions;
  • satisfaction ¼ the body’s need for proteins due to the protein of dairy products;
  • satisfying a third of the body’s need for fats by introducing vegetable oils into the diet that improve heart energy;
  • the exclusion of large amounts of fiber from the menu in order to avoid bloating, which impedes cardiac activity;
  • increase in the diet of the share of foods rich in calcium and trace elements (the introduction of fruits, vegetables, buckwheat, pearl barley, oatmeal porridge into the diet);
  • restriction of salt and products containing it in large quantities (canned food, marinades, caviar, salted fish).
Not recommended
  • products that cause fermentation and bloating (legumes, cabbage, carbonated drinks);
  • pathogens of the nervous and cardiovascular system such as tea, coffee, chocolate, strong broths, spices and spices are prohibited;
  • it is advisable to limit the use of finished meat products (sausages, sausages, ham), pastry.
Recommended meals:
  • dairy products and dishes prepared from them;
  • boiled and baked low-fat meat and fish;
  • vegetable stew;
  • fresh vegetable salads;
  • boiled and baked potatoes;
  • rosehip decoctions, tea, compotes, juices and jelly.
  • What are heart defects in adults?
  • Common symptoms of congenital malformations in adults
  • Common symptoms of acquired defects
  • Types and symptoms of congenital heart defects
  • What can be acquired heart defects?

A disease that is characterized by cardiac pathology is called heart disease. in adults, symptoms depend on the type of heart disease. With such a disease, anomalies and pathological defects are detected in the partitions, heart chambers, vessels, valves.

Heart disease in adults can be of two types: congenital or acquired.

Congenital heart disease in adults is a pathological change in parts of the heart with which a person is born into the world. The formation of pathological changes occurs even in the womb, they can accompany a person for the rest of his life. The exact reasons for the occurrence of such changes in the heart have not yet been established, but medicine claims that congenital heart disease can occur due to the harmful effects of the environment or along the hereditary line. The disease can be the result of past infections, inflammatory processes in the body.

Acquired heart disease (valvular disease) is characterized by abnormalities or defects that are present in one or more valves. Pathological changes disrupt the normal flow of blood. May occur against the background of transferred viral and bacterial infections (tonsillitis, flu) and against the background of autoimmune reactions of the human body.

Depending on how severe congenital heart disease is in adults, the symptomatology also depends. Sometimes the presence of a congenital anomaly can be detected in a person even visually. In adults, congenital heart abnormalities are expressed in the form of shortness of breath, murmurs in the heart, fainting, cyanotic nasolabial triangle.

An unhealthy color (blue-violet) is also observed on the skin in the ear area. A person can very often get sick with acute respiratory viral diseases, he has poor appetite. Some people, against the background of heart disease, are delayed in development, even as adults. Short stature, undeveloped legs and arms, a weak muscular system are all common symptoms and signs of congenital heart disease in adults. People who have a congenital heart disease are passive: they don’t like to walk for a long time, because they get tired very quickly.

Heart defects and pregnancy

In pregnant women with heart defects, childbirth occurs with complications. Often there are late toxicosis. In comparison with healthy women, in patients with heart defects, the percentage of untimely discharge of water increases, weakness of labor occurs. In childbirth, circulatory failure often occurs (about half).

Important: if a woman insists on giving birth, then it is necessary to place her in stationary conditions with constant monitoring of the condition and holding supportive courses of therapy.

Stepanenko Vladimir, surgeon

Clinical signs of heart disease

In a child, the disease usually manifests itself immediately or after a short period of time after birth. But it happens that the symptoms of heart disease are detected only as they grow older, manifesting closer to adolescence.

  1. fatigue;
  2. lag in development;
  3. low tolerance to physical activity ¾ the child quickly gets tired even from slight stress;
  4. pallor of the skin or cyanosis (cyanosis) of the face;
  5. pathognomonic (specific) sign of damage to the valve (s) ¾ blue nasolabial triangle.

