Parasitic diseases in the human body are capable of destroying both the intestinal mucosa and vital organs. One of these diseases is enterobius vermicularis (enterobius vermicularis). Helminthiases (a group of diseases) have the ICD-65 code B83-B10 (International Classification of Diseases). This disease can occur both in a child and in any adult.
What does the causative agent of enterobiasis look like?
What is enterobiasis from a medical point of view? This is a helminthic disease, which is provoked by roundworms, more precisely pinworms. In the field of helminthiasis, enterobiasis took first place, and its share is up to 70% of the total number of infections.
The peculiarity of this disease is that the entire development cycle occurs in one organism, and therefore these worms do not need to look for several victims. If your appetite has worsened, there are unpleasant sensations in the abdomen, severe itching in the anus has appeared, the body’s allergization has increased, then there is a possibility of the presence of worms. To identify infection with enterobiasis, we recommend taking tests.
The simplest worms, helminths, provoking the development of the disease, are in the intestines. These are quite common parasites found in the human body. What do pinworms look like in feces? The body of an adult female reaches a length of one centimeter, while the body of a male is no more than three millimeters. It is also important to note that with enterobiasis, pinworms are white. Regarding the structure of worms, they are spindle-shaped.
If everything is clear with adults, then what do pinworm eggs look like? They are oval, with one side convex. The eggs do not have any color and are mostly colorless. After the release from the protective shell has occurred, the larvae of helminths move to the cecum and colon, on the walls of which they are fixed. There, their development takes place, and after 14-15 days pinworms can give new offspring. Pinworm eggs are not found in feces; only adults can be seen there. The life of the parasite, from pinworm eggs to death, lasts about a month.
The main symptoms of enterobiasis
The incubation period of this disease lasts several days, after which the first signs of enterobiasis appear. Initially, an unpleasant itching appears in the perineum. If you do not take measures and do not carry out timely treatment of enterobiasis in adults, the disease progresses.
Among the main signs of enterobiasis are the following:
- increased itching at night, progressive diarrhea,
- attention disorder, dizziness,
- dysbiosis, loss of appetite and rapid weight loss,
- paroxysmal, severe cough, headache,
- the presence of mucus in the stool,
- rapid fatigue, complications in pregnant women, acute abdominal pain,
- inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system, mild urinary incontinence.
With enterobiasis, the symptoms can be varied. The individuality of the body’s reaction also affects the severity of the course of the disease. It should be noted that in adulthood, the disease is transferred much easier than in adolescents and children. The clinical course of the disease is divided into two main stages: acute and chronic. Note that acute enterobiasis begins 2 days after the larva enters the intestine and lasts from 5 to 7 days.
The main symptoms of the acute course of the disease are as follows:
- abdominal pain,
- discomfort in the intestines, which is more felt in the morning,
- frequent stools, about four to five times a day (normal, not runny).
Enterobiasis: etiology, routes of infection
Another question that should be considered to understand the onset of the disease is how enterobiasis is transmitted? Previously, it was believed that helminthic invasion occurs through the introduction of eggs into the oral cavity, but now it has been proven that the transmission routes are not always the same. It was found that eggs that are in the perianal region for six or more hours make it possible to get retrograde infection.
But still, the main method of invasion is fecal-oral. Invasive eggs, after being swallowed by humans, enter the stomach. Further, the splitting of their shell occurs using the digestive process. As a result, the helminths enter the small intestine, where they go down.
Enterobiasis in adults is less common, because children are the main carriers of this disease. From them, adults, and especially family members, become infected. Therefore, it is worth knowing that adults, whose children go to kindergartens and other preschool institutions, are at risk. If enterobiasis occurs, most often the cause of infection is contact with dirty objects, or dirty hands.
Helminth eggs are transmitted through the oral-fecal mechanism by food, by contact and by household. Thus, you can get infected through a handshake, touching door handles, kitchen utensils, a computer mouse, hygiene items, as well as through any things that an infected person has touched. By airborne droplets, coughing, through kisses, the probability of infection is negligible and is possible only in rare cases.
How to treat enterobiasis correctly?
