Isolated systolic hypertension

In modern people, the pressure indicator is 140/90 mm Hg. Art. often appears in both elderly and young individuals. This indicator is diagnosed with arterial hypertension. With age, the likelihood of hypertension increases and this applies to the upper (systole) and lower (diastole) values. But an increase in certain values ​​does not always occur, therefore, isolated systolic hypertension (ISAG) is evaluated.

ISAG – what is it?

Many are interested in what is isolated systolic hypertension. As medical practice shows, with hypertension of this origin, people begin to have difficulty in the work of the vascular system and the heart, which are more common than with a common disease. Due to this, the risk of death increases.

Even with small increases in upper pressure, the number of complications of the cardiovascular system and brain increases significantly.

Often, doctors find the disease in the elderly, and this turns out to be one of the signs of old age, when the systolic rate becomes more than 140 mm Hg. Art., and diastolic remains within normal limits – 90 mm RT. Art. or lower. In addition, it is important in diagnosing the disease that the pulse pressure, since with the disease it begins to increase.

True, all this does not mean that the problem can only be in old age. There are certain reasons that can provoke isolated systolic hypertension.

In older people, the elasticity of blood vessels and arteries disappears, calcium and other substances collect. During an increase in pressure, the vessels cannot normally perceive changes in the body, therefore, a failure occurs in the work of the kidneys, heart, and brain.

There are 2 types of disease:

  1. Primary (hidden), occurs when it is impossible to determine the provoking causes.
  2. Secondary, appears as a result of an increased volume of the heart. As a rule, anemia, valve failure appears.

Based on pressure indicators, 4 degrees of the disease are divided:

  1. At the first, indicators will be in the range of 140-160.
  2. In the second – they are 160-180.
  3. In the third – 180-210.
  4. At the fourth – 210 and more.

It is important to understand the causes and symptoms of the disease, because it can appear not only in old age, but also at a young age.

Main reasons

Isolated systolic hypertension can occur as a result of various causes, among which are:

  1. Improper nutrition. The disease appears with the abuse of fatty and salty foods.
  2. Obesity. This reason appears as a result of an unbalanced diet. The greater the mass of a person, the more blood the body needs and for normal blood circulation the vessels need to increase, but they are not physically able to expand as a result of loss of elasticity. This causes high blood pressure.
  3. Lack of nutrients. In this case, the problem is a lack of potassium and magnesium, which are necessary for proper cardiac function. Potassium is able to remove salts, and magnesium prevents the appearance of blood clots and improves the functioning of blood vessels.
  4. Low mobility. Without physical activity, the vessels also become inactive, their tone disappears, and with hypertension they cannot work normally.
  5. Smoking. This addiction leads to thrombosis, which disrupts vascular work. Healthy vessels with an increase in blood begin to stretch, and when nicotine enters, the opposite effect.
  6. Constant stress. A very dangerous reason, especially if a person begins to take the wrong measures during stress, for example, smokes, drinks or drinks sweets.
  7. Genetic predisposition. Some people have anatomical abnormalities that disrupt blood circulation, which over the years develops into a disease.
  8. Ecology. The disease can occur in people who live in regions where there is a lot of industry or are located in megacities.
  9. Additional diseases. ISAH can occur in diabetes, kidney and liver failure.
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All reasons are quite simple, but can cause very dangerous diseases, therefore, for prevention, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle and, if possible, exclude provocative factors.

People with hypertension often do not feel systolic pressure, and therefore do not use any measures to normalize the condition. But some patients report characteristic symptoms:

  1. Headache.
  2. Dizziness.
  3. The appearance of tinnitus.

The described symptoms are often mild and not every person attaches importance to them. In some patients, even with a slight change in pressure, vision problems, memory problems may occur, heart and headaches begin, and coordination is impaired.

With an increase in systolic pressure, the indicator may remain unchanged for a long time, but in certain situations it begins to rapidly fall, even without the use of drugs. In adulthood, signs can only be determined by a medical examination.

Diagnostic methods

To get a complete picture of the state of health and definition of the disease, doctors can use different methods of examination. First of all, doctors conduct a conversation with the patient, learn about possible diseases, symptoms and general condition, on a specific day and other time. This allows doctors to identify possible risks.

After the conversation, the doctor uses physical diagnosis. For this, a phonendoscope is used to assess the condition of the heart. A popular diagnostic method is an electrocardiogram, which will determine the abnormalities in the rhythm of the heart and other pathologies, which confirms the diagnosis.

Doctors can also use other diagnostic methods:

  1. Echocardiography – allows you to determine the pathology in the structure of the heart, and also makes it possible to evaluate the valves and the density of the walls.
  2. Dopplerography – makes it possible to diagnose blood circulation. With hypertension, control of certain arteries is needed.
  3. Blood test – allows you to accurately establish the norm of bad cholesterol in the blood and sugar level.