In adults, signs of heart disease fall under the picture of heart failure, which is inherent in other cardiac diseases. The doctor’s task is to determine the true cause of disturbances in the work of the heart.

  1. dyspnea is the main and determining symptom. Appears under normal stress (for example, climbing stairs), and then even with the lightest loads. With severe defects, shortness of breath can be at rest;
  2. swelling of the extremities. With compensated and subcompensated valve defect, they are passing, with decompensation ¾ constant;
  3. pallor of the skin;
  4. acrocyanosis ¾ blueing of the distal (distant from the trunk) parts of the limbs, nails, nose, ears.
  5. fast fatiguability.

Symptoms of Acquired Heart Defects

The problem is that acquired heart defects appear slightly, especially in the early stages of progression. Basically, general symptoms appear, and specific ones occur when the disease goes into a more severe stage.

Acquired heart defects in children are distinguished even by the color of the skin: cyanotic color – blue defects, and white defects – pale skin. As a result of blue defects, blood is mixed, and with white, venous blood does not enter the left ventricle. Cyanosis of the skin indicates that the child has several heart defects at once.

Common symptoms: palpitations and muscle weakness, dizziness and changes in blood pressure. There may also be shortness of breath and fainting, pulmonary edema, discoloration of the skin on the head. Since these are the symptoms that accompany many diseases, a thorough examination and differential diagnosis are necessary.

During mitral stenosis, a peculiar “cat purr” appears. The pulse on the left hand also slows down, acrocyanosis, cardiac hump and cyanosis on the face (triangle of lips and nose) appear.

During the progressive stages, shortness of breath and dry cough occurs with the discharge of white sputum. Further serious edema occurs in certain parts of the body, especially in the lungs. In severe forms, shortness of breath and heart failure occur, the pulse weakens significantly and the heart hump increases. Veins can also expand and liver function difficulties appear.

The severity of those or symptoms with acquired heart disease is determined by the location or combination of the disease.

At the initial stages (compensation stage), there are no complaints. With the progression of the disease, the patient develops such symptoms;

  • shortness of breath during physical exertion (then it can occur at rest);
  • cardialgia (heart pain);
  • palpitation;
  • dry cough;
  • swelling of the legs;
  • pain in the right hypochondrium.
  • Shortness of breath during exercise (then it can occur at rest);
  • hoarseness of voice;
  • dry cough (sometimes with a small amount of sputum mucosa);
  • cardialgia;
  • hemoptysis;
  • fatigue.

At the stage of compensation, the patient notes episodes of a heartbeat and pulsation behind the sternum. In the stage of decompensation, he has complaints about:

  • cardialgia;
  • dizziness (possible fainting);
  • shortness of breath during physical exertion (then it appears at rest);
  • swelling of the legs;
  • pain and heaviness in the right hypochondrium.

This heart disease may not manifest itself for a long time. Symptoms appear when the lumen of the aortic duct is narrowed to 0,75 square meters. cm.:

  • pain behind the sternum of a compressive nature;
  • dizziness;
  • fainting.
  • Dyspnea;
  • palpitation;
  • heaviness in the right hypochondrium;
  • swelling and pulsation of the jugular veins;
  • arrhythmias are possible.
  • Ripple in the neck;
  • uncomfortable sensations in the right hypochondrium;
  • skin is cold to the touch (due to a decrease in cardiac output).

Symptoms of acquired heart defects in adults depend on the cause and type of the defect. The man is lethargic, he shows rapid fatigue, fatigue, shortness of breath appears, it is difficult for him to walk long distances, to climb the stairs. The lips turn blue after physical exertion, the heart rate quickens, swelling appears, a strong and prolonged cough without sputum production, painful sensations in the heart area and pulling pain that gives to the left hand are noted.