If you have been diagnosed with enterobiasis, then you should choose the correct treatment with the help of a professional doctor, otherwise complications of enterobiasis are possible.
What is the easiest way to get rid of this disease? Treatment with folk remedies is possible, but we advise you not to risk it and contact a specialist who will prescribe the most suitable drugs for enterobiasis for a particular case.
For adults, the treatment of enterobiasis occurs using similar drugs that are needed for children. But the hallmark of adult therapy is the increased dosage. An experienced attending physician knows that in modern medicine there are a sufficient number of drugs that can effectively fight this disease. We emphasize once again that treatment with folk remedies, as well as self-prescribing medicines, is dangerous.
For the treatment of enterobiasis, doctors usually offer patients the following drugs:
- Decaris, a drug developed on the basis of Levamisole. These tablets for enterobiasis have a detrimental effect on worms, in addition, this agent is also an immunomodulator.
- The drug Helmintox, which is produced on the basis of Pirantel pamoat.
- The drug Vermox for enterobiasis, as well as Mebex, Vormil, Telmox, which are manufactured on the basis of Mebendazole.
How to get rid of worms with medication? It is worth considering in more detail Dekaris. It is a highly effective anthelmintic drug, which is designed to destroy parasitic worms and worms. Decaris has a wide range of effects. Even the first dose of the drug suppresses the processes of glycolysis, in which the worms produce energy. At the same time, Dekaris causes paralysis of parasites, as a result of which they have a violation of movement and muscle activity, and the worms die.
Separately, it is worth mentioning the drug Nemozol for enterobiasis, which is one of the most powerful drugs. But it’s worth knowing that it has numerous side effects. Because of this, Nemazol is prescribed only in cases in which several types of worms are present in the body at once, or when a person is additionally infected with protozoal organisms, for example, lamblia.
Consider one more important question – how to treat enterobiasis during pregnancy in women? In this case, piperazine is usually used for treatment. This drug is less effective. But the advantage is that it can be prescribed even during lactation. This drug has passed clinical trials, and according to research is one of the lowest toxic drugs for worms.
An excellent remedy for combating parasites in a pregnant woman, in a nursing mother are suppositories from enterobiasis. So feeding in principle does not interfere with treatment. We also recommend using such suppositories for patients with weakened immunity.
Another medicine is zinc ointment, which is an effective anti-inflammatory agent that has a drying and healing effect. The use of zinc as an ointment is used to treat the anus.
To cure enterobiasis more effectively, you should prepare in advance. Avoid foods that hold stool together the day before taking your anthelmintic medication. In addition, it is not recommended to take fatty and heavy food before bedtime, we advise you to make dinner before future treatment light.
Nutrition with enterobiasis should be like this – more attention should be paid to spicy and spicy dishes. When treating enterobiasis, it is recommended to eat beets, flax seeds, pomegranates, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, horseradish, mustard, as well as sour vegetables and fruits.
Prevention of enterobiasis for humans
Symptoms and treatment are, of course, important points in the study of a particular disease, but the prevention of enterobiasis is also an important part. In this case, a whole range of measures is used that closes the access to parasitic invasions into the intestine.
First of all, patients should be identified in a timely manner, preventing the spread of the disease to others. Methods for preventing this disease include items such as home disinfection and diet. It is very important to pay special attention to hygiene and cleanliness. Daily water procedures with soap, as well as wet cleaning of premises should be an integral part in the prevention of helminthic diseases. Listen to these recommendations, and then disinfection measures will lead to the destruction of pathogens.
How to get tested for enterobiasis?
Parasitic worms contribute to the development of a large number of disorders in the human body. This can be, for example, an allergic reaction, immunosuppression, digestive and metabolic problems. Therefore, you should not neglect a visit to the doctor, and a competently conducted analysis will allow you to identify the disease in time and make a diagnosis.
When analyzed, a scraping is taken from a person for enterobiasis from the perianal folds. Further, experts conduct a study to detect worms and worm eggs. With a single or double scraping, the disease can be detected no more often than in 50% of cases. If the procedure is carried out three to four times, then helminths can be detected with 95% confidence. It is important to conduct this study correctly, otherwise a false negative result is guaranteed.
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