The hepatitis C genotype is a subtype of viral liver infection. Depending on it, the degree of the pathological process is determined. The disease is characterized by a long incubation period and the absence of vivid clinical manifestations.
Treatment of different genotypes of hepatitis C depends on the specific species of the pathogen. Due to the long latent period and the absence of a vivid clinical picture, inflammation often becomes chronic.
Characteristics of the virus and its symptoms
Hepatitis C develops as a result of the penetration of an RNA-containing virus into the human body, which belongs to the genus Flaviviridae. It can occur in several situations. The most common are the following:
- transfusion (contaminated donor blood),
- during the application of tattoos, the implementation of punctures of the skin for piercing (if the equipment is infected),
- when visiting a beauty salon and using untreated scissors and other personal care items,
- using a contaminated needle while injecting drugs,
- during labor, if the mother is infected,
- intimate relationships when one of the partners is sick.
The description of the clinical picture includes a description of the main stages of infection. During the incubation period (an average of 20 to 140 days), there are no manifestations of the disease. After its completion, general symptoms appear that can characterize various pathological processes. Among them are:
- feeling of general weakness,
- feeling of discomfort
- soreness in the right hypochondrium,
- poor appetite
- decrease in body weight,
The danger of hepatitis C is that it is often detected too late. The neglect of the disease causes irreversible processes in the liver and its transition into a chronic course.
Groups of hepatitis genotypes
A specialist can tell about the genotypes of hepatitis C when making a diagnosis. Indeed, the treatment and its effectiveness depend on the characteristics of the identified pathogen. There are 6 genotypes of the virus that are of clinical importance:
Genotype 1 has three subtypes: a, b and c. Distributed throughout the globe. The specificity of this type is the complexity of the treatment. This is due to the rapid adaptation of the pathogenic flora to new conditions of existence.
Among the subtypes, subtype b is the most dangerous for humans. In most cases, it becomes chronic and is characterized by the development of serious complications.
The effectiveness of the treatment carried out for genotype 1 is determined by:
- neglect of pathology,
- the concentration of pathogenic microflora in the blood,
- adherence to the basic principles of a healthy lifestyle, giving up bad habits.
Genotype 2, like the first, is divided into three subtypes: a, b and c. It is found in different countries, but much less frequently compared to other types of the disease. It is distinguished by a low viral load and a slow course of the inflammatory process. Complications are rare. In general, therapy is characterized by a positive prognosis.
Genotype 3 has 2 subtypes: a and b. The disease is most widespread in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Genotype 3 is the most studied of all variants of hepatitis C. In this regard, its treatment is effective in the majority of cases of infection.
The duration of therapy is on average 24 weeks. In its absence, there is a high risk of developing fibrosis and steatosis (fatty degeneration) of the liver.
The remaining three genotypes (4, 5, 6) have been studied less than the first. Genotype 4 is most common in Africa. It is characterized by a large number of subtypes: a, b, c, d, e, f, h, i, j.
Genotypes 5 and 6 have one subtype each. Disease 5a is most common in South Africa, 6a in Asia.
The genotyping of the pathogen is due to the mutations that occur with the virus. Since the changes occur at the genetic level, the immune system cannot cope with the arising load. He has to constantly adjust to the pathogenic flora. While this is happening, the disease becomes chronic. In some cases, the genotype is mixed, which further complicates the process of getting rid of the pathogen and reduces the likelihood of a complete recovery.
What is the most dangerous genotype of hepatitis C
Researchers identify the two most dangerous types of the virus that causes hepatitis C. The first on this list is genotype 1, in particular its subtype b. The peculiarity of the pathology includes the following points:
- transmission only through blood,
- the presence of frequent relapses,
- lack of complete recovery,
- complications in the form of cirrhosis, the development of neoplasms.
Genotype 3a is the second most dangerous. Its specific features:
- morbidity among people under 30 years old,
- the development of a complication such as liver fibrosis,
- the presence of signs of organ steatosis,
- manifestations of cryoglobulinemia, when a pathological process of deposition on the walls of small vessels of immunoglobulins occluding the lumen occurs.
The lack of a vivid clinical picture of hepatitis C necessitates the use of accurate diagnostic methods to detect the presence of a certain virus in the blood. A referral for examination is issued by an infectious disease specialist or hepatologist, who can tell in more detail about how to determine the pathogenic flora.
Genotype analysis includes:
- Ultrasound diagnostics. It allows you to identify changes in the organ itself that diagnose the development of hepatitis C. A striking sign is the presence of steatosis, that is, the appearance of fat cells in the liver tissue.
- Blood test – PCR diagnostics. Allows you to detect antibodies to the pathogen and isolate its RNA.
Before studying biological material, it is important to follow certain rules: do not smoke immediately before visiting the laboratory, and a few before the procedure, stop drinking alcoholic beverages. Sometimes a blood test does not detect an infection. To find out whether a person is infected or not, a second examination will help. Virus detection can be difficult due to:
- atypical pathogen,
- low concentration of RNA of the pathogen in the test material,
- the presence of several genotypes (this is why genotyping is so important, which allows you to identify a specific subtype of pathogenic microflora),
- incorrect conditions for the delivery of analysis or storage of material.
The specifics of the treatment
Hepatitis C is common throughout the world. Treatment of the disease is complicated by the fact that a vaccine against the infection has not yet been developed. Infection can happen to anyone, regardless of gender, age or status. Different subtypes of the disease cause a different course of the pathological process. Their treatment requires the use of primarily antiviral agents.
Hepatitis C therapy is based on the use of:
- interferons, which are direct-acting antiviral drugs.
The specificity of the treatment regimen is determined by the genotype of the disease. Pegylated interferons presented by Pegintron and Pegasis are effectively used. They relieve general manifestations of pathology well, improve the patient’s well-being.
In some cases, the disease is very advanced. A person may be disturbed by sleep disturbances, itching of the skin, fatigue. These symptoms require mandatory elimination.
The main criterion for the effectiveness of therapy is the virological response. It is characterized by a decrease in viral load or its absence at certain stages of treatment. Genotypes 2 and 3a are characterized by early virological response. With types 1 and 4, the answer will appear late or not at all.
The duration of treatment also depends on the genotype. 48 weeks are needed to eliminate symptoms of genotypes 1 and 4. Acute forms of types 2 and 3 require less time – 24 weeks. Chronic disease of any form requires lifelong monitoring.
Researchers are constantly working on the development of new drugs that allow you to quickly cope with the disease. Among these drugs, Telaprevir and Boceprevir are popular. They actively supplement therapy with interferons and Ribavirin.
Another drug, Sofosbuvir, is at the testing stage. Despite its positive results in the fight against hepatitis C, it is not registered in Russia, therefore it cannot be officially applied.
Despite scientific developments in the field of medicine, hepatitis C is still a dangerous disease. The existence of different genotypes of pathology complicates the process of treating and getting rid of the virus. Therefore, a special role is assigned to the prevention of the disease, that is, compliance with the elementary rules of protection: purity of sex life, visiting proven beauty salons, refusal to use drugs.
Does genotype matter in the treatment of hepatitis C?
Detonic – a unique medicine that helps fight hypertension at all stages of its development.
The complex effect of plant components of the drug Detonic on the walls of blood vessels and the autonomic nervous system contribute to a rapid decrease in blood pressure. In addition, this drug prevents the development of atherosclerosis, thanks to the unique components that are involved in the synthesis of lecithin, an amino acid that regulates cholesterol metabolism and prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
Detonic not addictive and withdrawal syndrome, since all components of the product are natural.
Detailed information about Detonic is located on the manufacturer’s page.