The level of systemic blood pressure is an important indicator of the functional state of the cardiovascular system. If the pressure is 100 to 50 mm Hg. Art. and lower, then the risk of insufficient intensity of blood circulation in tissues and organs increases. Timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment will help avoid complications and negative consequences.
Reasons for the decline
Several mechanisms are involved in the formation of blood pressure (the force with which the blood presses on the walls of arterial vessels), the main of which are the contractions of the heart and the elasticity of the arterial walls.
A decrease in the indicator is called hypotension, it is a polyetiological condition, the development of which can be caused by a significant number of different factors:
- Changes in the activity of the autonomic part of the nervous system, which regulates the tone of the arteries against the background of excessive emotional stress.
- Pathological decrease in arterial tone caused by diseases of the nervous system.
- Loss of large blood volume with the development of external or internal bleeding.
- Suffered significant stress.
- Constitutional and hereditary features of the nervous and cardiovascular system.
- Hypoxia caused by insufficient oxygen and high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the inhaled air.
- Age-related changes, which are accompanied by changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, which are often observed in adolescents, as well as the elderly.
- The impact on the human body of high temperatures and humidity.
- Some physiological conditions – during pregnancy, especially in the early stages of the course, the hormonal background changes in the woman’s body, which leads to the development of functional hypotension.
- The development of heart failure – heart pressure 50 mm Hg. Art. and below often indicates the release of insufficient blood volume from the left ventricle of the heart.
- Changes in the level of atmospheric pressure in people with sensitivity to meteorological conditions.
- Long-term use of medications that can affect the functional state of the nervous, endocrine or cardiovascular system.
- The development of severe allergies, accompanied by systemic reactions in the form of a critical decrease in blood pressure.
- Postponed infections and intoxication, leading to an imbalance in the regulation of the tone of arterial vessels.
Finding out the cause is a very important diagnostic measure, which is necessary for choosing the subsequent effective treatment with the normalization of the blood pressure level.
Important! Long-term presence of a person in a stuffy room with insufficient oxygen in the air contributes to the development of hypotension.
A decrease in the level of systemic blood pressure is indicated by a number of characteristic clinical signs, which include:
- Increased fatigue and decreased performance of a person, which appear even after performing a small amount of work.
- Periodic darkening in the eyes or the appearance of “flies”.
- Nausea, which may be accompanied by vomiting.
- Coldness of extremities.
- Pallor of the skin, while visible mucous membranes may retain a pink coloration.
- Dizziness is a characteristic clinical sign indicating a decrease in the intensity of blood flow in the brain.
- Sleepiness during the day with adequate sleep at night.
- Deterioration of memory, decrease in intellectual abilities.
- Development of paresthesia of the skin of the extremities, which is manifested by numbness.
- The appearance of a subjective feeling of lack of air.
- Emotional lability, characterized by mood swings.
- Pain that is usually throbbing and may be localized to the back of the head or temples.
The simultaneous manifestation of several signs indicates the possible development of hypotension, in which the lower pressure is at the level of 50 mm Hg. Art. and below, and the top does not exceed 100 mm Hg. Art.
Important! Functional hypotension in adolescents and pregnant women requires only medical supervision in cases where the pressure is not lower than 100 to 50 mm Hg. Art.
What to do
When signs of hypotension develop, it is important not to hesitate to see a medical specialist.
At the prehospital stage, first aid is provided, aimed at normalizing hemodynamic parameters in a person with low blood pressure, for this you need:
- Give a person a cup of hot sweet black tea to drink, which contains caffeine and theophylline, which have a stimulating effect on the vasomotor center of the medulla oblongata.
- Lay on a horizontal surface and raise your legs. This will ensure better blood flow to the brain.
- Provide access to a sufficient amount of oxygen – you can open a window, door or take a person out into fresh air (it is important to ensure that there is no draft).
- The chest area should be freed from tight clothing to facilitate breathing.
A person with low blood pressure must breathe deeply for sufficient oxygen supply to the blood. Further measures should be aimed at diagnosing the causes of arterial hypotension, as well as providing appropriate qualified medical care.
Finding out the reasons for the development of arterial hypotension should be carried out by a medical specialist. To do this, he finds out the circumstances that contributed to the decrease in pressure, the presence of possible concomitant pathologies or past illnesses.
Based on the survey and examination of the patient, additional diagnostics are assigned, including various research methods:
- Periodic monitoring of the level of systemic blood pressure at rest and after exercise.
- Echocardiography, which makes it possible to assess the functional state of the heart.
- Ultrasound and radiography are techniques for visualizing internal organs.
- Laboratory analyzes of blood and urine.
- Determination of biochemical parameters of blood, including electrolytes, as well as the activity of certain enzymes and hormone levels.
Based on the results of the additional examination, the doctor makes a diagnosis and determines further therapeutic tactics.
Principles of treatment
In order to bring hemodynamic parameters to normal values, complex treatment is prescribed, which includes several areas of therapeutic measures:
- General recommendations – a diet with the obligatory inclusion of plant foods in the diet, as well as food rich in protein compounds and vitamins, adequate sleep, physical activity (performing gymnastic exercises), walking in the fresh air, limiting physical and psycho-emotional stress.
- Drug therapy – drugs of various groups are used to normalize the level of systemic blood pressure, most often drugs are prescribed that have a stimulating effect on the vasomotor center of the medulla oblongata and the heart (Caffeine sodium benzoate, Prazosin, Citramon). All medications should only be prescribed by a doctor, as if used incorrectly, they can lead to an excessive increase in blood pressure and the development of complications.
- Surgical intervention – manipulations are performed on an emergency basis with the development of intense bleeding. During surgery, the vascular surgeon repairs the damage to the artery. After the procedure, a course of therapy is prescribed, aimed at restoring the volume of circulating blood, the number of red blood cells and the level of hemoglobin.
Correctly carried out treatment means long-term normalization of blood pressure in humans, with the exception of cases of constitutional hereditary characteristics of the functioning of various body systems.
Blood pressure within the normal range ensures sufficient blood flow to organs and tissues, including the brain and heart muscle. To ensure the stability of the indicator, it is important to follow several simple preventive recommendations:
- Adequate sleep for at least 8 hours.
- Physical activity with morning exercises.
- Stay in the fresh air.
- Rationalization of sleep and rest.
- Refusal of bad habits (nicotine, alcohol, fatty foods have a negative effect on the state of blood vessels).
- A diet with a predominant content in the diet of plant foods.
The implementation of preventive recommendations makes it possible not only to normalize blood pressure, but also to avoid various cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke).
A pressure of 100 to 50 can cause oxygen starvation of brain cells, a significant decrease in a person’s quality of life and his ability to work. To avoid unpleasant consequences at the first signs of hypotension, you should consult a physician or cardiologist.
Live healthy! Low pressure. (24.02.2016) How to treat low blood pressure. Hypotension. Home remedy for increasing blood pressure Why does a person’s blood pressure drop? 7 main reasons
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.