Symptoms of congenital heart disease can be figuratively divided into several subgroups:

  • cardiac syndrome;
  • heart failure;
  • chronic hypoxia;
  • respiratory distress.

Cardiac syndrome is characterized by pain in the heart, constant disturbances of the heart, pallor and a bluish tint of the skin.

Heart failure can be expressed by attacks of tachycardia, arrhythmia, rapid or, conversely, a weak pulse.

Chronic hypoxia (oxygen starvation) is manifested by a delay in mental and physical development, a thickening of the distal phalanges of the fingers.

Respiratory dysfunction arising from heart disease in adults is expressed by delayed and increased breathing, retraction of the lower sternum, protrusion of the abdomen, cyanosis of the mucous membranes, skin, slow / rapid pulse.

The clinical picture of heart defects depends on the stage of compensation of hemodynamic disorders.

Stage 1: compensation. It implies the absence of clinical symptoms due to the fact that the heart develops compensatory (adaptive) mechanisms for the correction of functional disorders in its work, and the body can still adapt to these disorders. Stage 2: subcompensation.

It is characterized by the appearance of symptoms during physical exertion, when the protective mechanisms are no longer enough to level the changes in hemodynamics. At this stage, the patient is concerned about shortness of breath, tachycardia (palpitations), chest pain on the left, cyanosis (blue or purple color of the skin of the fingers, nose, lips, ears, entire face), dizziness, fainting or loss of consciousness, swelling of the lower extremities.

These symptoms appear, as a rule, under unusual loads for the patient, for example, when walking fast over long distances. 3 stage: decompensation. It means the depletion of the compensatory mechanisms of the heart and the whole body, which leads to the appearance of the above symptoms with normal household activity or at rest.

With severe decompensation due to the inability of the heart to pump blood, stagnation of blood occurs in all organs, this is clinically manifested by severe shortness of breath at rest, especially in the supine position (therefore, the patient can only be in a half-sitting position), cough, tachycardia, increased or often low blood pressure, swelling of the lower extremities, abdomen, sometimes the whole body (anasarca).

Also, acquired defects are manifested in various ways depending on their type and location. By the nature of the defect, insufficiency (incomplete closure of valve flaps) and stenosis (narrowing) of the valve ring opening are distinguished. Localization distinguishes lesions of the mitral, tricuspid, aortic valves and pulmonary valve.

Mitral stenosis (narrowing of the atrioventricular foramen on the left). Characteristic for him are the patient’s complaints about pain in the chest and between the shoulder blades on the left, a feeling of palpitations and shortness of breath, first during exertion, and then at rest. Shortness of breath can be a symptom of pulmonary edema (due to stagnation of blood in the lungs), which is a threat to the patient’s life.

Mitral valve insufficiency. Clinically, it may not manifest itself in any way for decades from the beginning of the formation of the defect, in the absence of active rheumatic heart disease (rheumatic “inflammation” of the heart) and damage to other valves. The main complaints during the development of subcompensation are complaints of shortness of breath (as well as with stenosis, which could be a manifestation of pulmonary edema), interruptions in the heart, pain in the right hypochondrium (due to overfilling with blood from the liver), and swelling of the lower extremities.

Aortic valve stenosis. If the patient has a slight narrowing of the valve ring, for decades he can feel satisfactory even with heavy physical exertion. With severe stenosis, complaints appear about general weakness, fainting, pallor of the skin, chilliness of the limbs (due to a decrease in the discharge of blood into the aorta). Next, pain in the heart, shortness of breath, episodes of pulmonary edema join.

Aortic valve insufficiency. Clinically, for a long time, it can manifest itself only with a sensation of irregular heart contractions with pronounced physical exertion. Later, a tendency to fainting, pressing chest pains resembling angina pectoris, and shortness of breath, which can be a formidable symptom with the rapid development of pulmonary edema, join in.

