Hypertension is a disease in which arterial pressure (BP) increases constantly or with a certain frequency. At the beginning of the disease, signs of hypertension may not be present, so people unknowingly do not seek medical help.
For an adult, the norm when blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg But there are people who feel great with low blood pressure – 100/70 mm Hg. or increased – 140/110 mm Hg and for them it is considered the norm. Only this is a rare exception, and for many people it is a significant pathology. The first indicator shows the number of contractions of the heart walls and is called – systolic pressure. The second indicator – diastolic pressure, shows the number of relaxation of the heart walls.
This disease is very common now. Previously, hypertension was most often in elderly people, but today it is “younger” and occurs in children and adolescents. This ailment is very dangerous in that high blood pressure sometimes leads to death. If left untreated on time, complications are possible, such as disturbances in the functioning of the brain, kidneys, and heart.
Degrees of hypertension
There are several degrees of ailment:
First degree. The disease is easy. The systolic pressure is 140-160 mm Hg, and the diastolic pressure is in the range of 90-100 mm Hg. The signs of hypertension at this stage are as follows: pressure can change on its own, then increase or decrease.
The second degree, it is called moderate, Blood pressure fluctuates in such a framework: systolic – 160 – 180 mm Hg, diastolic – 100 – 110 mm Hg The second degree is characterized by prolonged high blood pressure, which rarely decreases on its own.
The third degree is severe. Blood pressure rises higher than 180 / 115mm Hg. In this case, the pressure is constantly kept at the level of such indicators.
Symptoms of the disease
The patient is characterized by the following signs and symptoms of hypertension:
- Lower performance, this happens all the time. As a result, appetite and sleep become worse.
- Constant pains in the head, namely in the temporal and occipital parts, but this pain does not bring much discomfort, therefore it is often not pa in the horizon. Often their appearance with a sharp change in the pose of a sick person.
- Decreased memory, poor attention.
- Change in complexion.
Signs of hypertension can be divided into female and male. Signs of the disease in women are:
- nasal bleeding;
- general weakness, decreased performance;
- neck pain and tinnitus;
- deterioration of complexion;
- edematous limbs;
- pulse changes.
In a woman’s body during pregnancy, hormonal changes occur, therefore, the risk of hypertension increases. It occurs in future mothers often and entails a number of possible complications. The general condition worsens, and this may lead to deviations in the normal development of the baby.
Signs of ailment in men:
- frequent headaches, choked feeling in the temporal part of the head;
- darkening in the eyes;
- red complexion;
- profuse sweating;
- cold limbs, especially brushes;
- heart pain and a change in heartbeat;
- increased sense of fear, anxiety.
Common symptoms of the disease include neurotic symptoms, namely, severe irritability, constant irritability, anxious sleep, fatigue. If a person is not treated, then various changes occur in the work of the cardiovascular system: a sensation of pain in the heart and changes in its rhythm, shortness of breath. Sometimes this leads to the formation of heart failure.
Due to the constantly increased blood pressure, frequent pains in the head appear, directly dependent on pressure surges. Sometimes high pressure does not provoke the appearance of headaches, and this, in turn, delays the early diagnosis. The absence of headaches is justified by the adaptation of the body.
It is worth paying attention to the frequent presence of nosebleeds, if they are, then you need to see a doctor.
Having examined the main signs of hypertension, we can conclude that sensations related to this disease may not always be present. And in some cases, hypertension can be asymptomatic, so you need to undergo regular medical examinations to identify the disease in the first stage.
Causes of hypertension in childhood
This disease in a child is of two types – primary hypertension and secondary. The appearance of primary hypertension has no global causes, most likely, it is hereditary, but this ailment is easily treatable. Recovery mainly depends on the time of treatment. Secondary hypertension, however, indicates abnormalities in organs such as the kidneys, heart, and endocrine system.
Signs of grade 1 hypertension
At the beginning of the disease, deviations in the work of the heart proceed in waves. Exacerbations of the disease alternate with the absence of symptoms of the disease. Hypertension can be diagnosed at home with a tonometer. For proper diagnosis, it is necessary to measure the pressure three times a day in a calm state.
People who are in the low-risk group need to monitor blood pressure. And people prone to heart disease need to get a cardiovisor – a device for acquiring ECG data (electrocardiogram in a community-acquired setting).
Symptoms related to the 1st degree of the disease:
- sleep disturbance;
- aching heart pain;
- heart palpitations;
- headache, which increases after a little physical labor;
- “Flies” in the eyes or black dots;
- Dizziness and tinnitus.
The listed symptoms at stage 1 appear rarely and not at all.
The complications of the disease at this stage include:
- hypertrophy of the muscles of the heart, in particular the left ventricle, is clearly visible on the ECG.
