A set of physical exercises and therapeutic gymnastics for myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction is a common disease characterized by the death of a part of the heart due to a violation of the blood supply to the organ. Pathology develops after blockage of a vessel with a blood clot or narrowing of the walls and has serious consequences.

For a speedy recovery during the rehabilitation period, patients should undergo a course of procedures, in particular, exercise therapy for myocardial infarction. The necessary exercises and the frequency of their implementation are prescribed by the attending physician and rehabilitation therapist.

Rehabilitation Features

According to statistics, from 4 to 10% of patients die in the first year after a heart attack, many remain disabled for life. Conducting a rehabilitation course helps to reduce the risk of complications and return to a full life.

According to the generally accepted classification, 4 types of infarction are distinguished, divided by the severity of the course. The patient is given an accurate diagnosis based on the number of necrotic foci, their location and area, as well as the presence of complications.

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The duration of the rehabilitation period directly depends on the type of disease. After transferring the mildest form, the recovery time is about 6 months, for full rehabilitation after a 4-degree heart attack it will take a year or more.

This spread in time is due to the fact that in a more severe condition, physical activity should be given gradually, controlling changes in the body.

Note! Regular exercise and adherence to all treatment recommendations leads to a successful recovery and serves as the prevention of the onset of new heart attacks.

When developing a physical education plan for patients, great attention is paid to stress. If they are not distributed correctly, a deterioration is observed.

During the recovery period, it is very important to follow general recommendations, along with performing exercise therapy:

  • Review your diet. The menu should not include fatty and fried foods, smoked meats, sweets and pickles. It should be enriched with seasonal vegetables and fruits, lean meat and fish, cooked by boiling or steamed.
  • To refuse from bad habits. Habits that are harmful to health include alcohol abuse, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.
  • Normalize the rest regime. For full recovery, patients need to spend at least 8 hours a day for a night’s sleep, and also to allocate several hours for rest during the day.

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Rules for performing exercise therapy

If the patient underwent a heart attack for the first time, recovery begins after 3 – 4 weeks, with repeated transfer – after 5 – 6 weeks. The implementation of physiotherapy exercises has relative contraindications, which are temporary.

The body cannot be loaded with an exacerbation of the disease, but after 3 days, if there is no deterioration, rehabilitation can be resumed.

You need to start charging 3 to 4 hours after eating. So that exercise therapy does not cause complications, it should be performed without a sharp increase in load, even with good health.

During classes, it is necessary to monitor the state of health and, if signs of fatigue or malaise appear (shortness of breath, tachycardia, heart pain, dizziness), stop them in time. If the discomfort does not go away after a while, it is recommended to consult a doctor.

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It is forbidden to make sharp bends to the floor, as they cause a rush of blood to the head. It is also not recommended to do physical exercises for strength, body rotation and head rotation.

Stationary recovery stage

Rehabilitation after a heart attack is carried out first in a hospital, and then at home. Primary recovery under the direct supervision of the attending physician is aimed at restoring blood flow, relaxing segmental muscles, stabilizing the digestive tract, and preparing for physical activity.

The first exercises at the stationary stage are performed in bed, lying on your back. Movements should be made at a slow pace, without jerking. It is necessary to control breathing and pulse, which should not exceed the readings taken in a calm state by more than 20 beats.

If the condition is not met, it is recommended to take a break to restore the rhythm. Exercises cannot be performed for the press.

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Important! At the initial stage, the exercises are performed under the guidance of a rehabilitation therapist. Further, with the correct observance of the instructions, the patient can repeat gymnastics during the day on his own.