Isolated stenosis of the right atrioventricular foramen and tricuspid valve insufficiency are very rare defects, and are more common against mitral and / or aortic defects. The earliest signs are interruptions in the work of the heart and a rapid heartbeat during exertion, then, with an increase in right ventricular failure, edema of the lower extremities appears, heaviness and pain in the right hypochondrium (due to stagnation of blood in the liver), an increase in the abdomen (ascites is an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen) severe dyspnea at rest.

Isolated stenosis and pulmonary valve insufficiency are also quite rare diseases, most often defects of this valve are combined with defects of the tricuspid valve. Clinically manifested by frequent protracted bronchitis, interruptions in the heart during exertion, edema of the lower extremities, enlargement of the liver.

Diagnosis and treatment

When establishing the presence of a defect, it is necessary to find out its cause, the existing form of heart failure, to assess the degree of its development. The first one who detects a defect is a doctor who performs the hearing (auscultation) of the heart. It is he who, thanks to acoustic changes in heart tones and arising noises, makes the initial diagnosis.

Next, an ultrasound of the heart is performed, which allows to determine the exact location, the shape of the defect, the severity of the process by measuring the area of ​​the valve openings. Dopplerometry of the heart is performed to establish the fact of retrograde blood reflux (regurgitation), due to insufficiency.

The x-ray examination remains indispensable. A careful dynamic examination of the patient with fluoroscopy allows you to consider all the details of the developed pathology.

Laboratory analysis methods must be used to confirm possible changes in other organs that may have suffered as a result of circulatory problems.

If a person has found several similar symptoms, then he should immediately make an appointment with a cardiologist for a consultation. He will conduct an examination, palpation, auscultation and percussion. The doctor determines the heart rate and listens to heart murmurs. The presence of edema and cyanosis is established. Also, an auscultation of the lungs is performed at the reception, and the size of the liver is established.

Next, an electrocardiogram, ECHO cardioscopy and dopplerography are prescribed. These examination methods make it possible to assess the heart rhythm, identify blockages, the type of arrhythmia and signs of ischemia. To identify aortic insufficiency, a diagnosis with loads should be performed. But this procedure must be done under the supervision of a cardiologist, resuscitator, since such actions can cause unexpected harmful consequences.

It is also important to take a radiograph of the heart to diagnose pulmonary stasis. This type of examination can confirm myocardial hypertrophy.

Accurate data on the state of the heart can be obtained after MSCT or MRI of the heart. You also need to carry out rheumatoid tests and take urine and blood tests: total, for sugar, cholesterol.

Making a diagnosis is an extremely responsible matter. In the future, the treatment methodology and prognosis depend on this.

The treatment of acquired heart defects should be carried out only by a highly qualified specialist. The patient should abandon physical activity and observe the regimen of the day, eat a healthy diet and take medications. This is the most common treatment technique.

There is another way – a surgical operation, which is prescribed at the progressive stage of development of the disease. During surgery, heart disease is eliminated.

With mitral stenosis, mitral commissurotomy is performed to separate the fused valve flaps. If successful, the narrowing is completely eliminated. Then, rehabilitation and drug treatment are needed.

When a patient has aortic stenosis, an operation is needed – aortic commissurotomy. It should only be performed by a qualified surgeon, since the operation is quite complex and requires certain skills and knowledge.

In the case of combined defects, it is necessary to replace the collapsing valve and install an artificial one. Sometimes doctors perform both prosthetics and commissurotomy at the same time.

To diagnose acquired heart defects, the patient needs a consultation with a cardiologist. In the process of consulting the patient, the doctor collects a medical history of the disease and life, examines the patient and assigns him a number of diagnostic studies:

  • general urine analysis;
  • blood chemistry;
  • ECG
  • Echo-KG;
  • Doppler Echo-KG;
  • phonocardiography;
  • chest x-ray;
  • contrast radiological techniques (ventriculography, angiography);
  • CT or MRI.