Many are of the opinion that mild hypertension passes without a trace, but this is not so. Complications occur in 15% of cases. High blood pressure leads to incomplete blood supply to tissues due to a decrease in the space in the vessels. Oxygen deficiency and lack of micronutrients leads to the death of cells and even organs. If therapy is not followed, then this will lead to an ischemic stroke.
Due to impaired circulation, abnormalities in metabolism will follow. With nephrosclerosis, the renal walls become thicker and because of this, disruption of excretory function occurs.
The heart needs to work harder to push blood through the vessels as they contract. The heart muscle enlarges, therefore, it can stop the exit from the left ventricle. Occasionally, such hypertrophy leads to sudden death. Changes in the work of the right ventricle are much less common.
Basically, the negative consequences for a disease of the 1st degree appear very rarely, and in order to completely eliminate them, you need to completely destroy what is causing arterial hypertension to progress.
Signs of grade 2 hypertension
As mentioned above, a moderate form of the disease is hypertension of the 2nd degree. High blood pressure lasts for long periods of time and very rarely independently returns to normal. Hypertension carries the danger that pressure surges increase the speed of blood flow, and this leads to the fact that the walls of the vessels become thicker and, as a result, the clearance in them decreases.
Signs of 2 degrees:
- constant fatigue;
- increased sweating;
- swelling of the face;
- numbness of the fingers, cold in the limbs;
- visual impairment, pathological changes in the fundus;
- sudden changes in pressure – hypertensive crisis;
- redness of some parts of the body due to overflow of blood vessels with a large amount of blood, the so-called hyperemia;
- feeling of pulsation in the head;
- vascular insufficiency;
- in the analysis of urine, albumin proteins are detected;
- become thinner than arterioles.
Weakness, fatigue, swelling occur due to the fact that kidney disease is involved in the process. During the attack, there may be vomiting, shortness of breath, violation of the stool. The consequences of a hypertensive crisis are as follows – myocardial infarction, cerebral edema.
Hypertensive crisis happens:
- edematous – edematous face, general weakness;
- neuro-vegetative – unreasonable panic, overexcitation;
- convulsive – fainting, dizziness.
The disease at this stage is tolerated by patients much harder. Blood pressure rises very often and continuously. The disease is constantly returning.
Atherosclerosis and angina pectoris are complications of the disease at this stage. Damage to the brain, heart, kidneys, eyes, and vessels also occurs.
Hemorrhages can occur in different organs. They occur due to the fact that the walls of the vessels become thicker, because they become less elastic and a strong blood flow easily breaks such vessels. With aneurysm, the opposite is true. With increased blood flow, the walls of the vessels become thinner and lengthen. They become weak and tear easily.
The occurrence of atherosclerosis is caused by a constant narrow lumen in the vessels, because of this, fats accumulate on their walls, and the occurrence of thrombosis is caused by blockage of blood vessels by a thrombus. To oxygen starvation, and after to death, brain cells are exposed to which the blood stream does not reach, this phenomenon has the name – encephalopathy. Lack of oxygen in the heart leads to ischemic disease, and frequent and prolonged chest pain leads to angina pectoris.
Therefore, if you do not heal on time or do not follow the doctor’s instructions, then other processes will join the main disease, and you won’t be able to fully restore your health.
Signs of grade 3 disease
This is the most severe stage of hypertension. The pressure is very high, more than 180/120 mm Hg. and it doesn’t fall to the necessary indicators on its own. At this stage of the disease, various pathologies are already inevitable. Hypertension of the 3rd degree is characterized by such signs:
- persistent visual impairment;
- coordination of the patient’s movements differs from the coordination of a healthy person;
- gait is distorted;
- speech distortion due to frequent hypertensive crises;
- frequent heart pains;
- clouding of consciousness;
- not the possibility of independent movement and maintenance;
At this stage, the patient needs constant supervision and care. All signs indicate that the patient’s condition is deteriorating, the disease affects more than other previously healthy organs. The list of possible complications is increasing. With impaired blood circulation in the brain, a stroke forms in which the sensitivity of the limbs is lost. Numerous heart pathologies develop. Over time, the kidneys begin to fail, and if hypertension was formed as a secondary disease, for example, due to diabetes, then nephropathy is inevitable.
The circulatory system is very important for a person and if small changes in its functionality occur, then a fatal effect is inevitable. Therefore, the longer ignore the treatment of the disease, the greater and worse the consequences.
In order to avoid a serious illness, you need to monitor your health and seek medical help in a timely manner. Timely studies will help establish the stage of hypertension, and this, in turn, will help the doctor prescribe the correct treatment.
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