Toxic cirrhosis of the liver is an extensive organ damage that develops against the background of systematic exposure to negative factors. These include toxins, drugs, industrial poisons and alcoholic beverages. The constant exposure to harmful factors leads to the destruction of organ cells and their replacement with scars. The liver loses its functional purpose, which affects the general well-being of a person.
Provoking factors of development
Cirrhosis of a toxic type is included in the international classification of diseases. The pathological process has been assigned a unique code for microbiology 10 – K71. This is a generalized group that includes liver diseases that arise under the influence of provoking factors and develop with the subsequent replacement of healthy cells. This category includes organ damage with necrosis (code K71.1), fibrosis (code K71.7) and an unspecified form (K 71.9).
The etiology of toxic type liver cirrhosis is due to the systematic influence of hazardous substances on the body. It is noteworthy that in most cases a person is not aware of their negative impact. This is an ideal condition for the rapid development of the disease.
The following reasons can provoke toxic cirrhosis of the liver:
- excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. Under the influence of alcohol, poisons are produced that destroy the cells and tissues of the organ,
- mushroom venom, aspergillus and pale toadstool. Accidental consumption of dangerous plant species leads to the accumulation of toxins in the liver, which gradually poisons the human body. This condition requires immediate medical attention. Otherwise, the risk of death remains high,
- mercury, lead and cadmium. They penetrate into the body when they are accidentally consumed or as a result of work in a hazardous production. They accumulate gradually, destroy the organ and increase the likelihood of death.
- hepatoxic substances. They penetrate into the body during the production of medicines and in the chemical industry. Persons working in industrial plants remain at high risk of poisoning. A single penetration of hepatotoxic substances into the body is accompanied by the development of hepatitis. Systematic exposure leads to cirrhosis, with further death,
- medications. The consumption of medicines for a long time leads to a change in the structure of the liver. Dangerous medicines are Citramon, Biseptol, Amantadine and Paracetamol. They must be taken as prescribed by a doctor in a limited amount,
- phyto-type preparations. Medicines based on natural ingredients can have a detrimental effect on the functioning of the whole body. With caution, it is necessary to take medications based on valerian, larkspur, Chinese herbs and hay,
- heavy metal salts,
- glycols (oils),
- exogenous factors (immunological disorders on the part of the body, individual intolerance to drugs and other provoking substances).
Toxic cirrhosis of the liver is a life-threatening condition. Without the provision of medical care, a person remains highly likely to die. In most cases, it is impossible to eliminate the consequences of the harmful effects of provoking factors.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
In the early stages of development, toxic liver cirrhosis is asymptomatic. The patient does not know about the presence and progression of a serious pathological process in the organ. In most cases, the disease is not detected in the early stages. It can be accidentally identified during a routine ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs.
As the pathological process progresses, the first symptoms appear:
- fast fatiguability,
- low labor productivity,
- general weakness
- constant sleepiness
- discomfort in the abdomen,
- loss of appetite,
- dramatic weight loss.
These are generalized signs that fit a number of other pathological processes. Specific symptoms of liver dysfunction include:
- the appearance of bruises on the skin,
- formation of a vascular network, mainly at the site of localization of the organ,
- changing the natural color of the palms to a yellow tint,
- itching of the skin.
Cirrhosis of a toxic type can develop rapidly. As a result of this process, the pressure in the abdominal cavity increases. Blood is not able to circulate normally, which negatively affects the functioning of internal organs (stomach, rectum and esophagus). Over time, edema of the lower extremities and accumulation of fluid in the peritoneum appear.
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Signs of deterioration
The rapid progression of liver failure is indicated by increased bleeding, high body temperature and intense pain in the area of organ localization. The negative impact of harmful factors leads to the replacement of healthy cells with connective tissue. At the last stage of development, cirrhosis covers an organ, with a complete disruption of its functions.
The patient records:
- liver failure,
- ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity)
- increased pressure in blood vessels,
- encephalopathy (brain damage),
At the last stage of development, a person is not able to assess the situation. His condition is critical. The patient suffers from impaired consciousness, he is haunted by hallucinations, outbursts of anger are not excluded.
The pathogenesis or mechanism of origin of complications is due to the rapid progression of the pathological process. Against the background of a constant change in the structure of the organ, the following conditions are recorded:
- ascites (bloating of the abdomen due to the accumulation of excessive fluid in it),
- profuse bleeding (occurs in the esophagus or rectum),
- encephalopathy of a toxic type (impaired functioning of brain activity, accompanied by coma and death).
Therapeutic measures and prevention
Liver cirrhosis of toxic genesis requires immediate medical intervention. All that specialists can do is to alleviate the patient’s condition and prolong his life. There is no effective therapy for eliminating pathology at the later stages of its development.
All therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating the developed complications. Proper nutrition and drug therapy can slow down the process of organ scarring. The main therapeutic measures include:
- diet food. It is agreed with the attending physician on an individual basis,
- drug therapy. It is based on taking hepatoprotectors (Allohol, Karsil, Essentiale), enteroseptics (Enterol, Intetrix), hormonal (Prednisolone) and antiviral agents (Phosphogliv). Additionally, a complex of drugs is used to restore the intestinal microflora,
- pumping fluid from the abdominal cavity (in case of development of ascites),
- treatment at the cellular level,
- organ transplant (if possible and appropriate).
For the treatment of toxic cirrhosis of the liver at the thermal stage (the final stage of progression, the elimination of which is impossible through medication), organ transplantation is indicated. According to statistics, after the “replacement” of the liver, most patients return to their usual lifestyle and continue to consume alcoholic beverages. In 80% of cases, this is fatal.
To prevent the development of a toxic form of cirrhosis, it is advisable to follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle, eat a balanced diet, do not abuse junk food (fried, fatty, salty, spicy, smoked) and promptly eliminate any deviations from the functioning of the liver.