At the beginning of the examination of the patient with a suspicion of having a heart defect, the cardiologist examines the history data in order to determine the possible causes of the formation of defects.

The percussion method determines the boundaries of the heart when it is suspected of hypertrophy, a thorough listening of cardiac sounds and sounds is carried out to determine the type of defect.

ECG with daily monitoringDiagnosed with heart rhythm, arrhythmia, the presence or absence of ischemic lesion, a type of blockade. If aortic insufficiency is suspected, an ECG is performed with a load, accompanied by a cardiologist – resuscitator due to the insecurity of this method.
PhonocardiographyDiagnosed are defects in the structure of the heart valves and other cardiac abnormalities.
Heart x-rayMyocardial hypertrophy is diagnosed, the type of defect is specified. This examination is performed in 4 projections, while the esophagus is contrasted to determine the Curly line (diagnosis of stagnation in the lungs).
Echocardiography, MSCT, MRI of the heartThe features of the defect are diagnosed: the size and condition of the affected valve and chords, the severity of the deformation, the area of ​​the atrioventricular opening, the fraction of cardiac output, the pressure of the pulmonary trunk.

In addition to hardware diagnostics, laboratory tests are carried out:

  • general blood analysis,
  • general urine analysis,
  • rheumatoid tests
  • blood sugar test,
  • analysis for the determination of cholesterol.

Such an examination, if necessary, is duplicated during the medical examination of a patient with heart defects.

The diagnosis of heart disease can be assumed during the clinical examination of the patient with mandatory auscultation of the chest organs, when listening to which revealed pathological tones and noises caused by improper operation of the heart valves; the doctor may also hear wheezing in the lungs due to stagnation of blood in the vessels of the lungs. Attention is drawn to the pallor of the skin, the presence of edema, determined by palpation (with palpation of the abdomen), an increase in the liver.

From laboratory and instrumental methods of research, general blood and urine tests are prescribed, a biochemical blood test to detect disorders in the kidneys and liver, an ECG reveals rhythm disturbances, hypertrophy (proliferation) of the atria or ventricles, chest x-ray reveals signs of stagnation of blood in the lungs, expansion transverse dimensions of the heart, angiography – the introduction of contrast medium through the vessels in the cavity of the heart, followed by x-ray, echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart).

So, for example, a heart looks like with atrial and ventricular hypertrophy with heart defects on an x-ray.

Of the above research methods, echocardiography helps to reliably confirm or refute the diagnosis, since it allows you to visualize the heart and its internal structures.

With mitral stenosis, an ultrasound of the heart determines the severity of stenosis by the area of ​​the atrioventricular opening, valve flap compaction, hypertrophy (weight increase) of the left atrium, turbulent (not unidirectional) blood flow through the atrioventricular opening, and pressure increase in the left atrium.

With stenosis of the aortic orifice, the degree of stenosis, left ventricular myocardial hypertrophy, a decrease in the ejection fraction and stroke volume of blood (indicators characterizing the flow of blood into the aorta for one cardiac contraction) are determined by ultrasound. Aortic insufficiency is manifested by deformation of the aortic valve cusps, their incomplete closure, blood regurgitation in the cavity of the left ventricle, left ventricular hypertrophy.

With defects of the tricuspid valve and pulmonary valve, similar indicators are detected and evaluated, only for the right heart.

  • patient complaints, anamnesis (did any of the relatives suffer from similar diseases, what infectious diseases were transferred, etc.);
  • objective research data ¾ expansion of the borders of the heart, noise in places of listening to valves, change in the volume of heart sounds (muting or amplification);
  • Ultrasound of the heart with vascular Dopplerography helps to visualize not only the structure of the valves, but also to see regurgitation (reverse blood flow) with significant violations;
  • MRI of the chest cavity ¾ method of detailed and layer-by-layer scanning of organs. Detects even millimeter pathological changes;
  • ECG gives indirect signs in the form of lengthening of intervals;
  • X-ray of the chest organs ¾ obsolete, but allows to estimate the size of the heart in relation to the size of the lungs and large vessels.