Comprehensive diagnosis makes it possible to establish a diagnosis, as well as treat isolated systolic hypertension.

Disease in young

Isolated systolic hypertension in young people has not been fully examined, since the statistics are small to draw conclusions about development. Based on the research, young people with the disease could be faster than the same year, with normal pressure, die from ischemia and other heart pathologies.

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The study involved people with an average age of 34 years and more dangerous symptoms were seen in the female half. As practice shows, young people with the disease smoke, they are overweight and have high blood cholesterol.

If the pressure is steady, does not decrease, then doctors need to carry out treatment faster and more seriously and it is initially important to change the lifestyle.

Disease in the elderly

To treat older people with ISAH, doctors need to use special methods of approach, since in addition to unstable pressure, this group has many other diseases. During the diagnosis, people of retirement age can use medications, which together with drugs for hypertension can adversely affect.

If the patient still has memory loss, concentration is impaired, then it is forbidden to use drugs without the help of another person.

Vascular pathologies can appear as a result of translational hypertension, and in order to distinguish it from ISAG, you will need to use the help of doctors. It is impossible to determine such diseases yourself, therefore, the uncontrolled use of medications can significantly aggravate the condition.

Despite the fact that hypertension is not completely treated, it is necessary to use medicines in the right dose and combination in order to prolong life and improve its quality.

Medication Therapy

When choosing medications for treatment, doctors should take into account the patient’s age, as well as the severity of the disease. It is especially important to adhere to such rules in the treatment of elderly patients in whom hypertension can be in various forms.

ISAG is treated with antihypertensive drugs. If a person seeks help for the first time, then doctors use:

  1. Beta-blocker inhibitors.
  2. Calcium antagonists.
  3. Sartans.
  4. ACE

Such a complex of drugs allows you to have a positive effect on patients at any age. Due to this treatment, the likelihood of complications of pathology and the development of ISAG is reduced.

To improve the elasticity of arteries, vasoactive drugs are used, which additionally reduce tone. Even with long-term treatment of hypertension, the patient does not have a failure of carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism, fluid does not accumulate in the body, which relieves swelling and there will be no other unpleasant side effects.

For the correct selection of drugs and their dosage, some pressure analysis will be required. The most accurate indicators will be shown in the morning before eating, while the position of the person should be sedentary or supine.

At the very beginning of the prescribed treatment, patients should experience a decrease in pressure by about 30%. This will protect from a failure in the brain and does not interfere with the functioning of the kidneys. If you do not treat systolic hypertension, then its consequences can be very diverse. That is why it is important to identify the disease in a timely manner and start therapy as early as possible.

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The right course of therapy reduces the likelihood of a stroke, heart attack, and serious kidney disease. Also, medications can help cope with a depressive state, which often appears in hypertensive patients.

In addition to using the right treatment and timely diagnosis of the body, for a quick recovery you will need to adhere to a lifestyle.

Non-drug therapy

For treatment without medication, doctors recommend using special diets for hypertensive patients. They are based on the limited use of salt and fat. Additionally, you need to adjust the mode of the day, lifestyle, habits. To do this, you can use the following rules:

  1. If you are overweight, you will need to get rid of it, but do not starve.
  2. Trying to spend more time outdoors, it is especially useful to walk about half an hour before bedtime.
  3. Go in for sports, but without heavy loads. Suitable gymnastics, morning exercises, swimming.
  4. Reduce alcohol consumption. The allowed rate per day is up to 30 ml of alcohol for men and up to 15 ml for women.
  5. Need to give up cigarettes, coffee abuse.
  6. Control sleep, adjust the day in which there will be time for rest.
  7. Learns to relax the body and muscles.

If the described lifestyle adjustment does not allow to achieve results, the pressure will remain at the same level, then drug treatment will definitely need to be used.

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Tatyana Jakowenko

Editor-in-chief of the Detonic online magazine, cardiologist Yakovenko-Plahotnaya Tatyana. Author of more than 950 scientific articles, including in foreign medical journals. He has been working as a cardiologist in a clinical hospital for over 12 years. He owns modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and implements them in his professional activities. For example, it uses methods of resuscitation of the heart, decoding of ECG, functional tests, cyclic ergometry and knows echocardiography very well.

For 10 years, she has been an active participant in numerous medical symposia and workshops for doctors - families, therapists and cardiologists. He has many publications on a healthy lifestyle, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.

He regularly monitors new publications of European and American cardiology journals, writes scientific articles, prepares reports at scientific conferences and participates in European cardiology congresses.

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