One of the most important organs in the human body is the heart. This organ is being studied by many specialists working in various sciences. They want to make the chamber heart work for a long time.
How many chambers are there in the human heart?
How many circles of circulation exist, where they originate and end.
How is the heart muscle nourished?
Our article is devoted to the solution of these problems.
A little about cardiac anatomy
The human heart is a muscular organ, similar to a sac, consisting of three layers. The organ is covered from the outside with pericardial tissues, which form the so-called protective bag. Under the pericardial layer is the myocardial region, which is a contracting muscular system, as well as the endocardium, represented by a thin mucous plate, which is located in the inner part of the heart chamber.
In the central part of the sternum, this human organ is located. It has some deviation from the center line to the left.
The heart consists of four chambers, which are formed by four cavities. Communication between them occurs thanks to valves. The heart has a right and left atrium and a right and left ventricle beneath them.
Back bleeding is prevented by the valves that separate the chambers of the heart. The ventricles are thick in comparison to the atrial walls. Their functionality is to push blood into a large vessel (aorta).
At this time, the function of the atria is to passively receive blood fluid.
How many chambers in the heart during fetal development
Many are interested in the question: how many heart chambers exist in a person who is inside the mother’s body before birth. The heart organ also has 4 parts, like a born person. But communication between the atrial chambers occurs through an opening that visually resembles an oval and is located in the area of the septum.
A similar hole is needed to dump blood from the right side to the left. But this is not a small circle of blood circulation, since the lungs did not expand. But the developing respiratory system is supplied with blood, which carries nutrients from the aorta through the cavity of the Botall’s duct.
The structure of the heart chambers of a child in embryonic development differs slightly from an adult.
Myocardial contraction occurs only by 30% of the total volume. The functionality of the human heart has a connection with the glucose supplied to the mother’s bleeding mass, which is used by the fetal muscles for nutrition.
Blood supply and circulation
The myocardium is supplied with blood from the main vascular system. The heart muscle is nourished by the contraction of the ventricles. This well-oiled mechanism can be disrupted, which leads to a heart attack in the myocardium. The chambers of the heart are engaged in pumping fluid that flows in a closed circle.
The pressure created in the left ventricle allows blood to reach the smallest capillaries. Modern medicine distinguishes large and small circles of blood circulation.
The great circle function allows you to nourish all tissue areas of human organisms. A small circle of blood circulation helps to perform gas exchange in the pulmonary region, as well as maintain the concentration of air in the required amount. Each heart chamber contains vessels that bring blood in and out of the chambers.
The systemic circulation begins from the left atrium. Then the liquid blood substance enters the cavity of the left ventricle and completely fills its volume, which leads to an increase in cavity pressure.
Upon reaching 120 mm of water column, the semilunar valve opens, which separates the ventricle and aorta, and blood enters the circulatory system. Then, when the ventricle is compressed, blood is ejected, which reaches the most distant capillaries.
After their full filling begins the respiratory process in the cells and their nutrition. Then the blood is saturated with decay products and enters the venous system. Veins return blood fluid to the heart, namely to the right atrium.
The inferior and superior vena cava are connected to the right atrium. Blood from all parts of the human body is collected here. When the right heart chamber is oversaturated with blood, then it pushes fluid into the right ventricular cavity, from which the small circle of blood circulation originates.
At the beginning, the blood is saturated with carbon dioxide and decay products, then it moves to the area of the pulmonary trunk, and then in the pulmonary arteries and capillaries the bad blood changes to good, saturated with oxygen.
Then it returns to the left atrial chamber, where a new systemic circulation begins. The whole process takes place within half a minute.
The human body must constantly be fed with the necessary substances and oxygen, for this purpose the work of the heart chambers must be adjusted.
Diagnostics of cardiac dysfunctions
To diagnose a variety of heart ailments, you should first undergo an electrocardiographic examination. During it, electronic phenomena are recorded, accompanied by muscle contraction.
The structure of the cardiac chambers includes a cardiomyocyte element, which, before contraction, helps to generate an effective potential. This is determined by electrons, which must be applied to the chest area during the examination.
This helps to identify various failures in the functionality of the heart, organic and functional lesions.
With the help of electrocardiography, it is possible to determine whether a patient develops a heart attack, defect, cavity expansion and other diseases.
When passing an auscultation examination, you can determine the disease. Experienced doctors, using this technique, determine a large number of pathological conditions in the structure and pathology.
With the help of an ultrasound examination, you can see the heart organ, consisting of chambers, see how blood is distributed in them, and determine muscle defects. On ultrasound, the presence of various diseases is determined, based on the results, a diagnosis is made.
With age, people accumulate a variety of heart ailments, provoked by various pathologies. Often failures in the cardiovascular system can occur even in those who monitor their health and follow a healthy lifestyle.
The most common pathologies are dilatation of the heart chambers, enlargement of the ventricles or atria, enlargement in the aorta, aneurysm, and many others.
How to treat dilatation changes
Dilatation is treated with medication and surgery. It is not possible to reduce the stretching of the heart chambers with pills. Treatment helps to eliminate inflammatory signs, normalize high or low blood pressure, rheumatoid, atherosclerotic or pulmonary diseases.
You should lead a healthy lifestyle and do everything that the doctor recommended. It is necessary to thin the blood with drugs, which will lead to passage through the heart chambers, which have undergone any changes.
If all these measures do not help to normalize the work of the heart, then it is necessary to carry out an operation, during which a pacemaker device is implanted into the patient’s body cavity, which helps to effectively contract the heart wall.
To prevent a variety of pathological conditions in the myocardium, the following rules must be followed:
- quit smoking and drinking alcohol;
- work interspersed with periods of rest;
- eat properly;
To live happily ever after, you should save your heart. It is necessary to undergo an annual examination by a cardiologist, do an ECG.
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