Treatment of Acquired Heart Defects

Important: to completely get rid of such an ailment as heart disease can only be done surgically.

Drug treatment is indicated only in the case of mild options and degrees of malaise, to maintain heart function, prevent the development of possible complications and prevent the formation of heart failure.

In severe patients, conservative therapy is used to prepare the body for surgery and to relieve symptoms of heart failure.

After the surgery, it is worth remembering the need for household and labor rehabilitation of the patient. Specific treatments for acquired malformations will be described in particular cases of disease types.

For the treatment of valvular heart defects, medical and surgical techniques are used. Drug therapy is used to correct the condition of the patient during a condition of compensation of a defect or preparation of the patient for surgery. It may include a complex of drugs of various pharmacological groups (diuretics, beta-blockers, anticoagulants, ACE inhibitors, cardiac glycosides, antibiotics, cardioprotectors, antirheumatic drugs, etc.). Also, drug treatment is used when it is impossible to conduct a surgical operation.

For the surgical treatment of subcompensated and decompensated acquired heart defects, the following types of interventions can be performed:

  • plastic;
  • valve-preserving;
  • replacement (prosthetics) of the valve with biological and mechanical prostheses;
  • valve replacement in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting in CHD;
  • valve replacement while maintaining subvalvular structures;
  • reconstruction of the aortic root;
  • restoration of sinus rhythm of the heart;
  • atrioplasty of the left atrium;
  • valve replacement for defects caused by infectious endocarditis.

After surgical treatment, patients undergo rehabilitation and after discharge from the hospital should be registered with a cardiologist. To recover from such treatment, they may be prescribed:

  • Exercise therapy;
  • breathing exercises;
  • medications to prevent relapse and maintain immunity;
  • control tests to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with indirect coagulants.

The cardiologist will analyze the diagnostic results, symptoms and treatment will be prescribed in accordance with the data. Conservative methods are used to prevent complications, correct heart failure, arrhythmia, tachycardia, relapse of the disease that caused valve disease is prevented.

The leading role in the treatment of heart defects belongs to surgical methods of treatment.

Mitral commissurotomySeparation of fusion of the opening in mitral valve stenosis.
Mitral valve replacementIts replacement in case of leaf fibrosis, calcification, valve insufficiency with biological (tissue) or mechanical (artificial analogues).
Aortic valve replacementReplacing it with a mechanical or biological prosthesis.
Complete replacement of damaged valves with artificial counterpartsWith combined damage.
Instant prostheticsWith combined vices.

If surgical treatment is not carried out, decompensation develops, the lesion progresses, which leads to complications, the development of heart failure and, in especially severe cases, to death.

The treatment of acquired defects continues to be a complex and relevant topic in modern cardiology and cardiac surgery, since it is very important for each individual patient to determine the fine line when surgery is already necessary but not yet contraindicated. In other words, cardiologists should carefully monitor such patients in order to identify situations in time when drug therapy can no longer keep the defect in a compensated form, but severe decompensation has not had time to develop and the body is still able to undergo open heart surgery.

– antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs to stop the active rheumatic process in the heart, mainly a group of penicillins is used (injectable bicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxiclav, etc.), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – diclofenac, nimesulide, ibuprofen, indirin,

– cardiac glycosides (digoxin, digitoxin) are prescribed in certain cases to improve the contractile activity of the myocardium (heart muscle); – drugs that improve myocardial trophism (nutrition) – panangin, magnerot, Magne B 6, etc.; – diuretics (furosemide, indapamide and others) are indicated to reduce volumetric overload of the heart and blood vessels;

– ACE inhibitors (captopril, lisinopril, ramipril, etc.) have cardioprotective properties, contribute to the normalization of blood pressure; – B-adrenergic blockers (bisoprolol, carvedilol, etc.) are used to reduce blood pressure and rhythm if the patient develops heart rhythm disturbances with an increase in heart rate;

