Blood pressure and heart rate are the most important indicators in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Their change up or down from the norm depends both on the lifestyle and on pathologies developing in the body without obvious signs. Despite the fact that the pressure of 130 to 90 often does not manifest itself in any way, its appearance carries a certain threat to human health, since it is a harbinger of chronic hypertension.
Characterization of primary hypertension
Blood pressure is the pressure that the walls of large vessels experience during blood circulation throughout the body. This indicator in medicine is usually determined by two values - upper, systolic, and lower, diastolic. The first indicates the level of blood pressure at the strongest contraction of the heart, the second, on the contrary, at the moment of its greatest relaxation.
Normal blood pressure in a healthy adult is 120 to 80. With a prolonged increase in values to 130 to 90, essential (primary) hypertension is diagnosed, which is the most common among other types of disease.
Important! Primary hypertension is most often seen in men and women under 40 years of age, as well as in adolescents, which is its feature.
A sharp jump in pressure has a negative effect on all organs and systems of the body. But to a greater extent, violations are manifested in hypotensive patients, whose “working” blood pressure is consistently below normal.
Essential hypertension without timely treatment leads to:
- constant tone of blood vessels, which begin to wear out rapidly,
- narrowing of the lumen of the arteries and the formation of fatty plaques that interfere with normal blood flow,
- insufficient supply of tissues with oxygen and nutrients,
- the appearance of a dyscircular syndrome, as a result of which functional failures in the work of the brain occur,
- delay in excretion of excess fluid from the body and accumulation of salts,
- an increase in the volume of circulating blood and the appearance of edema.
High blood pressure symptoms
A temporary increase in pressure up to 130 to 90 can be manifested by single headaches that do not cause serious discomfort.
The following signs indicate the development of a chronic form of pathology:
- headache and dizziness, discomfort is mostly localized in the frontal and occipital parts,
- a constant feeling of nausea, sometimes leading to vomiting,
- the appearance of black “flies” before the eyes, temporary blurred vision,
- clear tinnitus (blood flow),
- nosebleeds, rupture of eye vessels,
- swelling of the limbs,
- sometimes the appearance of red spots on the face and in the décolleté area.
Other symptoms of a pressure surge are increased heart rate (pulse 90 and above), shortness of breath even with little physical activity, increased fatigue and constant weakness during the day, insomnia and causeless panic.
Causes and provoking factors
The main pathological reason for the appearance of the first stage of hypertension is hormonal disruptions in the body against the background of diseases of the thyroid gland (goiter, hypothyroidism, the development of neoplasms) and the pancreas (type 1 diabetes mellitus). Also, an increase in pressure is observed with pathologies of the kidneys, adrenal glands, liver, as a result of which the lumen of the vessels narrows and blood flow slows down.
Separately, there are factors that provoke the early onset of the disease. These include:
- Smoking and drinking alcohol. The toxins that enter the bloodstream during addiction to bad habits negatively affect the work of the heart muscle and the vascular system.
- Heredity. The presence of hypertension in the chronic stage in the closest relatives increases the risks of pathology at an early age.
- The predominance in the diet of flour products, sweets, fatty and fried foods. An unbalanced diet is a major cause of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which interfere with the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.
- Regular overexcitation. Exposure to frequent stress, nervous tension and insomnia lead to the regular injection of adrenaline into the blood. As a result, an increase in heart rate up to 90 beats and an upper pressure of 130 become the norm.
- Passion for salty and smoked foods and lack of fluid. The daily portion of salt, which can be ingested with food without risk to health, is 15 g. Exceeding the norm, coupled with dehydration, leads to a violation of water-salt metabolism and malfunctioning of the heart.
- The action of toxins. Living in ecologically unfavorable areas, working in chemical and other potentially hazardous industries, cleaning and washing with the use of chemically active detergents are factors that provoke the appearance of first-degree hypertension.
Primary hypertension in pregnancy
In pregnant women, the norm for blood pressure is 140 to 90, which is due to physiological changes in the body, in particular, an increase in the volume of circulating blood. In this case, a deviation from 120 to 80 values is not considered a pathology and can be caused by overwork, stress, insomnia, which often disturb a woman during this period.
Note! After giving birth, a woman has a slight decrease or increase in pressure against the background of stress and physical exhaustion. As a rule, the condition will stabilize over time.
If the pressure surge is accompanied by severe headaches, visible edema of the lower extremities, pulse 100, tinnitus, drop in visual acuity and general weakness, hospitalization of the pregnant woman is necessary. Such critical conditions are dangerous for both the expectant mother and the fetus, so they should be under the constant supervision of a doctor.
Treatment with folk remedies
If the pressure of 130 to 90 is detected for the first time and is not accompanied by pathological symptoms, it is not recommended to reduce it with medications. Perhaps such indicators are an individual feature of a person or appeared as a result of usual overwork and lack of sleep. You can bring blood pressure back to normal with relaxing remedies based on medicinal herbs, long rest and a change of environment.
Traditional healers advise using the following recipes to reduce the nervous tension of the body:
- Rosehip tea. Pour a handful of dry or freshly picked rose hips into a 1 liter thermos. Pour boiling water over and close tightly with a lid. Insist for 8 hours (the infusion is best done at night). Drink 100 ml before meals, adding a little honey to a cup if desired.
- Cranberry mixture. Grind 100 g of fresh cranberries, draining the juice. Pour the cake with water so that it is completely covered, put on low heat and bring to a boil. After moderate cooking for 5 minutes, add 2 tbsp. l. semolina and cook until tender. Remove from heat and cool until warm, pour in cranberry juice, mix thoroughly. It is recommended to use the mixture for 1 tsp. at a time, three times a day with meals.
- Beetroot mix. Grate fresh beets, squeeze the juice through cheesecloth. Mix the juice and liquid honey in equal parts until smooth. Drink 1 tbsp. l. mixtures before meals and in between meals up to 5 times a day.
- Aloe juice. Grind a freshly plucked aloe leaf into a gruel, having previously peeled it. Squeeze out the juice with cheesecloth and pour it into a clean jar. Drink, diluting 1 tsp. juice in 50 ml of water, daily before your morning meal.
- Blackcurrant decoction. Wash the leaves and twigs of black currant, pour boiling water over and boil for about 3 minutes. Remove from heat, cover and cool. After straining the broth, take 2 tbsp. l. before every meal.
Important! The use of folk remedies must be agreed with the attending physician. If hypertension worsens, you should seek medication.
Treatment with drugs
For the treatment of essential hypertension, the doctor prescribes medicines based on the general clinical picture, the individual characteristics of the patient and the success of previous therapy.
To lower high blood pressure, you need to use:
- ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzymes). They are prescribed for patients over 40 – 50 years old, prone to frequent and prolonged surges in blood pressure.
- Beta-blockers. Promote a decrease in heart rate and suppression of cardiac conduction.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). By acting on the synthesis of angiotensin II, they help to relax the tone of the arteries and reduce pressure.
- Diuretics Improves the elimination of fluid from the body, reducing vascular tension.
Important! For effective treatment of hypertension, doctors recommend taking medications from various pharmacological groups.
The presence of a pressure of 130 to 90 does not always mean the development of pathological processes. For an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct a full examination. It is possible to start treatment with potent drugs only if a danger to the health and vital activity of the body is identified.
Hypertension 1 degree What pressure is considered high? Live healthy! Pressure and headache. (09.06.2017)
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