The total duration of exercise therapy should not exceed 15 minutes:

  • Lying on your back, bend and smoothly straighten your hands. Do the same with the phalanges of the fingers. Make sure that breathing is even. The number of repetitions for 1 approach is 6 – 8.
  • Do rotational and flexion movements with the feet, and then with the toes until a slight warmth appears. Repeat up to 8 times.
  • Respiratory gymnastics is performed as follows: take a deep breath, spreading your elbows, and then stretching your arms completely in front of you. Lower your arms and exhale. Repeat at least 2 times.
  • Place your hands on the sides of the case, with your hands towards the ceiling. While inhaling, turn your palms down and raise your arms, pull yourself up to your knees, lifting your head from the surface. The muscles of the lower limbs and the body are slightly tense. Exhale and come back. Repeat up to 3 times.
  • After a short rest (about 1 minute), you can begin flexion and extension of the lower limbs, which, if possible, should be torn off the surface. Over time, the exercise becomes more difficult by raising your legs at the same time.
  • Bending your knees, place your feet flat on the surface of the bed. First, take one limb to the side, return it to its place, then repeat the movements with the other side.
  • Raise an arm and a leg on one side and take them to the side, inhale. Return to starting position, exhale. After a few seconds, repeat with other limbs.
  • Bend your leg, raise one arm to the ceiling, inhale. Pull up to the opposite knee, exhale. Return to starting position and inhale. Make movements with the other hand, repeat 4 times.
  • The legs are straightened, the arms are bent at the elbows, the hands are clenched. Start rotating with your hands and at the same time with your feet, 6 times in one direction.
  • IP – slightly spread legs lie straight, arms are located on the sides of the body. While inhaling, lower one hand to your head, and then on exhalation, take it to the opposite edge of the bed. Repeat the other way. The number of repetitions is 3 – 4.
  • IP – hands along the body. While inhaling, tighten the muscles of the buttocks, pelvis, and lower extremities for 2 seconds. On exhalation, relax. Repeat up to 5 times.

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Home stage of rehabilitation

If there are no contraindications, after the allotted time the patient is transferred from the hospital home. During the home period, the patient develops tolerance to moderate loads, conditions are created for a return to social and everyday skills, and the doses of medications are reduced.

Physical rehabilitation for uncomplicated heart attack consists in performing a set of exercises:

  • Sitting on a chair, press your back tightly against the back, place your hands on your knees. Bring your arms to your shoulders and spread your elbows. Return to the PI on exhalation. Do up to 5 reps.
  • In the same starting position, start moving from heels to toes, slightly spreading his legs. At the same time, squeeze and unclench your hands. The number of repetitions is up to 15.
  • Raise your arms forward and up, return to the starting position. Also do the spreading of the arms to the sides. The number of repetitions is 3 – 4.
  • Lower your hands to the floor. Raise one shoulder and lower the other. On exhalation, return to the PI. Repeat with the other side. The number of repetitions is 5.
  • Spread your arms to the sides, pull one knee to your chest. Repeat with the other knee. The number of repetitions is 6.
  • Move one leg to the knee of the other (inhale), return to the PI (exhale). Repeat for each leg 5 times.
  • Sit on the edge of a chair. While inhaling, take the opposite arm and leg in different directions. Return to PI and exhale. Repeat with the other side. The number of repetitions is 6 – 8.
  • IP – standing, legs apart shoulder width apart. Bend your elbows and stretch them up as you inhale. Lower it into the PI on exhalation, completing a circle. The number of repetitions is 5.
  • IP – standing, socks legs apart, hands on the belt. Make a turn with your body to one side, opening your arms, inhale. Return to PI, exhale. Repeat 6 times in each direction.
  • Complete the exercise with calm breathing for up to 30 seconds.

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Perform exercise therapy for myocardial infarction is shown to patients to stimulate blood circulation and restore the motor functions of the body. If all medical recommendations are followed, recovery is successful and within the allotted time, and the risk of re-development of the disease is minimized.

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Svetlana Borszavich

General practitioner, cardiologist, with active work in therapy, gastroenterology, cardiology, rheumatology, immunology with allergology.
Fluent in general clinical methods for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, as well as electrocardiography, echocardiography, monitoring of cholera on an ECG and daily monitoring of blood pressure.
The treatment complex developed by the author significantly helps with cerebrovascular injuries and metabolic disorders in the brain and vascular diseases: hypertension and complications caused by diabetes.
The author is a member of the European Society of Therapists, a regular participant in scientific conferences and congresses in the field of cardiology and general medicine. She has repeatedly participated in a research program at a private university in Japan in the field of reconstructive medicine.