– antiplatelet agents (aspirin and its modifications – cardiomagnyl, aspirin Cardio, thrombo Ass, etc.) and anticoagulants (heparin, fraxiparin) are prescribed to prevent increased blood coagulation with the formation of blood clots in the vessels or heart; – nitrates (nitroglycerin and its analogues – nitromint, nitrospray , nitrosorbide, monochinques) are prescribed if a patient with heart disease develops angina (due to insufficient blood supply to hypertrophied heart muscle).

Cardiac surgery is a radical way to correct a defect. Of these, commissurotomy is used for stenosis (dissection of cicatricial adhesions on the valve cusps), suturing of non-closable cusps, the expansion of a small stenosis using a probe brought to the heart through the vessels, valve prosthetics (excision of the valve and replacing it with an artificial one).

– eat rationally, follow a diet with a restriction of table salt, the amount of fluid you drink, foods with high cholesterol (fatty meats, fish, poultry and cheese, margarine, eggs), with the exception of fried, spicy, salty foods, smoked meats. in the fresh air; – exclude sports;

– limit physical and psycho-emotional stress (experience less stress and nervousness); – organize a daily regimen with a rational distribution of labor and rest, and a sufficiently long sleep; – pregnant women with an acquired heart defect regularly attend a antenatal clinic, cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to make a decision about the possibility of preserving pregnancy with the choice of the optimal delivery method (usually by caesarean section).

The treatment of heart defects is divided into 2 types: conservative (drug) and surgical (surgical). In adults, drug therapy is preferable.

  • selective b-blockers;
  • drugs that reduce pulmonary hypertension (calcium channel blockers, adenosine);
  • anticoagulants (warfarin, fraxiparin);
  • endothelin;
  • prostaglandins (e.g. iloprost);
  • strophanthin and digitalis preparations;
  • antibacterial drugs (with the infectious nature of valvular defects).

b-blockers are used to reduce the load on the heart muscle. With valve stenosis, the myocardium is forced to work with a doubled, or even tripled strength, to maintain adequate blood flow.

Valvular defects lead to circulatory failure. Hypoxia occurs, which provokes the destruction of the inner lining of the vessels ¾ endothelium. Therefore, it is important to use endothelin in low concentrations and preparations of the prostoglandin series.

In the pathogenesis of heart defects, the leading role is played by an increase in pressure in the pulmonary vascular system. Therefore, drugs that block calcium channels are used: calcium ions contribute to vasospasm.

With defects, especially stenosis, blood hardly passes from one chamber of the heart to another or from the ventricle to a large vessel (aorta or pulmonary artery). When the blood stands still for a long time, small blood clots begin to form. For the prevention of thrombosis, anticoagulants of the warfarin series are used.

Strofantin and digitalis drugs are used for the progression of heart failure. But these drugs have a negative effect ¾ they “wear out” the myocardium. Because now these drugs are gradually moving away from cardiological practice.

Treatment of congenital heart defects is possible only by surgery. Options for operations on the heart valves:

  • plastic (restoration) of the leaflets. It is used when it is possible to replace individual damaged anatomical structures of the valve;
  • prosthetics ¾ complete valve replacement with hypoallergenic materials through open access;
  • minimally invasive valve replacement technology. Through a small incision in the region of the apex of the heart, with the help of probes, endoscopes and endovideo surgical devices, valve flaps are literally “bit by bit” restored. Stenoses are eliminated by a special small drill. Such operations are common abroad, and in Russia they do only in large research institutes.

Even the most high-tech surgery does not guarantee instant restoration of cardiac function. A person needs to visit a cardiologist (cardiac surgeon) once every six months in order to monitor the condition and prevent complications.

Prevention

It is impossible to prevent congenital malformations, since it is difficult to influence the development of the fetus in the womb. You can prevent the occurrence of acquired heart defects by treating chronic, viral, and infectious diseases. If there is a steady dysfunction of the heart system, then you need to limit physical work, not expose yourself to stress, adhere to proper nutrition.

The alternative method of therapy is aimed at reducing the symptoms of the disease and is used in combination with the main treatment.

Broths

20 g of hawthorn fruit is cooked for 20 minutes over low heat in 500 ml of water. The broth is cooled and filtered. I drink all day. It is useful to eat a handful of fresh fruits daily in season.

20 g of finely cut root lovage 15 minutes are boiled in a half liter of water. defend, poured into a clean container so that there is no sediment, and drink in two doses.

Tinctures

In a glass of boiling water, insist a tablespoon of Adonis herb for half an hour. Drink tincture in three doses.

They also make tincture of lily of the valley, but when taking it, you must strictly adhere to the dose – 25 ml three times a day.

Arnica flowers are poured with vodka so that it covers the raw materials, insist for 7 days and take half a teaspoon after a meal.

Pour boiling water (1 cups) with 2 tablespoon of calendula, let it brew, filter and drink tincture for the whole day in four doses.

The use of these recipes will relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life of the patient.

Acquired heart diseases are terrible and dangerous diseases. To prevent the occurrence of such ailments, preventive measures can be taken. Since these diseases most often occur after rheumatism, syphilis or septic conditions, it is recommended, first of all, to take measures to prevent them.

A positive effect on the state of the body is hardening and physical activity (sports exercises, running, charging, swimming). At the same time, the rhythm and dynamics of movements should be controlled: walking and jogging at a speed with which your body will feel comfortable. You can not abruptly begin active sports activities, all loads should be gradual. Proteins should be in the diet and salt should be consumed less.

And of course, it is necessary to undergo preventive examinations in time by a therapist and narrow specialists, including a cardiologist.

To prevent the development of valvular heart defects, the patient should be promptly treated for those pathologies that can cause damage to the heart valves, and lead a healthy lifestyle, the components of which include the following measures:

  1. Timely treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases.
  2. Maintaining immunity.
  3. Quitting smoking and caffeine.
  4. Fighting overweight.
  5. Sufficient motor activity.

To prevent acquired heart disease, you should abandon bad habits, streamline the regime of work and rest, temper the body, engage in accessible sports, physical education. Sepsis, rheumatism, sexually transmitted and infectious diseases should be carefully treated, avoiding complications.

With an already formed defect, you can extend the period until the onset of heart failure, and even prevent its onset by the following measures:

  • salt restriction diet;
  • the introduction of complete proteins into the diet;
  • rejection of abrupt climate change;
  • introduction to the regime of the day of hiking, medical gymnastics;
  • prohibition of intense training.

A regular examination by a cardiologist, careful implementation of his recommendations is mandatory.

Since the main reason for the development of these diseases is rheumatism, prevention is aimed at the timely cure of diseases caused by streptococcus (tonsillitis, chronic tonsillitis, scarlet fever) with antibiotics, the rehabilitation of chronic foci of infection in the body (chronic pharyngitis, carious teeth, etc.).

Despite the fact that the compensation stage (without clinical manifestations) of some heart diseases lasts for decades, the total life span can be reduced, as the heart inevitably “wears out”, heart failure develops with impaired blood supply and nutrition of all organs and tissues, which leads to lethal the outcome. That is, the prognosis for life is unfavorable.

The prognosis is also determined by the possibility of developing life-threatening conditions (pulmonary edema, acute heart failure) and the addition of complications (thromboembolic complications, cardiac arrhythmias, prolonged bronchitis and pneumonia). With surgical correction of the defect, the prognosis for life is favorable, provided that medications are taken as prescribed by the doctor and the prevention of complications.

Doctor therapist Sazykina O.Yu.

What are the forecasts?

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.

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